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The Global Viewpoints series provides students and other readers with the information they need to explore global connections and think critically about the worldwide implications of global issues. Each volume focuses on a controversial topic of worldwide importance and offers a panoramic view of opinions selected from a diverse range of international sources, including journals, magazines, newspapers, nonfiction books, speeches, government documents, organization newsletters, and position papers. Each volume ...
The Global Viewpoints series provides students and other readers with the information they need to explore global connections and think critically about the worldwide implications of global issues. Each volume focuses on a controversial topic of worldwide importance and offers a panoramic view of opinions selected from a diverse range of international sources, including journals, magazines, newspapers, nonfiction books, speeches, government documents, organization newsletters, and position papers. Each volume contains an annotated table of contents; a world map, to help readers locate countries or areas covered in the essays; "for further discussion" questions; a worldwide list of organizations to contact; bibliographies of books and periodicals; and a subject index. By illuminating the complexities and interrelations of the global community, this excellent resource helps students and other researchers enhance their global awareness.
Chapter 1 The Global Issue of Poverty
1 The Global Recession Has Caused a Slowdown in Progress Against Poverty 19
Progress in eradicating extreme poverty and hunger around the world has been slowed by the global economic crisis and ensuing unemployment.
2 Global Poverty Has Decreased in Recent Years, Especially in Asia Laurence Chandy Geoffrey Gertz 26
The drastic reduction in poverty from 2005 through 2010 is unprecedented, and the progress is set to continue, in spite of the global economic crisis.
3 Poverty Is Worsening in Many Countries, Especially in Sub-Saharan Africa Nicholas N. Eberstadt 37
Many countries in the world are experiencing socioeconomic retrogression due to their culture and governance, and there are few signs of poverty abating.
4 Most of the World's Poor Now Live in Middle-Income Countries Andy Sumner 49
Development policy needs to take into account the fact that more poor people now live in middle-income countries than in low-income countries.
5 Income Inequality and Relative Poverty Have Risen in Industrialized Countries 55
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)
The gap between rich and poor has widened over the past two decades in developed countries, with increased inequality of income and increased poverty.
6 The Current Measure of Poverty Is Inadequate David Woodward 66
The existing tool for assessing poverty that uses a dollar amount is inadequate and a better approach is a rights-based poverty line.
Periodical and Internet Sources Bibliography 75
Chapter 2 The Experience of Poverty Around the World
1 African Poverty Is Falling … Much Faster than You Think Maxim Pinkovskiy Xavier Sala-i-Martin 77
Africa is reducing poverty much faster than many anticipated, showing that poor geography and history are not insurmountable obstacles to poverty reduction.
2 South Asia Has the Largest Concentration of Poverty in the World Ejaz Ghani 93
There are deep regional disparities of wealth in South Asia, with the strong growth in leading regions masking the extensive poverty that needs to be addressed.
3 China Has Made Great Strides in the Elimination of Poverty M.K. Pandhe 99
Since 1978, approximately two hundred million people have been lifted out of poverty by policies enacted by the Chinese government.
4 Latin America Has Experienced a Decline in Poverty and Inequality Alicia Bárcena 104
The countries of Latin America and the Caribbean have experienced a reduction in poverty and improved income distribution, yet more can be done to continue the improvements.
5 Poverty in the Middle East and North Africa Varies Widely Farrukh Iqbal Mustapha Kamel Nabli 112
Poverty rates in the Middle East and North Africa show diversity both among countries and within countries, with extensive poverty in some areas.
6 Poverty in the United States Is Greater than in Other High-Income Countries Timothy Smeeding 119
Poverty rates in America are higher for a variety of different groups compared to the poverty rates in Canada and European countries.
Periodical and Internet Sources Bibliography 130
Chapter 3 The Causes of Poverty
1 Poverty Around the World Is Caused by Government Intervention Walter E. Williams 132
Government intervention that reduces the productive capacity of people by reducing incentives is the true cause of poverty, not colonialism or lack of resources.
2 Poverty Is Alleviated by Active Citizenship and Effective Governments Duncan Green 139
The key to eliminating poverty is in getting the politics of a country right, where an active citizenship uses democracy to develop its own efficient government.
3 High Birth Rates and Population Growth Are Correlated with Poverty 147
United Nations Population Fund (UNPFA)
To reduce poverty, poor countries need to lower fertility to slow population growth through the use of contraception and family planning.
4 Population Growth Is Not the Cause of Poverty Nicholas Eberstadt 153
Population has nothing to do with poverty, and attempts to control birth rates through health improvements, greater literacy, and family planning are ineffective.
5 Hunger Is Both a Cause of and a Consequence of Poverty 158
World Food Programme
A hunger-poverty trap exists in many parts of the world, where poverty leads to food insecurity and hunger, and hunger itself brings poverty, creating a vicious cycle.
6 Poverty Is Not Clearly Linked with Hunger Abhijit Banerjee Esther Duflo 166
There is little evidence that hunger keeps people trapped in poverty, and there are complicated reasons why the poor choose to forego food in favor of other spending.
Periodical and Internet Sources Bibliography 177
Chapter 4 Efforts to End Poverty
1 Foreign Aid in Africa Is Increasing Poverty Dambisa Moyo 179
Foreign aid to Africa fosters corruption, supports inefficient governments, discourages business, and leads to political instability and civil war.
2 Foreign Aid in Africa Is Helping to Fight Poverty Kevin Watkins 190
Aid to Africa has been working to eliminate poverty, and although it could be more effective, the proposed solution of ending aid is not justified.
3 Global Redistribution of Incomes Is a Solution to Inequality and Poverty Claire Melamed 198
Given the drastic inequality of incomes on a global level, the time has come to reduce poverty through the global redistribution of incomes.
4 Rapid Growth, Even with Inequality, Is the Best Way to Fight Poverty Arvind Panagariya 207
Economic growth works to alleviate poverty directly, through opportunities, and indirectly, through funding for antipoverty programs.
5 Removing Barriers to Trade Would Help Decrease Poverty William Easterly 214
Poverty can only be eliminated by trade-fueled growth that allows private businesses to prosper, but current practices are undermining fair trade.
6 Globalization Is Not Clearly the Cause of Reduced Poverty or Increased Inequality Pranab Bardhan 219
Evidence from China and India show that increased inequality and reduced poverty can be explained by factors other than globalization.
Periodical and Internet Sources Bibliography 225
For Further Discussion 226
Organizations to Contact 228
Bibliography of Books 233