Power Distribution Planning Reference Book (Power Engeering, V1): Second Edition / Edition 2

Power Distribution Planning Reference Book (Power Engeering, V1): Second Edition / Edition 2

by H. Lee Willis, Willis Lee Willis
     
 

ISBN-10: 0824748751

ISBN-13: 9780824748753

Pub. Date: 03/01/2004

Publisher: Taylor & Francis

Providing more than twice the content of the original edition, this new edition is the premier source on the selection, development, and provision of safe, high-quality, and cost-effective electric utility distribution systems, and it promises vast improvements in system reliability and layout by spanning every aspect of system planning including load forecasting,

Overview

Providing more than twice the content of the original edition, this new edition is the premier source on the selection, development, and provision of safe, high-quality, and cost-effective electric utility distribution systems, and it promises vast improvements in system reliability and layout by spanning every aspect of system planning including load forecasting, scheduling, performance, and economics. Responding to the evolving needs of electric utilities, Power Distribution Planning Reference Book presents an abundance of real-world examples, procedural and managerial issues, and engineering and analytical methodologies that are crucial to efficient and enhanced system performance.

Product Details

ISBN-13:
9780824748753
Publisher:
Taylor & Francis
Publication date:
03/01/2004
Series:
Power Engineering (Willis) Series
Edition description:
Revised and Expanded
Pages:
1244
Product dimensions:
7.20(w) x 10.10(h) x 2.60(d)

Table of Contents

Series Introductioniii
Prefaceiv
1Power Delivery Systems1
1.1Introduction1
1.2T&D System's Mission2
1.3Reliability of Power Delivery3
1.4The "Natural Laws of T&D"6
1.5Levels of the T&D System8
1.6Utility Distribution Equipment16
1.7T&D Costs21
1.8Types of Distribution System Design29
1.9The Systems Approach and Two-Q Planning35
1.10Summary of Key Points41
References and Bibliography45
2Consumer Demand and Electric Load47
2.1The Two Qs: Quantity and Quality of Power47
2.2Quantity of Power Demand: Electric Load49
2.3Electric Consumer Demand for Quality of Power59
2.4The Market Comb and Consumer Values75
2.5Two-Q Analysis: Quantity and Quality Versus Cost78
2.6Conclusion and Summary82
References84
3Electric Load, Coincidence, and Behavior85
3.1Introduction85
3.2Peak Load, Diversity, and Load Curve Behavior85
3.3Measuring and Modeling Load Curves94
3.4Summary102
References102
4Power System Reliability103
4.1Introduction103
4.2Outages Cause Interruptions107
4.3Reliability Indices111
4.4Comparison of Reliability Indices Among Utilities117
4.5Benchmarking Reliability120
4.6Conclusion and Summary131
References and Further Reading133
5Economics and Evaluation of Cost135
5.1Introduction135
5.2Costs136
5.3Time Value of Money141
5.4Variability of Costs158
5.5Conclusion163
References165
6Evaluation, Prioritization, and Approval167
6.1Decisions and Commitments167
6.2Evaluation, Comparison, Prioritization, and Approval167
6.3Traditional Regulated Utility Least-Cost Planning178
6.4The Benefit/Cost Ratio Paradigm185
6.5Incremental Benefit/Cost Evaluation195
6.6Profit-Based Planning Paradigms219
6.7Summary, Comments, and Conclusion221
References and Bibliography230
7Equipment Ratings, Loadings, Lifetime, and Failure231
7.1Introduction231
7.2Capacity Ratings and Lifetime232
7.3Aging, Deterioration, and Damage246
7.4Measures to Improve Equipment Reliability and Life259
7.5Conclusion and Summary263
For Further Reading266
8Equipment Failures and System Performance267
8.1Introduction267
8.2Equipment Failure Rate Increases with Age267
8.3A Look at Failure and Age in a Utility System274
8.4Conclusion and Summary282
References282
9Load Reach and Volt-VAR Engineering283
9.1Introduction283
9.2Voltage Behavior on a Distribution System285
9.3Load Reach and Distribution Capability291
9.4Load Reach, the Systems Approach, and Current and Voltage Performance Optimization298
9.5Managing Voltage Drop on Distribution Systems301
9.6Volt-VAR Control and Correction310
9.7Summary of Key Points328
References330
10Distributed Resources331
10.1Managing Two-Q Demand on the Consumer Side331
10.2Energy and Demand Management Methods332
10.3Conservation Voltage Reduction356
10.4Distributed Generation363
10.5Electric Energy Storage Systems373
10.6Distributed Resource Cost Evaluation378
10.7Summary387
Bibliography387
11Basic Line Segment and Transformer Sizing Economics389
11.1Introduction389
11.2Distribution Lines389
11.3Transformers399
11.4Basic Equipment Selection Economics407
11.5Conclusion418
References and Bibliography418
12Choosing the Right Set of Line and Equipment Sizes419
12.1Introduction419
12.2Using Economic Loading and Voltage Drop Well423
12.3Economy and Performance of a Conductor Set428
12.4Conductor Set Design: Fundamental Aspects436
12.5Recommended Method for Conductor Set Design443
12.6Standard Transformer Sets446
12.7Conclusion448
References and Bibliography448
13Distribution Feeder Layout449
13.1Introduction449
13.2The Feeder System449
13.3Radial and Loop Feeder Layout465
13.4Dual-Voltage Feeders470
13.5Summary of Key Points476
References476
14Feeder Layout, Switching, and Reliability477
14.1Introduction477
14.2Designing Reliability into the Primary Feeder (MV) Level486
14.3Feeder System Strength494
14.4Contingency-Based Versus Reliability-Based Planning497
14.5Contingency Support and Switching Design505
14.6Protection and Sectionalization of the Feeder System523
14.7Summary of Key Points550
References and Bibliography550
15Multi-Feeder Layout553
15.1Introduction553
15.2How Many Feeders in a Substation Service Area?554
15.3Planning the Feeder System558
15.4Planning for Load Growth564
15.5Formulae for Estimating Feeder System Cost570
15.6Conclusion and Summary574
References577
16Distribution Substations579
16.1Introduction579
16.2High-Side Substation Equipment and Layout581
16.3Transformer Portion of a Substation591
16.4Low-Side Portion of a Substation598
16.5The Substation Site602
16.6Substation Costs, Capacity, and Reliability604
16.7Substation Standardization606
16.8Substation Planning and the Concept of "Transformer Units"610
16.9Conclusion and Summary613
References and Bibliography613
17Distribution System Layout615
17.1Introduction615
17.2The T&D System in Its Entirety615
17.3Design Interrelationships625
17.4Example of a System Dominated by Voltage Drop, Not Capacity651
17.5Conclusion and Summary659
References and Bibliography659
18Substation Siting and System Expansion Planning661
18.1Introduction661
18.2Substation Location, Capacity, and Service Area661
18.3Substation Siting and Sizing Economics666
18.4Substation-Level Planning: The Art682
18.5Guidelines to Achieve Low Cost in Substation Siting and Sizing685
18.6Substation-Level Planning: The Science689
18.7Planning with Modular Substations698
18.8Summary: The Most Important Point About Substation-Level Planning703
References and Bibliography703
19Service Level Layout and Planning705
19.1Introduction705
19.2The Service Level705
19.3Types of Service Level Layout706
19.4Load Dynamics, Coincidence, and Their Interaction with the Service Level711
19.5Service-Level Planning and Layout716
19.6High Reliability Service-Level Systems725
19.7Conclusion733
References733
20Planning Goals and Criteria735
20.1Introduction735
20.2Voltage and Customer Service Criteria and Guidelines737
20.3Other Distribution Design and Operating Guidelines749
20.4Load Ratings and Loading Guidelines751
20.5Equipment and Design Criteria752
20.6Summary of Key Points756
References and Bibliography756
21Reliability-Related Criteria and Their Use757
21.1Introduction757
21.2Reliability Metrics, Targets, and Criteria761
21.3Practical Issues of Reliability-Based Criteria772
21.4Approaches and Criteria for Targeted Reliability Planning775
21.5Summary of Key Points783
References and Bibliography783
22Distribution Circuit Electrical Analysis785
22.1Introduction785
22.2Models, Algorithms, and Computer Programs787
22.3Circuit Models790
22.4Models of Electric Load798
22.5Types of Electrical Behavior System Models803
22.6Coincidence and Load Flow Interaction810
22.7Conclusion and Summary817
References and Bibliography818
23Distribution System Reliability Analysis Methods819
23.1Introduction819
23.2Contingency-Based Planning Methods823
23.3Engineering Reliability Directly844
23.4Analytical Distribution System Reliability Assessment848
23.5Important Aspects of Reliability Assessment851
23.6Reliability Simulation Studies and Financial Risk Assessment857
23.7Conclusion and Key Points863
References and Bibliography865
24Automated Planning Tools and Methods869
24.1Introduction869
24.2Fast Ways to Find Good Alternatives870
24.3Automated Feeder Planning Methods881
24.4Substation-Level and Strategic Planning Tools892
24.5Application of Planning Tools900
24.6Conclusion and Summary904
References and Bibliography907
25T&D Load Forecasting Methods909
25.1Spatial Load Forecasting909
25.2Load Growth Behavior911
25.3Important Elements of a Spatial Forecast916
25.4Trending Methods923
25.5Simulation Methods for Spatial Load Forecasting939
25.6Hybrid Trending-Simulation Methods954
25.7Conclusion and Summary of Key Points961
References and Bibliography963
26Planning and the T&D Planning Process967
26.1Introduction967
26.2Goals, Priorities, and Direction968
26.3Tactical Planning: Finding the Best Alternative978
26.4Short- Versus Long-Range Planning987
26.5Uncertainty and Multi-Scenario Planning992
26.6The Power Delivery Planning Process995
26.7Summary and Key Points1008
References and Bibliography1015
27Practical Aspects of T&D Load Forecasting1017
27.1The First Step in T&D Planning1017
27.2Weather Normalization and Design Criteria1018
27.3Selection of a Forecast Method1030
27.4Application of Spatial Forecast Methods1039
27.5Conclusion and Summary1052
Bibliography and References1054
28Balancing Reliability and Spending1055
28.1Introduction1055
28.2The Fundamental Concepts1058
28.3Optimizing Reliability Cost Effectiveness1063
28.4CERI--A Practical Method to "Bootstrap" Reliability Improvement1078
28.5Required Tools and Resources for Reliability Planning1102
28.6"Equitableness" Issues in Reliability Optimization1106
28.7Approaches to Setting and Planning Reliability Targets1113
28.8Asset Management1117
28.9Conclusion and Summary1122
References and Bibliography1124
29Objectivity, Bias, and Accuracy in Planning1127
29.1Introduction and Purpose of this Chapter1127
29.2Objective Evaluation, Proponent Study, or Simply Poor Work?1129
29.3Ways that Bias Makes Its Way into a T&D Planning Study1132
29.4The "Rules" Used to Bias Planning Studies in an Unseen Manner1135
29.5Areas Where Bias or Mistakes Are Often Introduced into a Study1140
29.6Examples of Bogus, Proponent, and Masked Studies1148
29.7Guidelines for Detecting, Finding, and Evaluating Bias1159
29.8Summary and Conclusion: Forewarned is Forearmed1184
References1188
30Key Points, Guidelines, Recommendations1189
30.1Introduction1189
30.2On Distribution Systems1189
30.3On Utilities and Utility Practices1193
30.4On Planning Well1199
References1206
Index1207

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