Power Quality Indices in Liberalized Markets / Edition 1

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Power Quality (PQ) indices are a powerful tool for quickly quantifying PQ disturbances. They also serve as the basis for illustrating the negative impact of electrical disturbances on components and for assessing compliance with the required standards and recommendations within a regulating framework.

Within these pages lies a comprehensive overview of both the traditional PQ indices in use today and new indices likely to be used in the future.

Key features of this book include:

  • a special focus on the metrics for quantifying PQ disturbances;
  • a complete review of methods and indices for assessing disturbance responsibilities between customers and utilities;
  • a survey on PQ objectives around the world, with highlights on the economic aspects of PQ disturbances.

Inside, you will find a thorough and well-balanced treatment on theoretical concepts and practical applications, enhanced by examples and exercises of PQ indices computation and use.

This is an important resource for academics, students of power quality, reliability and electrical power systems courses, and also for practicing engineers involved in solving PQ problems in the new structures of liberalised energy markets. 

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780470033951
  • Publisher: Wiley
  • Publication date: 10/12/2009
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 288
  • Product dimensions: 6.80 (w) x 9.90 (h) x 0.80 (d)

Meet the Author

Pierluigi Caramia is associate professor of Electrical PowerSystems at the University of Napoli ‘Parthenope’(Italy). He received his MS degree in Electrical Engineering fromthe University of Cassino in 1991. His research interests concernpower system analysis and power quality. In addition, he is aco-author of Chapter 8 and Chapter 11 of the book Time-VaryingWaveform Distortions in Power Systems, published by John Wiley& Sons. He participates in the CIGRE and IEEE Working Groupactivities on power quality.

Guido Carpinelli is a full professor of Electrical PowerSystems at the University of Napoli ‘Federico II’(Italy). He received his MS degree in Electrical Engineering fromthe University of Napoli in 1978. His research interests concernelectrical power quality and power system analysis. He is theauthor of several papers in journals published by IEEE, IEE, IETand Elsevier. In addition, he is a co-author of Chapter 8 andChapter 11 of the book Time-Varying Waveform Distortions inPower Systems, published by John Wiley & Sons. Heparticipates in the CIGRE and IEEE Working Group activities onpower quality.

Paola Verde is a full professor of Electrical PowerSystems at the University of Cassino (Italy). She received her MSdegree in Electrical Engineering from the University of Napoli‘Federico II’ in 1988. Her research interests concernpower quality and power electronics in power systems. She is theauthor of several papers in journals published by IEEE, IEE, IETand Elsevier. In addition, she is a co-author of Chapter 8 andChapter 11 of the book Time-Varying Waveform Distortions inPower Systems, published by John Wiley & Sons. Sheparticipates in the CIGRE and IEEE Working Group activities onpower quality.

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Table of Contents

About the authors.



1 Traditional power quality indices.

1.1 Introduction.

1.2 Background concepts.

1.2.1 Power quality disturbances.

1.2.2 Power quality disturbances and electromagneticcompatibility.

1.3 Power quality disturbances: indices and objectives.

1.3.1 Waveform distortions.

1.3.2 Slow voltage variations.

1.3.3 Unbalances.

1.3.4 Voltage fluctuations.

1.3.5 Mains signalling voltages.

1.3.6 Voltage dips (sags).

1.3.7 Transient overvoltages.

1.3.8 Rapid voltage changes.

1.4 Conclusions.


2 Assessing responsibilities between customer andutility.

2.1 Introduction.

2.2 Waveform distortions and voltage unbalances: indices basedon a single metering section.

2.2.1 Indices based on harmonic impedances.

2.2.2 Indices based on powers in non-ideal conditions.

2.2.3 Indices based on comparison with an ideal linear load.

2.3 Waveform distortions and voltage unbalances: indices basedon distributed measurement systems.

2.3.1 The global index.

2.3.2 The cost of deleterious effects index.

2.4 Voltage fluctuations.

2.4.1 An approach based on the correlation between flicker leveland load power.

2.4.2 An approach based on Gaussian probability functions.

2.4.3 Summation law-based approaches.

2.4.4 Voltage-based approaches.

2.4.5 Voltage and current-based approaches.

2.4.6 Power-based approaches.

2.4.7 A simplified approach.

2.5 Voltage sags.

2.5.1 Disturbance power and energy approach.

2.5.2 Slope of the system trajectory approach.

2.5.3 Resistance sign approach.

2.5.4 Real current component approach.

2.5.5 Distance relay approach.

2.6 Voltage transients.

2.7 Conclusions.


3 Advanced methods and nonstationary waveforms.

3.1 Introduction.

3.2 Discrete time waveforms and windowing.

3.2.1 Hanning windowing.

3.2.2 Result interpolation.

3.2.3 Synchronized processing.

3.2.4 Desynchronized processing.

3.3 Short-time Fourier transform.

3.3.1 Theoretical background.

3.3.2 STFT-based indices.

3.4 Wavelet transform.

3.4.1 Theoretical background.

3.4.2 Wavelet-based indices.

3.5 Parametric methods.

3.5.1 Theoretical background.

3.5.2 Parametric method-based indices.

3.5.3 Some comparisons between DFT-based methods and parametricmethods.

3.6 Time–frequency distributions.

3.6.1 Theoretical background.

3.6.2 Time–frequency distribution-based indices.

3.7 Transient waveform distortions (bursts).

3.7.1 Theoretical background.

3.7.2 Burst indices.

3.8 Conclusions.


4 Quantifying the quality of the overall supplyvoltage.

4.1 Introduction.

4.2 Global indices based on a comparison between ideal andactual voltages.

4.2.1 The normalized RMS error.

4.2.2 The normalized three-phase global index.

4.2.3 The voltage quality deviation factor.

4.3 Global indices based on the treatment of traditionalindices.

4.3.1 The global indicator.

4.3.2 The unified power quality index.

4.4 Global indices based on the economic impact on thecustomer.

4.5 Comparisons of global indices.

4.6 Conclusions.


5 Distribution systems with dispersed generation.

5.1 Introduction.

5.2 Power quality variation indices.

5.2.1 Site indices.

5.2.2 System indices.

5.3 Impact system indices.

5.4 Conclusions.


6 Economic aspects of power quality disturbances.

6.1 Introduction.

6.2 Economic impact of power quality disturbances.

6.2.1 Cost of voltage dips in deterministic scenarios.

6.2.2 Cost of harmonics in deterministic scenarios.

6.2.3 Cost of voltage dips in probabilistic scenarios.

6.2.4 Cost of harmonics in probabilistic scenarios.

6.3 Some economic mechanisms for improving power qualitylevels.

6.3.1 USA: a mechanism based on the harmonic-adjusted powerfactor.

6.3.2 USA: a proposal based on the service quality index.

6.3.3 Argentina: a mechanism based on the equivalence betweenvoltage quality and continuity.

6.3.4 Colombia: a mechanism based on the customer’sperception of the impact of each disturbance.

6.3.5 Iran: a proposal based on a penalty function depending onthe type of customer.

6.3.6 Italy: a mechanism based on the unified power qualityindex.

6.3.7 Various countries: power quality contracts.

6.4 Conclusions.



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