Power Struggles: Scientific Authority and the Creation of Practical Electricity before Edison

Overview

In 1882, Thomas Edison and his Edison Electric Light Company unveiled the first large-scale electrical system in the world to light a stretch of offices in a city. This was a monumental achievement, but it was not the beginning of the electrical age. The first electric generators were built in the 1830s, the earliest commercial lighting systems before 1860, and the first commercial application of generator-powered lights (in lighthouses) in the early 1860s. In Power Struggles,Michael Brian Schiffer examines some ...

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Overview

In 1882, Thomas Edison and his Edison Electric Light Company unveiled the first large-scale electrical system in the world to light a stretch of offices in a city. This was a monumental achievement, but it was not the beginning of the electrical age. The first electric generators were built in the 1830s, the earliest commercial lighting systems before 1860, and the first commercial application of generator-powered lights (in lighthouses) in the early 1860s. In Power Struggles,Michael Brian Schiffer examines some of these earlier efforts, both successful and unsuccessful, that paved the way for Edison. After laying out a unified theoretical framework for understanding technological change, Schiffer presents a series of fascinating case studies of pre-Edison electrical technologies, including Volta's electrochemical battery, the blacksmith's electric motor, the first mechanical generators, Morse's telegraph, the Atlantic cable, and the lighting of the Capitol dome. Schiffer discusses claims of "practicality" and "impracticality" (sometimes hotly contested) made for these technologies,and examines the central role of the scientific authority—in particular, the activities of Joseph Henry, mid-nineteenth-century America's foremost scientist—in determining the fate of particular technologies. These emerging electrical technologies formed the foundation of the modern industrial world. Schiffer shows how and why they became commercial products in the context of an evolving corporate capitalism in which conflicting judgments of practicality sometimes turned into power struggles.

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What People Are Saying

Richard A. Gould

"Schiffer's book highlights the unexpected and sometimes quirky nature of the history of electrical technology. His clear prose and careful scholarship lead the reader through a complex slalom course that examines technological history from physics to personalities and from scientific to market-driven demands in a narrative that challenges conventional assumptions about technological 'progress.'
Bravo!"--Richard Gould, Department of Anthropology, Brown University

Michael J. O'Brien

"This is an eminently readable account of the early years of electrical technology, as engineers and scientists in the pre-Edison years searched for practical uses of electricity. Schiffer weaves a fascinating account of machines and the humans who made and used them, focusing not only on the technology but also on the social, political, and commercial contexts in which electricity played an ever-expanding role. A great book!"--Michael J. O'Brien, Dean, College of Arts and Science, and Director, Museum of Anthropology, University of Missouri

From the Publisher
"Schiffer's book highlights the unexpected and sometimes quirky nature of the history of electrical technology. His clear prose and careful scholarship lead the reader through a complex slalom course that examines technological history from physics to personalities and from scientific to market-driven demands in a narrative that challenges conventional assumptions about technological 'progress.' Bravo!" Richard Gould , Department of Anthropology, Brown University

"This is an eminently readable account of the early years of electrical technology, as engineers and scientists in the pre-Edison years searched for practical uses of electricity. Schiffer weaves a fascinating account of machines and the humans who made and used them, focusing not only on the technology but also on the social, political, and commercial contexts in which electricity played an ever-expanding role. A great book!" Michael J. O'Brien , Dean,College of Arts and Science, and Director, Museum of Anthropology, University of Missouri

Richard A. Gould
"Schiffer's book highlights the unexpected and sometimes quirky nature of the history of electrical technology. His clear prose and careful scholarship lead the reader through a complex slalom course that examines technological history from physics to personalities and from scientific to market-driven demands in a narrative that challenges conventional assumptions about technological 'progress.' Bravo!"—Richard Gould, Department of Anthropology, Brown University
Michael J. O'Brien
"This is an eminently readable account of the early years of electrical technology, as engineers and scientists in the pre-Edison years searched for practical uses of electricity. Schiffer weaves a fascinating account of machines and the humans who made and used them, focusing not only on the technology but also on the social, political, and commercial contexts in which electricity played an ever-expanding role. A great book!"—Michael J. O'Brien, Dean, College of Arts and Science, and Director, Museum of Anthropology, University of Missouri
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Product Details

Meet the Author

Michael Brian Schiffer is Fred A. Riecker Distinguished Professor of Anthropology at the University of Arizona and Research Associate at the Lemelson Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution. He is the author of six previous books on technology.

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Table of Contents

1 Studying technological change 1

2 Technological transitions 11

3 Electromagnetism revealed 21

4 An American physicist 31

5 Telegraphic visions 41

6 Mechanical electricity 49

7 The blacksmith's motor 63

8 The chemistry connection 75

9 A peculiar calling 91

10 Hard times 105

11 It's a blast 119

12 "What hath God wrought!" 137

13 Magnetic power derailed 155

14 Humbug! 175

15 Action at a distance 191

16 First light 207

17 If at first you don't succeed 221

18 A thousand points of light 239

19 Machine-age electricity 255

20 A beacon of modernity 271

21 Enter Edison 283

22 New light 299

Notes 317

References 385

Index 415

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