Practical Aspects Of Rape Investigation: A Multidisciplinary Approach, Fourth Edition / Edition 4 by Robert R. Hazelwood | 9781420065046 | Hardcover | Barnes & Noble
Practical Aspects Of Rape Investigation: A Multidisciplinary Approach, Fourth Edition / Edition 4

Practical Aspects Of Rape Investigation: A Multidisciplinary Approach, Fourth Edition / Edition 4

by Robert R. Hazelwood
     
 

ISBN-10: 1420065041

ISBN-13: 9781420065046

Pub. Date: 07/10/2008

Publisher: Taylor & Francis

U.S. Justice Department statistics indicate that only 26 percent of all rapes or attempted rapes are reported to law enforcement officials, and only slightly more than half of these result in the arrest of a suspect. Part of the problem lies in the public’s lack of faith in the criminal justice system’s ability to effectively deal with rape, victims,

Overview

U.S. Justice Department statistics indicate that only 26 percent of all rapes or attempted rapes are reported to law enforcement officials, and only slightly more than half of these result in the arrest of a suspect. Part of the problem lies in the public’s lack of faith in the criminal justice system’s ability to effectively deal with rape, victims, and the offenders.

Practical Aspects of Rape Investigation: A Multidisciplinary Approach, Fourth Edition presents several new research findings and forensic techniques which enable agencies to overcome past impediments to successful intervention and prosecution. This revision of the perennial bestseller adds several new chapters and expertly advances the state of knowledge for police, health professionals, rape crisis staffs, and other criminal justice professionals.

The book begins with a focus on the victim and reviews contemporary issues in the field of sexual violence, discusses the impact of sexual assault on the victim, and outlines victim care services. Then, from an investigative perspective, the book examines the relevance of fantasy, impulsive and ritualistic behavior, the personality of the offender, victim and offender interviews, geographic profiling, false allegations, and false confessions.

A discussion of forensics and the court includes topics on collection of evidence, medical examinations and treatment, and trial preparation issues. Lastly, the book examines special populations with sections on pedophiles, female and juvenile offenders, drug-facilitated rape, sexual sadism, abuse of the elderly, and the timely topic of educator misconduct.

This work was compiled by former FBI Agent Robert R. “Roy” Hazelwood and Ann Wolbert Burgess, Professor of Psychiatric Nursing at Boston College. The comprehensive text they have assembled is the definitive resource for those who must contend with the crimes of rape and other sexual assaults.

Product Details

ISBN-13:
9781420065046
Publisher:
Taylor & Francis
Publication date:
07/10/2008
Series:
Practical Aspects of Criminal and Forensic Investigations Series
Edition description:
REV
Pages:
592
Sales rank:
956,802
Product dimensions:
7.00(w) x 10.00(h) x 1.30(d)

Table of Contents

Section I: The Victim
Contemporary Issues, Ann Wolbert Burgess and Carol Harvey Marchetti
Introduction
The Size of the Problem
Incidence
Prevalence
Under-reported Crime
Relationship of Victim and Offender
Evidentiary Examination of the Victim
Crimes against the Elderly
Homicide
Elder Sexual Abuse in Nursing Homes
History of Psychological Trauma
The Psychobiology of Trauma
Memory
Developmental Traumatology: A Neurobiological Perspective
Substance Abuse
Date-Rape Drugs
Stalking
Cyberstalking
Youth Online Victimization
Collegiate Stalking and Cyberstalking
Adult Cyberstalking
Cyber Child Pornography
References
Rape and Its Impact on the Victim, Angela F. Amar and Ann Wolbert Burgess
Introduction
Rape Trauma Syndrome
Anxiety-Based Disorders
Depression
Substance Abuse
Psychosocial Adaptation
Childhood Sexual Abuse
Physical Health Effects of Rape
Pregnancy
Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs)
Perception of Health
Utilization of Health Services
General Health Effects
Genital Injury
Specific Populations
Global Perspectives
Overview of Culture and Its Relevance to Sexual Assault
Cultural Values and Sexual Assault
Research Related to Rape and Culture
Global Reports of Rape and Sexual Assault
Investigative Implications
References
Victim Services and SANE/SART Programs, Ann Wolbert Burgess, Annie Lewis-O’Connor, M. Elaine Nugent-Borakove, and Patricia Fanflik
Introduction
Rape Crisis Centers
Hospital-Based Victim Care Service: Early Services
Rape Crisis Services
The National Sexual Violence Resource Center (NSVRC)
The Evolution of SANE and SART
The Anti-rape Movement and the Development of Rape Crisis Centers
The “Second Assault”: Early Treatment of Rape Victims by the System
SANE/SART: Past and Present
Structure and Operation of SANE/SART Programs
Research on SANE/SART Programs
References
Section II: Investigation
The Relevance of Fantasy in Serial Sexual Crimes
Investigation, Robert R. Hazelwood and Janet I Warren
Introduction
The Human Sex Drive
Sex Is a Sensory Act
The Paraphilias
Fantasy in Sexual Crimes
Inanimate Objects
Dolls
Photographs/Magazine Pictures
Clothing
Consenting Partners
Prostitutes
Girlfriends or Spouses as Partners
Self-Composition
Investigative Significance of Fantasy
Fantasy and Intelligence
Fantasy Is Always Perfect
Fantasy Enactment with Wives and/or Girlfriends
Fantasy and the Linking of Cases
Fantasy and Search Warrants
Fantasy and Prosecutive Strategy
Summary
References
The Sexually Violent Offender: Impulsive or Ritualistic,
Robert R. Hazelwood and Janet I. Warren
Introduction
The Impulsive Sex Offender
Motivation
Fantasy
Personality Style
Collections/Pornography
Pre-offense Acting Out
Criminal Behavior
Past Criminal Behavior
Travel and Search Patterns
The Ritualistic Offender
Motivation
Personality Style
Fantasy
Relational
Paraphilic
Demographic
Situational
Self-perceptional
Pre-offense Acting Out
Criminal Behavior
Pornography
Criminal History
Summary
References
The Behavioral-Oriented Interview of Rape Victims: The Key to Profiling, Robert R. Hazelwood and Ann Wolbert Burgess
Introduction
Motivation
Profiling the Unidentified Rapist
Questioning for Behavior
Method of Approach
Con
Blitz
Surprise
Offender’s Control of the Victim
Mere Presence
Verbal Threats
Presence of a Weapon
Physical Force
Offender’s Use of Physical Force
Minimal
Moderate
Excessive
Brutal
Victim Resistance
Passive Resistance
Verbal Resistance
Physical Resistance
Offender’s Reaction to Resistance
Cease the Demand
Compromise or Negotiate
Flee
Threaten
Force
Sexual Dysfunctions
Erectile Insufficiency
Premature Ejaculation
Retarded Ejaculation
Conditional Insufficiency
Conditional Ejaculation
Type and Sequence of Sexual Acts
Verbal Activity
Forced Victim Verbal Activity
Sudden Change in Offender’s Attitude
Criminal Experience
Novice
Experienced
Items Taken
Evidentiary
Valuables
Personal
Indications That Victim Was Targeted
Summary
References
Analyzing the Rape and Profiling the Offender, Robert R. Hazelwood
Introduction
Selfish versus Pseudo-unselfish Behavior
Pseudo-unselfish Behavior
Verbal Behavior
Sexual Behavior
Physical Behavior
Selfish Behavior
Verbal Behavior
Sexual Behavior
Physical Behavior
Rapist Typologies
Power Reassurance Rapist
General
Purpose of Attack
Style of Attack
Power Assertive Rapist
General
Purpose of Attack
Style of Attack
Anger Retaliatory Rapist
General
Purpose of Attack
Style of Attack
Anger Excitation Rapist
General
Purpose of Attack
Style of Attack
Opportunistic Rapist
General
Purpose of Attack
Style of Attack
The Gang Rape
General
Purpose of Attack
Style of Attack
A Case Study
Criminal Investigative Analysis
Victimology
Low Risk
Moderate Risk
High Risk
Method of Approach
Method of Control
Amount of Force
Victim Resistance
Reaction to Resistance
Sexual Dysfunction
Type and Sequence of Sexual Acts
Offender Verbal Activity
Attitudinal Change
What Preceded the Attitudinal Change
Precautionary Actions
Items Taken
Purpose of the Assault
Offender Profiling
The Profile
Personality Characteristics
Race
Age
Arrest History
Marital Status
Residence
Education
Military History
Employment
Transportation
Appearance and Grooming
Summary
References
Interviewing the Rapist, Michael R. Napier
Introduction
Developing the Interview Plan
Traits of Successful Interviewers
Question Formulation
Tools of the Profession
Reading Minds
Planting Ideas
Theme Development
Test of Commitment
Offender-Specific Tactics
The Power Reassurance Rapist
The Power Assertive Rapist
The Anger Retaliatory Rapist
The Anger Excitation Rapist
References
Bibliography
Geographic Profiling in Serial Rape Investigations, D. Kim Rossmo
Introduction
Criminal Investigative Process
Linkage Analysis
Physical Evidence
Offender Description
Crime Scene Behavior
Stranger and Serial Rape
Geography of Rape
Geographic Profiling
Geographic Profiling Considerations
Criminal Hunting Methods
Crime Locations
Questions
The Rigel Software System
Investigative Strategies and Tactics
Suspect Prioritization
Police Information Systems
Task Force Management
Sex Offender Registries
Government and Business Databases
Motor Vehicle Registrations
Bloodings
Peak-of-Tension Polygraphy
Conclusion
References
Linkage Analysis: M.O., Ritual, and Signature in Serial Sexual Crimes, Robert R. Hazelwood and Janet I. Warren
Introduction
Modus Operandi
Ritualistic Behaviors in Sexual Crimes
Observations Regarding M.O. and Ritual
The Signature in Sexual Crimes
A Case Example
The Linkage Analysis
The Analysis in the Sanchez and Johnson Cases
The Motive
The Modus Operandi (M.O.)
The Ritual
The Signature
Dissimilar Features of the Crimes
Features Other Than M.O. or Ritual
Conclusions
References
False Rape Allegations, Robert R. Hazelwood and Ann Wolbert Burgess
Introduction
Definition
Potential Consequences of a False Allegation
Imprisonment of an Innocent Person
Impact on Legitimate Victims of Rape
Emotional Problems in Need of Attention
Problems Confronting the Investigator
Classification of Unfounded Rape Cases
Sex-Stress Situations
False Rape Allegation
Delusional Rape Allegation
Who Makes a False Allegation?
Motives for False Rape Allegations
Attention/Sympathy
Anger/Revenge
Alibi
False Allegations and the Adaptation Continuum
Munchausen Syndrome
Mental States
Factors Consistent with False Allegations
Initial Complaint
Assailants
Sexual Assault
Evidence
Injuries
Personality and Lifestyle Considerations
Other
Second Opinion
Summary
Acknowledgments
References
Collateral Materials in Sexual Crimes, Robert R. Hazelwood and Kenneth V. Lanning
Introduction
Traditional Evidence in Sexual Crimes
Forensic Evidence
Circumstantial Evidence
Eyewitness Evidence
Direct Evidence
Collateral Materials
Types of Collateral Materials
Erotica
Educational
Introspective
Intelligence
Case Study
Summary
References
Interrogation and False Confessions in Rape Cases, Richard A. Leo
Introduction
Causes of False Confessions
The Police Interrogation
Step 1: Shifting the Suspect from Confident to Hopeless
Step 2: Offering the Suspect Inducements to Confess
The Different Types of False Confessions
Voluntary False Confession
Stress-Compliant False Confession
Coerced-Compliant False Confession
Coerced-Persuaded False Confession
Noncoerced-Persuaded False Confession
The Consequences of False Confessions
Conclusion
References
Section III: Forensics and Court
Physical Evidence in Sexual Assault Investigations, Robert P. Spalding and P. David Bigbee
Introduction
The Nature of Physical Evidence
The Identification of Evidence
General Types of Evidence
Class Characteristic Evidence
Individual Characteristic Evidence
Evidence Resulting from Transfer
Direct Transfer
Indirect Transfer
The Evidence Environment
Evidence/Crime Scene Contamination
The Nature of the Evidence Environment
The Personnel
Careless and/or Inadvertent Alteration at the Scene
The Packaging of Evidence
The Laboratory Environment
Degradation of Evidence
Considerations Relating to the Victim, Suspect, and Assault Scene
The Victim
The Suspect
Sexual Assault Evidence Collection Kits
Known Blood
Known Saliva
Head Hair Combing/Brushing
Pubic Hair Combing/Brushing
Combing/Brushing of Body Hair Regions Other Than Head and Pubic
Vaginal Swabs
Oral Swabs
Anal Swabs
Microscope Smear Slides Made from Swabs
Vaginal Aspirate
Oral Rinse (Wash)
Nasal Mucus Sample
Fingernail Scrapings
Clothing
Penile Swabs
Miscellaneous Debris Collection
Sheets/Body Bags
The Crime Scene
General Stages of Crime Scene Investigation
Approach the Scene
Secure and Protect the Scene
Conduct a Preliminary Survey
Evaluate Observed Evidence
Prepare a Narrative Description
Photograph the Scene
Sketch the Scene
Conduct a Detailed Search for Evidence
Collect, Preserve, and Document the Evidence
Conduct a Final Survey
Release the Scene
It Does Not End There
Blood-Borne Pathogens
Bloodstain Patterns
Summary
Evidence Recovery Considerations in Sexual Assault
Investigations, Robert P. Spalding and P. David Bigbee
Introduction
Recovery of Questioned Evidence
Hairs and Fibers
Search Methods and Techniques
General Unassisted Visual Search
Oblique Light
Ultraviolet Light
Vacuuming
Adhesive Lifts
Combing/Brushing
Fingernail Scrapings and Clippings
Lasers and Alternate Light Sources (ALSs)
Blood
Conventional Forensic Analysis
DNA Analysis
Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphisms (RFLPs)
Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCRs)
Newer Technologies
Recovery of Blood Evidence
Wet Blood
Dried Bloodstains
Control Samples
Representative Samples
Chemical Presumptive Tests
Chemical Agents
Chemical Enhancement of Blood Evidence
Bloodstain Pattern Evidence
Semen
Conventional Semen Serology
DNA in Semen
Semen Evidence Recovery
Sexual Assault Evidence at the Scene
Locating Semen at the Scene
DNA and UV Light
Post-event Alteration of Stains
Saliva
Saliva Recovery
Ash Tray Contents
Bite Marks
Recovery of Known Evidence
Known Hair Samples
How Many Hairs?
How Should They Be Collected?
Elimination Samples
Animals
Known Fiber Samples
Fiber Samples to Be Taken
Taking the Samples
Known Blood Samples
Known Saliva Samples
Marking of Evidence for Identification
Direct and Indirect Marking
What Should Be Marked on the Evidence?
Use of an Evidence Log
Chain of Custody
Materials Used to Package Physical Evidence
Small Evidence Items
Large Evidence Items
Summary
Acknowledgments
Additional Reading
Medical Examination of Sexually Abused Children, Andi Taroli
Primum Non Nocere
Multidisciplinary Investigations
The Pediatrician’s Role
The Scope of the Problem
“Children Are Not Little Adults”
The Medical History
The Patient’s History (Interview)
General Principles for Interviewing Children
Setting
Timing
Questions
Number of Interviews
Content
Past Medical History, Family and Social History, and System Review
The Physical Exam
Colposcopy
The Hymen—Myths and Truths
Examination Findings
Acute Injury
Chronic Exam Findings
Why Are Positive Physical Findings Uncommon?
“Penetration, However Slight”
Evidence for Absence of Physical Findings
The Written Report
Forensic Evidence Collection
Where the Evidence Is (and Where It Is Not)
Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD)
False Allegations of Sexual Abuse in Children
Sequelae
References
Resources
Injury and Forensic Examination of the Victim, Kathleen P. Brown and Marilyn S. Sommers
Introduction
Overview
Genital Injury Prevalence
Injury Prevalence with Visual Inspection
Injury Prevalence with Staining Techniques
Injury Prevalence with Colposcopy Technique
Location of Genital Injury
Comparison of Genital Injury Prevalence Following Consensual Sexual
Intercourse
Genital Injury Type
Role of Genital Injury in Criminal Justice Proceedings
The Forensic Examination
Team Approach to Forensic Services
Access to the Sexual Assault Response Team
Setting
Role of the Forensic Examiner
Forensic Interview in Health Care Settings
Interview Format
Consent Issues
History
Forensic Examination
Overall Appearance
Clothing
Detection of Injury
Collection of Forensic Evidence
Examination of Genitalia
Rectal Examination
Proper Handling (Management) of Evidence
Chain of Custody
Documentation
Drug and Alcohol Testing
Therapy and Prophylaxis
Follow-up Care
Discharge Instructions
Conclusion
References
Classifying Rape and Sexual Assault, Ann Wolbert Burgess and Robert R. Hazelwood
Introduction
Motivation for Rape: Early Research
The Rationale for Classification
Usefulness of Classification
Crime Classification Numbering System
300: Criminal Enterprise Rape
301: Felony Rape
310: Personal Cause
312: Domestic Sexual Assault
313.00: Entitlement Rape
314: Anger Rape
315: Sadistic Rape
319: Abduction Rape
330: Group Cause Sexual Assault
331: Formal Gang
332: Informal Gang
390: Sexual Assault Not Classified Elsewhere
Multiple Motives Underlying Sexual Assault
Rape: Its Impact on the Victim
Rape Is an Act of Aggression
Child Molesters
Summary
References
Prosecuting Rape Cases: Trial Preparation and Trial Tactic Issues, Teresa Scalzo
Introduction
Conducting an Offender-Focused Prosecution
Enhancing the Victim’s Credibility
Direct Examination
General Trial Strategies
Preparation
Witness Order
Pretrial Motions
Voir Dire
Opening Statement
Victim Cross-Examination
Expert Testimony Regarding Victim Behavior
Medical Testimony
DNA
Toxicologist and/or Pharmacologist
Cross-Examination of the Defendant
Closing Argument
Jury Instructions
Additional Trial Strategies
Summary
Section IV: Special Populations
Cyber “Pedophiles”: A Behavioral Perspective, Kenneth V. Lanning
Introduction
Overview
Illegal Sexual Activity
Legal Sexual Activity
Understanding Behavior
Paraphilias and Sexual Ritual Behavior
“Pedophiles” and Child Molesters
Typology
Computer Offenders
What about “Predators?”
Recognizing Preferential Sex Offenders
Exaggerated Example
“Concerned” Civilians
Female Offenders
Use of Computers
Organization
Communicate, Fuel, and Validate
Maintenance of Business or Financial Records
Child Pornography
Interaction with and Soliciting Sex with Children
Comments Concerning Prevention
Proactive Investigations
Staleness of Probable Cause
Summary
References
The Sexual Crimes of Juveniles, John A. Hunter
Introduction
Developmental Issues
Typology Research
Modus Operandi
Violent Juvenile Sex Offenders
Investigative Issues
Detection
Guidelines for Interviewing Juvenile Sex Offenders
Mental Health Evaluations
Disposition Decision-Making and Management
Effective Community Programming
Treatment Focuses
Treatment Outcomes
References
Patterns of Female Sexual Offending and Their
Investigatory Significance to Law Enforcement and Child
Protective Services, Janet I. Warren and Julia Hislop
Introduction
Historical Perspective
Empirical Typologies of Female Offenders
Motivational Typology of Female Sex Offenders
The Forbidden Lover: Secrets Are Seductive
The Facilitator: Engaging in the Sexual Fantasy of Another
The Instigator: Expressing Control and Dominance
The Psychotic: There Was a Demon in Her
Munchausen by Proxy: “But I Am Only Trying to Protect My Child!”
Contributory Factors in Female Sex Offending
Re-enactment and Early Trauma
Personality Disorders
Mental Illness and Substance Abuse Disorders
Investigatory Significance of the Paradigm
References
Bibliography
Drug-Facilitated Sex Assault, Michael Welner and Barbara Welner
Introduction
Tracing the History of DFSA
The DFSA Perpetrator
What Makes the DFSA Drug?
Modus Operandi
Components of the DFSA Modus Operandi
A Typology of DFSA
Settings
Accomplices and Conspiracies
Intrafamilial DFSA
Male-on-Male Offenses
Sexual Deviance or Sexual Hunters
What Distinguishes DFSA Offenders from Other Sexual Criminals?
What Makes a Sound Investigation?
References
Bibliography
The Criminal Sexual Sadist, Robert R. Hazelwood, Park Elliot Dietz, and Janet I. Warren
Introduction
What Is Sexual Sadism?
Physical and Psychological Suffering
Sexually Sadistic Behavior
Sadistic Fantasy
Sadism toward Symbols
Consenting or Paid Partners
Behavior Patterns Confused with Sexual Sadism
Sadistic Personality
Cruelty during Crime
Pathological Group Behavior
Sanctioned Cruelty
Revenge-Motivated Cruelty
Interrogative Cruelty
Postmortem Mutilation
Study Conducted
Offender Characteristics
Crime Characteristics
Evidence of Crime
Investigating Crimes of the Sexual Sadist
Sources
Search Warrants
Interviewing the Sexual Sadist
Summary
References
Sexual Sadists: Their Wives and Girlfriends, Robert R. Hazelwood
Introduction
Genesis of the Research
Methodology
The Women
Their Relationships with the Men
The Transformation of the Women
Selection of a Vulnerable Woman
Seduction of the Woman
Reshaping the Sexual Norms
Social Isolation
Punishment
Investigative Significance of the Research
Crime Behavior
The Criminal
Former Wives and Girlfriends
Summary
References
Elder Sexual Abuse Victims, Ann Wolbert Burgess and Leonard I. Morgenbesser
Introduction
Scope of the Problem
Literature on Elder Sexual Abuse
Barriers in Investigating Elder Sexual Abuse Cases
Intentional versus Unintentional Injury
Older Adult Victim Unable to Communicate
Signs and Symptoms of Abuse
Inadequate Evidentiary Examination
Resident-on-Resident Sexual Abuse
Early Recognition and Detection
Interviewing Elder Victims of Sexual Abuse
Forensic Services
Types of Interventions
Brief Therapy
Individual Counseling
Group Counseling
Music Therapy
Living Situations of Elderly Victims
Independent Living
Assisted Living
Nursing Home
Intervention for Family Members of Sexually Abused Elders
Prevention of Elder Sexual Abuse
Suggested Approaches to Elder Victims in Nursing Homes
Crisis Intervention
Nursing Home Staff
Sex Offenders of the Elderly, Ann Wolbert Burgess, Robert A. Prentky, and Mark Saffarik
Introduction
Background
Theories of Offending
Dynamics of the Offense
Victimology
Style of approach
Control of Victim
Victim Resistance
Multiple Assaults
Types of Sexual Acts
Classifying Sex Offenders of the Elderly
Typology and Examples
Opportunistic
Pervasive Anger
Sexualization
Nonsadistic Types
Vindictive Motivation
Discussion
Taxonomic Heterogeneity
Policy and Investigative Implications
Motive and Escalation in Serial Sexual Homicide
Investigative Profiling and Risk Assessment
Conclusion
References
Bibliography
Educator Sexual Misconduct: Grooming Patterns and Female Offenders, James Knoll
Introduction
Female Perpetrators
General Sex Offender Grooming Patterns
Educator Sexual Abuse Grooming Patterns
Effects of Educator Sexual Abuse
Dilemmas
Case Example and Discussion
Toward Prevention
Conclusions
References

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