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No two crime scenes are the same, and each scene presents a unique set of obstacles to overcome.
While there is no one "right" way to handle every situation, the goal of collecting evidence while preserving its integrity remains the constant motivation of the crime scene investigator.
INTRODUCTION Police Goals and Objectives Evidence Defined The Interpretive Value of Evidence Good Crime Scene Examination and Integrity Issues Investigative Ethics UNDERSTANDING THE NATURE OF PHYSICAL EVIDENCE Class and Individual Characteristics Fingerprint Evidence Serology and Biological Evidence Trace Evidence Hairs and Fibers Glass Paints and Polymers Soils Gunshot Residues (GSR)
Firearms and Ballistic Evidence Tool Mark Evidence Impression Evidence General Chemical Evidence Document Evidence Computer Forensics Forensic Pathology ACTIONS OF THE INITIAL RESPONDING OFFICER Specific Objectives of the Initial Response Documenting Initial Information Officer Safety Emergency Care Secure and Control the Crime Scene Release the Scene to Appropriate Authorities PROCESSING METHODOLOGY Basic Activities of Scene Processing Assessing Observing Documenting Searching Collecting Processing/Analyzing A Processing Model Step 1 - Initial Notification Step 2 - Coordination, Assessment and Callout Step 3 - Conduct Initial Observations Step 4 - Deal with Deceased Step 5 - Photograph the Scene Step 6 - Document Overall Observations Step 7 - Sketch the Scene Step 8 - Conduct a First Recheck Step 9 - Release the Step 10 - Collect Evidence Step 11 - Conduct a Second Recheck Step 12 - Conduct a Third Recheck Step 13 - Check Beyond the Scene Step 14 - Conduct an On-Scene Debriefing Step 15 - Release or Retain the Scene Step 16 - Process and Package Evidence Step 17 - Conduct a Formal Debriefing ASSESSING THE SCENE Debriefing the Responding Officer Scene Scope and Boundary Assessment Scene Integrity and Contamination Control Managing Access Defining Team Composition Crime Scene Search Considerations Search Patterns Circle or Spiral Search Strip and Line Search Grid Search Zone Search Point-to-Point Search Personal Protective Measures and Hazard Identification Biohazard Risks Structural Hazards in Fire and Explosion Scenes Chemical Inhalation Hazards in Fire Scenes Inhalation, Chemical, or Fire Hazards from Scene-Processing Techniques Chemical and Bioterror Hazards Considerations for Mass Scenes and Mass Casualty Situations Pre-Event Considerations of Crime Scene Supervisors Practical On-Scene Considerations for the Mass Scene Managing the Media CRIME SCENE PHOTOGRAPHY Recurring Problems In Crime Scene Photographs Identification Problems Orientation Problems Confusion Problems Incomplete Documentation Types and Purpose of Crime Scene Photographs Overall Photographs Evidence-Establishing Photographs Evidence Close-Up Photographs Basic Photography Issues Video Photography CRIME SCENE SKETCHING AND MAPPING Essential Elements of a Sketch Variations in View in Sketches Methods of Crime Scene Mapping Rectangular Coordinates Triangulation Baseline Coordinates Polar Coordinates Triangulation or Rectangular Coordinates on a Grid Triangulation on a Baseline Total-Station Mapping NARRATIVE DESCRIPTIONS: CRIME SCENE NOTES AND REPORTS Notes Crime Scene Reports Introduction Section Characteristics of the Scene Conditions of the Scene Environmental Conditions Factors Pertinent to Entry and Exit Scene Documentation Collection of Physical Evidence Search for Latent Fingerprints Addition Examinations General Conditions BASIC SKILLS FOR CRIME SCENE PROCESSING Applying Light Technology Shortwave Ultraviolet Light (180 to 254 nm)
Longwave Ultraviolet Light (365 to 415 nm)
Near-UV and Violet Light (415 to 485 nm)
Crime Scene Search and Blue Light (485 to 530 nm)
Orange-Red (570 to 700 nm)
Infrared (700 to 2000 nm)
Heat Energy and Thermal Imaging (12,000 nmm)
Choosing an Alternative Light Source Recovering Fingerprints Surface Characteristics On-Scene Fingerprinting Techniques Casting Impression Evidence Rubber Casting Compounds Electrostatic Lifting Devices Plaster and Dental-Stone Casting Techniques Gelatin and Other Adhesive Lifters ADVANCED TECHNIQUES FOR SCENE PROCESSING Bloodstain Pattern Analysis Directionality and Impact Angle Categorizing Bloodstain Patterns Documenting Bloodstain Patterns Presumptive Tests for Bloodstains Luminol Enhancement of Latent Bloodstains Fluorescence in Enhancement of Latent Bloodstains Amido-Black Enhancement of Latent Bloodstains Bullet Trajectory Analysis Internal Ballistics Terminal Ballistics External Ballistics Bullet Defect Verification Defining the Bullet Impact Angle Based on Defect Shape Direction of Fire Use of Trajectory Rods and Lasers to Demonstrate Bullet Flight Paths Trajectory Analysis Documentation SPECIAL SCENE CONSIDERATIONS Fire Scenes Fire Patterns Problems Associated with Fire Scenes Fire Scene Methodology Landfill Recoveries Problems Associated with Landfill Recoveries Landfill Recovery Methodology Buried and Scattered Remains Buried Bodies Scattered Remains Entomological Evidence Associated with Bodies THE ROLE OF CRIME SCENE ANALYSIS AND RECONSTRUCTION A History of the Concept of Crime Scene Reconstruction Crime Scene Reconstruction Methodology Scientific Method Used to Resolve a Specific Investigative Question Event Analysis - Reconstructing Entire Events APPENDIX A - CRIME SCENE EQUIPMENT Basic Kits Fingerprint Kit Photography Kit Casting Kit Mapping and Sketching Kit Personal Protective Gear Scene-Integrity Equipment Evidence Collection Tools Evidence Collection Containers Lighting Equipment Additional Kits Bloodstain Pattern Analysis/Enhancement Kit Trajectory Analysis Kit APPENDIX B - RISK MANAGEMENT
Posted December 19, 2012
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