Practical Hydraulics

Practical Hydraulics

by Melvyn Kay
     
 

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ISBN-10: 0419228802

ISBN-13: 9780419228806

Pub. Date: 12/28/1998

Publisher: Taylor & Francis

Hydraulics has a reputation for being a complex, even intimidating, discipline. Put simply hydraulics is the study of how water and similar fluids behave and can be harnessed for practical use. It is one of the fundamental scientific and engineering subjects and many

professions demand a working knowledge of its basic concepts yet most hydraulics textbooks are

Overview

Hydraulics has a reputation for being a complex, even intimidating, discipline. Put simply hydraulics is the study of how water and similar fluids behave and can be harnessed for practical use. It is one of the fundamental scientific and engineering subjects and many

professions demand a working knowledge of its basic concepts yet most hydraulics textbooks are aimed at readers with a strong engineering or mathematical background.

Practical Hydraulics approaches the subject from basic principles and demonstrates how these are applied in

practice. It is clearly written, and includes many illustrations and examples. It will appeal to a wide range of professionals and students needing an introduction to the subject, from farmers irrigating crops to fire crews putting our fires with high-pressure water hoses. But hydraulics

is not just about water. Many other fluids behave in the same way and so affect a wide range of people from doctors, needing to know how blood flows in veins, to car designers, wanting to save fuel by reducing drag.

Product Details

ISBN-13:
9780419228806
Publisher:
Taylor & Francis
Publication date:
12/28/1998
Pages:
272
Product dimensions:
6.70(w) x 9.60(h) x 0.60(d)
Age Range:
18 Years

Table of Contents


Preface     ix
Acknowledgements     xi
Some basic mechanics     1
Introduction     1
Units and dimensions     1
Velocity and acceleration     2
Forces     3
Friction     3
Newton's laws of motion     4
Mass and weight     7
Scalar and vector quantities     8
Dealing with vectors     8
Work, energy and power     9
Momentum     12
Properties of water     16
Hydrostatics: water at rest     21
Introduction     21
Pressure     21
Force and pressure are different     23
Pressure and depth     24
Pressure is same in all directions     26
The hydrostatic paradox     27
Pressure head     29
Atmospheric pressure     30
Measuring pressure     34
Designing dams     38
Forces on sluice gates     42
Archimedes' principle     45
Some examples to test your understanding     50
Hydrodynamics: when water starts to flow     51
Introduction     51
Experimentation and theory     51
Hydraulic toolbox     53
Discharge and continuity     53
Energy     55
Some useful applications of the energy equation     58
Some more energy applications     68
Momentum     72
Real fluids     73
Drag forces     78
Eddy shedding     80
Making balls swing     82
Successful stone-skipping     83
Some examples to test your understanding     84
Pipes     85
Introduction     85
A typical pipe flow problem     85
A formula to link energy loss and pipe size     86
The [lambda] story     90
Hydraulic gradient     92
Energy loss at pipe fittings     94
Siphons     94
Selecting pipe sizes in practice     96
Pipe networks     105
Measuring discharge in pipes     106
Momentum in pipes     111
Pipe materials     114
Pipe fittings     115
Water hammer     118
Surge     121
Some examples to test your understanding     122
Channels      123
Introduction     123
Pipes or channels?     123
Laminar and turbulent flow     125
Using the hydraulic tools     125
Uniform flow     131
Non-uniform flow: gradually varied     142
Non-uniform flow: rapidly varied     142
Secondary flows     163
Sediment transport     166
Some examples to test your understanding     169
Waves     170
Introduction     170
Describing waves     171
Waves at sea     172
Waves in rivers and open channels     173
Flood waves     176
Some special waves     177
Tidal power     180
Hydraulic structures for channels     182
Introduction     182
Orifice structures     184
Weirs and flumes     185
Sharp-crested weirs     186
Solid weirs     188
Flumes     194
Discharge measurement     196
Discharge control     196
Water level control     198
Energy dissipators     198
Siphons     200
Culverts     205
Some examples to test your understanding     207
Pumps     208
Introduction     208
Positive displacement pumps     209
Roto-dynamic pumps     212
Pumping pressure     215
Energy for pumping     220
Power for pumping     222
Roto-dynamic pump performance     227
Choosing the right kind of pump     229
Matching a centrifugal pump with a pipeline     230
Connecting centrifugal pumps in series and in parallel     236
Variable speed pumps     239
Operating pumps     239
Power units     241
Surge in pumping mains     241
Turbines     243
Some examples to test your understanding     245
Bathtub hydraulics     246
References and further reading     249
Index     251

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