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More About This Textbook
Overview
This book integrates technology into the practical introduction of statistics — both Microsoft Excel and MINITAB are incorporated as tools for data analysis. These Excel and MINITAB tutorials give users access to stepbystep instructions and screen shots for using the software to perform the statistical techniques presented in the chapter. Realworld applications and critical thinking skills are emphasized throughout that will allow readers to realize greater success in the workplace. Reorganized content — Rank tests are integrated throughout, dot plots added in Chapter 2, cumulative binomial tables added to appendix, section on the normal approximation to the binomial distribution added to Chapter 6, and goodnessoffit test of multinomial category probabilities added to Chapter 8. For use as an introduction to statistics reference with a background in college algebra.
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Educational Philosophy
In our many years of teaching introductory statistics courses at the University of South Florida and Baruch College, we have continually searched for ways to improve the teaching of these courses. Our vision for teaching these introductory statistics courses has been shaped by active participation in a series of professional conferences as well as the reality of serving a diverse group of students at a large university. Over the years, our vision has come to include these principles:
This philosophy led us to develop Practical Statistics by Example Using Microsoft^{®} Excel and MINITAB^{®}. Designed as an introductory text in statistics for students with a background in college algebra, our text contains the following features that distinguish it from the many other statistics texts available. "By Example" Introduction of Concepts
Each new idea is introduced and illustrated by real databased examples taken from a wide variety of disciplines and sources. These examples demonstrate how to solve various types of statistical problems encountered in the real world. We believe that students better understand definitions, generalizations, and concepts after seeing a real application. Each example is set off for easy identification and contains a full, detailed solution to the problem. Microsoft Excel and MINITAB as Tools for Statistical Analysis
The spreadsheet application Microsoft Excel and the statistical software MINITAB are integrated throughout the entire text. Many texts published and revised in the past twenty years have incorporated the use of popular statistical software packages such as SAS, SPSS, and MINITAB. Few, however, have successfully integrated Excel. With the increasing functionality and power of worksheet applications, virtually all kinds of statistical analyses taught in the introductory course can now be supported by Excel and the statistics addin provided with this text (PHStat2). In addition to its possible use in a statistics course, students Emphasis on Critical Thinking and Interpretation of Computer Output
Both Excel and MINITABgenerated graphs and output accompany every statistical technique presented, allowing instructors to focus on the statistical analysis of data and the interpretation of the results rather than the calculations required to obtain the results. Free from memorizing formulas and performing hand calculations, students are encouraged to develop critical thinking skills that will allow them to realize greater success in the workplace. Examples on hand calculations are provided for those instructors who desire flexibility in teaching the course. Tutorials on Using Microsoft Excel and MINITAB
For the novice, The Excel Primer provides basic instruction on using Windows and Microsoft Excel and The MINITAB Primer provides basic instruction on using MINITAB. Excel and MINITAB Tutorials appear at the end of pertinent chapters and give stepbystep instructions and screen shots for using the applications to perform the statistical techniques presented in the chapter.
All data sets that are stored in the Excel and MINITAB directories on the CD that accompanies the text are identified with a CDROM icon and the name is provided. Statistics AddIn for Microsoft Excel: PHStat
The CDROM that accompanies the text also includes PHStat2, the latest version of PHStat, Prentice Hall's statistical addin for Microsoft Excel for Windows. PHStat2 minimizes the work associated with setting up statistical solutions in Microsoft Excel by automating the creation of worksheets and charts. PHStat2, in combination with Excels Data Analysis Too1PAK addin and table and chart wizards, allows users to perform statistical analyses on virtually all topics covered in an introductory statistics course. (Compared to its predecessor, PHStat2 contains a number of new or enhanced procedures and now includes a full help system for easy reference. For more information about PHStat2, see Appendix E.) "Statistics in the Real World" Application in Each Chapter
Each chapter opens with a realworld application and data set to motivate the material presented in the chapter and to provide a reallife context for learning statistics. The "Statistics in the Real World" problem is revisited throughout the chapter in relevant sections. At the end of each of these sections, the data set is analyzed using the method presented in the section and relevant conclusions are drawn from the analysis. BuiltIn Study Guide
The following features are incorporated throughout the text to help students learn and retain new ideas:
This text includes all the topics covered in a basic introductory statistics course, including data collection (Chapter 1), descriptive statistics (Chapters 2 and 3), probability and probability distributions (Chapters 4  6), confidence intervals (Chapters 7 and 9), hypothesis tests (Chapters 8 and 9), regression (Chapter 10), and analysis of variance (Chapter 11). A minimal amount of probability is presented, allowing more time for instructors to teach statistical inference (Chapters 711). Unique to this introductory text is a section on proper graphical presentation (Section 2.6), which promotes E. R. Tufte's principles of graphical excellence. New to This Edition
The second edition of Practical Statistics by Example Using Microsoft^{®} Excel and MINITAB^{®} includes a number of additions and enhancements:
Each element in the package has been accuracychecked to ensure clarity, adherence to the approaches presented in the main text, and freedom from computational, typographical, and statistical errors.
Instructor's Solutions Manual
(by Mark Dummeldinger) (ISBN 0130415871). Complete solutions to all evennumbered problems are provided in this manual. Manual solutions are most frequently provided for the "Using the Tools" problems while a combination of hand and Excel solutions are presented for the "Applying the Concepts" problems. Solutions are also provided for the Statistics in the Real World application that begins each chapter. Solutions to the oddnumbered problems are found in the Student's Solutions Manual.
Test Bank
(by Tom Bratcher) (ISBN 0130415804). The Test Bank offers a full complement of more than 1,000 additional problems that correlate to exercises presented in the text. Microsoft Word^{} files for this Test Bank are available from the publisher.
TestGen EQ Computerized Test Bank
(ISBN 0130415863)
Data Files
Data files for most problems and for the Statistics in the Real World applications are contained on the CDROM that is packaged with each copy of the text. When a given data set is referenced, a disk icon with the file name will appear in the text near the exercise. The data files may also be downloaded from the World Wide Web.
Companion Web Site: http://www.prenhall.com/sincich
The Companion Web site provides selfscoring quizzes, an online syllabus maker, technology projects, and data files for the textbook. Supplements Available for Purchase by Students
Student's Solutions Manual
(by Mark Dummeldinger) (ISBN 0130415928). Fully worked out solutions to all of the oddnumbered problems are provided in this manual. Careful attention has been paid to ensure that all methods of solution and notation are consistent with those used in the core text. Acknowldegements
We are extremely grateful to the following reviewers who provided excellent suggestions for revising the text: Julia Hassett, Oakton Community College; Patty Monroe, Greenville Technical College; Robert L. Raymond, University of St. Thomas; Shannon Schumann, University of Colorado at Colorado Springs; and Judy Eng Woo, Bellevue Community College. In addition we would like to thank the Biometrika Trustees, American Cyanamid Company, Annals of Mathematical Statistics, and the Chemical Rubber Company for their kind permission to publish various tables in Appendix B.
This book reflects the efforts of a great many people over a number of years. Professor Emeritus William Mendenhall (University of Florida) and publisher Don Dellen (now deceased) were instrumental in developing and shaping earlier editions of Statistics by Example, upon which this text is partially based. Special thanks are due to our ancillary author, Mark Dummeldinger, and his typist Kelly Barber. Phyllis Barnidge and Lynda Kay Steele of Laurel Technical Services have done an excellent job of accuracy checking the manuscript and have helped us to ensure a clean answer appendix and solutions. The Prentice Hall staff of Quincy McDonald, Joanne Wendelken, Angela Battle, Amy Lysik, Linda Behrens, and Alan Fischer, and Elm Street Publishing Services' Martha Beyerlein helped greatly with all phases of the text development, production, and marketing effort. Pam Johnson did an outstanding job as copy editor. Finally, we would like to thank our wives and children for their patience, understanding, love, and assistance irt making this book a reality. It is to them that we dedicate this book. Correspondence with the Authors
We have gone to great lengths to make this text both pedagogically sound and errorfree. If you have any suggestions or material requiring clarification, or should you find potential errors, please contact Terry Sincich at tsincich@coba.usf.edu or David Levine at David_Levine@baruch.cuny.edu. For questions concerning PHStat2, see Appendix E and the PHStat Web site located at www.prenhall.com/phstat.
Table of Contents
Microsoft Excel Primer.
MINITAB Primer.
1. Introduction: Statistics and Data.
What Is Statistics? Types of Data. Descriptive vs. Inferential Statistics. Collecting Data. Random Sampling. Other Types of Samples. Ethical Issues and Other Concerns in Statistical Applications. What Readers Need to Know about Microsoft Excel, the PHStat AddIn, and Minitab for this textbook.
2. Exploring Data with Graphs and Tables.
The Objective of Data Description. Describing a Single Qualitative Variable: Frequency Tables, Bar Graphs and Pie Charts. Describing a Single Qualitative Variable: Frequency Tables, Dot Plots, StemandLeaf Displays and Histograms. Exploring the Relationship between Two Qualitative Variables: CrossClassification Tables and SidebySide Bar Charts. Exploring the Relationship between Two Quantitative Variables: Scatterplots. Proper Graphical Presentation.
3. Exploring Quantitative Data with Numerical Descriptive Measures.
Objectives of Numerical Descriptive Measures. Summation Notation. Measures of Central Tendency: Mean, Median, and Mode. Measures of Variation: Range, Variance, and Standard Deviation. Interpreting the Standard Deviation. Measures of Relative Standing: Percentiles and zscores. Methods for Detecting Outliers. A Measure of Association: Correlation. Numerical Descriptive Measures for Populations.
4. Probability: Basic Concepts.
The Role of Probability in Statistics. Experiments, Events, and The Probability of an Event. Probability Rules for Mutually Exclusive Events. The Combinatorial Rule for Counting Simple Events. Conditional Probability and Independence. The Additive and Multiplicative Laws of Probability.
5. Discrete Probability Distributions.
Random Variables. Probability Models for Discrete Random Variables. The Binomial Probability Distribution. The Poisson Probability Distribution. The Hypergeometric Probability Distribution.
6. Normal Probability Distributions.
Probability Models for Continuous Random Variables. The Normal Probability Distribution. Descriptive Methods for Assessing Normality. The Normal Approximation to the Binomial Distribution. Sampling Distributions. The Sampling Distribution of the Sample Mean and the Central Limit Theorem.
7. Estimation of Population Parameters Using Confidence Intervals: One Sample.
Point Estimators. Estimation of a Population Mean: Normal (z) Statistic. Estimation of a Population Mean: Student's (t) Statistic. Estimation of a Population Proportion. Choosing the Sample Size. Estimation of a Population Variance.
8. Testing Hypotheses about Population Parameters: One Sample.
The Relationship between Hypothesis Tests and Confidence Intervals. HypothesisTesting Methodology: Forming Hypotheses. HypothesisTesting Methodology: Test Statistics and Rejection Regions. Guidelines for Determining the Target Parameter. Testing a Population Mean. Reporting Test Results: pValues. Testing a Population Proportion. Testing a Population Variance. Testing Category Probabilities for a Qualitative Variable. Potential HypothesisTesting Pitfalls and Ethical Issues.
9. Inferences about Population Parameters: Two Samples.
Determining the Target Parameter. Comparing Two Population Means: Independent Samples. Comparing Two Population Means: Matched Pairs. Comparing Two Population Proportions: Independent Samples. Comparing Two Population Proportions: Contingency Tables. Comparing Two Population Variances. A Nonparametric Test for Comparing Two Populations: Independent Samples. A Nonparametric Test for Comparing Two Populations: Matched Pairs.
10. Regression Analysis.
Introduction to Regression Models. The StraightLine Model Simple Linear Regression. Estimating and Interpreting the Model Parameters. Model Assumptions. Measuring Variability around the Least Squares. Inferences about the Slope. Inferences about the Correlation Coefficient. The Coefficient of Determination. Using the Model for Estimation and Prediction. Computations in Simple Linear Regression. Residual Analysis: Checking the Assumptions. Multiple Regression Models. A Nonparametric Test for Rank Correlation. Pitfalls in Regression and Ethical Issues.
11. Analysis of Variance.
Experimental Design. ANOVA Fundamentals. Completely Randomized Designs: OneWay ANOVA. FollowUp Analysis: Multiple Comparisons of Means. Factorial Designs: TwoWay ANOVA. Checking ANOVA Assumptions. A Nonparametric Test for Comparing Populations: Independent Samples.
Appendix A: Review of Arithmetic and Algebra.
Appendix B: Statistical Tables.
Appendix C: Documentation for CDROM Data Files.
Appendix D: Microsoft Excel Configuration and Customization.
Appendix E: More about Phstat2.
Preface
In our many years of teaching introductory statistics courses at the University of South Florida and Baruch College, we have continually searched for ways to improve the teaching of these courses. Our vision for teaching these introductory statistics courses has been shaped by active participation in a series of professional conferences as well as the reality of serving a diverse group of students at a large university. Over the years, our vision has come to include these principles:
This philosophy led us to develop Practical Statistics by Example Using Microsoft^{®} Excel and MINITAB^{®}. Designed as an introductory text in statistics for students with a background in college algebra, our text contains the following features that distinguish it from the many other statistics texts available.
"By Example" Introduction of ConceptsEach new idea is introduced and illustrated by real databased examples taken from a wide variety of disciplines and sources. These examples demonstrate how to solve various types of statistical problems encountered in the real world. We believe that students better understand definitions, generalizations, and concepts after seeing a real application. Each example is set off for easy identification and contains a full, detailed solution to the problem.
H3>Microsoft Excel and MINITAB as Tools for Statistical AnalysisThe spreadsheet application Microsoft Excel and the statistical software MINITAB are integrated throughout the entire text. Many texts published and revised in the past twenty years have incorporated the use of popular statistical software packages such as SAS, SPSS, and MINITAB. Few, however, have successfully integrated Excel. With the increasing functionality and power of worksheet applications, virtually all kinds of statistical analyses taught in the introductory course can now be supported by Excel and the statistics addin provided with this text (PHStat2). In addition to its possible use in a statistics course, students Emphasis on Critical Thinking and Interpretation of Computer Output
Both Excel and MINITABgenerated graphs and output accompany every statistical technique presented, allowing instructors to focus on the statistical analysis of data and the interpretation of the results rather than the calculations required to obtain the results. Free from memorizing formulas and performing hand calculations, students are encouraged to develop critical thinking skills that will allow them to realize greater success in the workplace. Examples on hand calculations are provided for those instructors who desire flexibility in teaching the course.
Tutorials on Using Microsoft Excel and MINITABFor the novice, The Excel Primer provides basic instruction on using Windows and Microsoft Excel and The MINITAB Primer provides basic instruction on using MINITAB. Excel and MINITAB Tutorials appear at the end of pertinent chapters and give stepbystep instructions and screen shots for using the applications to perform the statistical techniques presented in the chapter.
All data sets that are stored in the Excel and MINITAB directories on the CD that accompanies the text are identified with a CDROM icon and the name is provided.
Statistics AddIn for Microsoft Excel: PHStatThe CDROM that accompanies the text also includes PHStat2, the latest version of PHStat, Prentice Hall's statistical addin for Microsoft Excel for Windows. PHStat2 minimizes the work associated with setting up statistical solutions in Microsoft Excel by automating the creation of worksheets and charts. PHStat2, in combination with Excels Data Analysis Too1PAK addin and table and chart wizards, allows users to perform statistical analyses on virtually all topics covered in an introductory statistics course. (Compared to its predecessor, PHStat2 contains a number of new or enhanced procedures and now includes a full help system for easy reference. For more information about PHStat2, see Appendix E.)
"Statistics in the Real World" Application in Each ChapterEach chapter opens with a realworld application and data set to motivate the material presented in the chapter and to provide a reallife context for learning statistics. The "Statistics in the Real World" problem is revisited throughout the chapter in relevant sections. At the end of each of these sections, the data set is analyzed using the method presented in the section and relevant conclusions are drawn from the analysis.
BuiltIn Study GuideThe following features are incorporated throughout the text to help students learn and retain new ideas:
This text includes all the topics covered in a basic introductory statistics course, including data collection (Chapter 1), descriptive statistics (Chapters 2 and 3), probability and probability distributions (Chapters 4  6), confidence intervals (Chapters 7 and 9), hypothesis tests (Chapters 8 and 9), regression (Chapter 10), and analysis of variance (Chapter 11). A minimal amount of probability is presented, allowing more time for instructors to teach statistical inference (Chapters 711). Unique to this introductory text is a section on proper graphical presentation (Section 2.6), which promotes E. R. Tufte's principles of graphical excellence.
New to This EditionThe second edition of Practical Statistics by Example Using Microsoft^{®} Excel and MINITAB^{®} includes a number of additions and enhancements:
Each element in the package has been accuracychecked to ensure clarity, adherence to the approaches presented in the main text, and freedom from computational, typographical, and statistical errors.
Instructor's Solutions Manual
(by Mark Dummeldinger) (ISBN 0130415871). Complete solutions to all evennumbered problems are provided in this manual. Manual solutions are most frequently provided for the "Using the Tools" problems while a combination of hand and Excel solutions are presented for the "Applying the Concepts" problems. Solutions are also provided for the Statistics in the Real World application that begins each chapter. Solutions to the oddnumbered problems are found in the Student's Solutions Manual.
Test Bank
(by Tom Bratcher) (ISBN 0130415804). The Test Bank offers a full complement of more than 1,000 additional problems that correlate to exercises presented in the text. Microsoft Word^{™} files for this Test Bank are available from the publisher.
TestGen EQ Computerized Test Bank
(ISBN 0130415863)
Data Files
Data files for most problems and for the Statistics in the Real World applications are contained on the CDROM that is packaged with each copy of the text. When a given data set is referenced, a disk icon with the file name will appear in the text near the exercise. The data files may also be downloaded from the World Wide Web.
Companion Web Site:
Supplements Available for Purchase by StudentsThe Companion Web site provides selfscoring quizzes, an online syllabus maker, technology projects, and data files for the textbook.
Student's Solutions Manual
Acknowldegements(by Mark Dummeldinger) (ISBN 0130415928). Fully worked out solutions to all of the oddnumbered problems are provided in this manual. Careful attention has been paid to ensure that all methods of solution and notation are consistent with those used in the core text.
We are extremely grateful to the following reviewers who provided excellent suggestions for revising the text: Julia Hassett, Oakton Community College; Patty Monroe, Greenville Technical College; Robert L. Raymond, University of St. Thomas; Shannon Schumann, University of Colorado at Colorado Springs; and Judy Eng Woo, Bellevue Community College. In addition we would like to thank the Biometrika Trustees, American Cyanamid Company, Annals of Mathematical Statistics, and the Chemical Rubber Company for their kind permission to publish various tables in Appendix B.
This book reflects the efforts of a great many people over a number of years. Professor Emeritus William Mendenhall (University of Florida) and publisher Don Dellen (now deceased) were instrumental in developing and shaping earlier editions of Statistics by Example, upon which this text is partially based. Special thanks are due to our ancillary author, Mark Dummeldinger, and his typist Kelly Barber. Phyllis Barnidge and Lynda Kay Steele of Laurel Technical Services have done an excellent job of accuracy checking the manuscript and have helped us to ensure a clean answer appendix and solutions. The Prentice Hall staff of Quincy McDonald, Joanne Wendelken, Angela Battle, Amy Lysik, Linda Behrens, and Alan Fischer, and Elm Street Publishing Services' Martha Beyerlein helped greatly with all phases of the text development, production, and marketing effort. Pam Johnson did an outstanding job as copy editor. Finally, we would like to thank our wives and children for their patience, understanding, love, and assistance irt making this book a reality. It is to them that we dedicate this book.
Correspondence with the AuthorsWe have gone to great lengths to make this text both pedagogically sound and errorfree. If you have any suggestions or material requiring clarification, or should you find potential errors, please contact Terry Sincich at or David Levine at. For questions concerning PHStat2, see Appendix E and the PHStat Web site located at.