Practical Statistics for Educators / Edition 4

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Practical Statistics for Educators, 4th edition focuses on the application of research and statistics as applied specifically to education. Since the first edition came out in 1994, thousand of students in educational statistics courses and their professors have found it to be an excellent textbook. Educational practitioners have also appreciated keeping this book on their reference shelf. Now in its fourth edition, this well-regarded text is a clear and easy-to-follow manual for use in introductory statistics or action research courses. Ruth Ravid concentrates on the essential concepts in educational statistics including when to use various statistical tests and how to interpret the results. Testing and test score interpretation, reliability, and validity are included to help students understand these topics which are essential for practitioners in education. Real-life examples, used generously throughout, are taken from the field of education and presented to illustrate the various concepts and terms. Chapter previews and summaries, as well as a glossary of the main terms and concepts, help readers navigate the book, focus on the most important points, and build upon the knowledge gained from each chapter. New in this edition are updated and improved graphics, revised and enhanced text, and examples. Lengthy appendixes-tables are deleted and their relevant sections are integrated into the chapters. Detailed and complicated computational steps have also been eliminated.

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Editorial Reviews

Linda A. Catelli
Practical Statistics For Educators is a thoughtfully designed text that enables educators to easily understand and apply statistics and research in the field of education. I like the author’s style of writing, flow of information and the way she makes the application of statistics user-friendly! The book reduces course anxiety for anyone who may have a fear of statistics and provides users with a comfort level not found in many of other texts of its kind.
Philip A. Griswold
Concise but thorough treatment of elementary principles. I will use the text for a 2-course research method sequence for masters candidate.
Jan Seiter
Great text with very clear exercises and relevant examples. Very useful in connecting theory with practice.
Dan Tomal
An excellent resource for students and educators learning the application of educational research and statistics. I highly recommend it.
A basic statistics text written explicitly for educators, showing the application of research and statistics to education, and presenting examples of relevance to the field. Annotation c. Book News, Inc., Portland, OR (
Michelle Ann Bakerson
A brilliant gem full of practical, hands-on information ripe for the educational researcher’s data driven decision needs, this book is the perfect balance of abstract theory and practical example intertwined always with the needs of educators in mind. I use this book in my educational research courses, with program evaluation for non-profits and highly recommend it to faculty teaching statistics or action research.
Daniel R. Tomal
A great book for understanding basic statistics and research with practical examples.
I highly recommend this book.
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9781442206557
  • Publisher: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc.
  • Publication date: 10/16/2010
  • Edition description: Fourth Edition
  • Edition number: 4
  • Pages: 232
  • Sales rank: 230,904
  • Product dimensions: 7.00 (w) x 9.90 (h) x 0.80 (d)

Meet the Author

Ruth Ravid is professor emerita of education at National Louis University.

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Table of Contents

List of Statistical Symbols

Part I. Introduction

Chapter 1: An Overview of Educational Research
Basic (Pure), Applied, and Action Research
Quantitative vs. Qualitative Research
Experimental vs. Nonexperimental Research

Chapter 2: Basic Concepts in Statistics
Variables and Measurement Scales
Populations and Samples
Parameters and Statistics
Methods of Sampling
Sample Bias
Size of Sample
Parametric and Nonparametric Statistics
Descriptive and Inferential Statistics
Using Hypotheses in Research
Probability and Level of Significance
Errors in Decision Making
Degrees of Freedom
Effect Size
Using Samples to Estimate Population Values
Steps in the Process of Hypothesis Testing
And Finally...

Part II. Descriptive Statistics

Chapter 3: Organizing and Graphing Data
Organizing Data
Graphing Data
Drawing Accurate Graphs

Chapter 4: Measures of Central Tendency
Comparing the Mode, Median, and Mean

Chapter 5: Measures of Variability
The Range
Standard Deviation and Variance

Part III. The Normal Curve and Standard Scores

Chapter 6: The Normal Curve and Standard Scores
The Normal Curve
Standard Scores

Chapter 7: Interpreting Test Scores
Norm-Referenced Tests
Criterion-Referenced Tests

Part IV. Measuring Relationships

Chapter 8: Correlation
Pearson Product Moment
Factors Affecting the Correlation
The Coefficient of Determination and Effect Size
Intercorrelation Tables
Correlation Tables

Chapter 9: Prediction and Regression
Simple Regression
Multiple Regression

Part V. Inferential Statistics

Chapter 10: t test
Hypotheses for t Tests
Independent-Samples t Test
An Example of a t Test for Independent Samples t Test for Paired Samples
An Example of a t Test for Paired Samples t Test for a Single Sample
An Example of a t Test for a Single Sample

Chapter 11: Analysis of Variance
Conceptualizing the One-Way ANOVA
Hypotheses for a One-Way ANOVA
The ANOVA Summary Table
Further Interpretation of the F Ratio
An Example of a One-Way ANOVA
Post Hoc Comparisons
Conceptualizing the Two-Way ANOVA
Hypotheses for the Two-Way ANOVA
Graphing the Interaction
The Two-Way ANOVA Summary Table
An Example of a Two-Way ANOVA

Chapter 12: Chi Square Test
Assumptions for the Chi Square Test
The Chi Square Test of Independence

Part VI. Reliability and Validity

Chapter 13: Reliability
Understanding the Theory of Reliability
Methods of Assessing Reliability
The Standard Error of Measurement
Factors Affecting Reliability
How High Should the Reliability Be?

Chapter 14: Validity
Content Validity
Criterion-Related Validity
Concurrent Validity
Predictive Validity
Construct Validity
Face Validity
Assessing Validity
Test Bias

Part Seven: Conducting Your Own Research
Chapter 15: Planning and Conducting Research Studies
Research Ethics
The Research Proposal
Literature Review
The Research Report

Chapter 16: Choosing the Right Statistical Test
Choosing a Statistical Test: A Decision Flowchart


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