PRAXIS I (Exam Cram Series)
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PRAXIS I (Exam Cram Series)

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by Diana Huggins

You have decided that you want to be teacher, but before you can begin giving the exams, you need to pass one or two of your own - Praxis I and II. The Praxis I and II Exam Cram is a concise study guide for these two exams. The book focuses on only what you need to know to pass the exam and doesn't force you to spend your time reading about things you already


You have decided that you want to be teacher, but before you can begin giving the exams, you need to pass one or two of your own - Praxis I and II. The Praxis I and II Exam Cram is a concise study guide for these two exams. The book focuses on only what you need to know to pass the exam and doesn't force you to spend your time reading about things you already know. The guide is packed with test taking strategies, tips, tricks and practical knowledge to help you learn and remember the information. A CD is also included that features an innovative test engine that provides multiple test modes, random question and answer order and explanations of all answers, right or wrong. Whether you have to take only one or both of these exams, Praxis I and II Exam Cram is an effective study tool that will help you pass the exam the first time.

Product Details

Pearson Education
Publication date:
Exam Cram 2 Series
Product dimensions:
6.08(w) x 8.94(h) x 0.83(d)

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Read an Excerpt

PRAXIS Exam CramPRAXIS Exam CramIntroduction

This introduction provides you with some general information about the layout of this book and what you can expect to find in an Exam Cram. This is followed by a brief overview of the chapter content and basic test information such as question format, number of questions, and passing score, as well as recommendations for preparing for and taking the exam.About This Book

The chapters in this book have been structured around the exam objectives developed by Educational Testing Services (ETS). This ensures you are familiar with the content that you'll encounter on the PRAXIS Pre-Professional Skills Test (PPST) and Principles of Learning and Teaching (PLT) exams.

I recommend that you work through the book from start to finish for your initial reading. After you've read the book, you can brush up on a certain area by using the Index or the Table of Contents to go straight to the topics and questions you want to re-examine. I've tried to use the headings and subheadings to provide outline information about each given topic. After you've completed the PRAXIS I exam, I think you'll also find this book useful as a study resource for the PRAXIS II exam.Who This Book Is For

This book has been written as a study resource for the PRAXIS I and PRAXIS II exams. It is intended for those individuals who are currently completing or have already completed their college training and are now preparing to take the PRAXIS I and/or PRAXIS II exams. The book assumes that the reader has some background knowledge in high-school level math, reading, and writing.Chapter Formats

Each chapterof Exam Cram follows a regular structure, along with graphical cues about especially important or useful material. The structure of a typical chapter is as follows:

  • Opening hotlists—Each chapter begins with lists of the terms you'll need to understand and the concepts you'll need to master before you can be fully conversant with the chapter's subject matter. I follow the hotlists with a few introductory paragraphs, setting the stage for the rest of the chapter.

  • Topical coverage—After the opening hotlists, each chapter covers the topics related to the chapter's subject.

  • Exam Alerts—Throughout the topical coverage section, I highlight material most likely to appear on the exam by using a special Exam Alert element that looks like this:

    Caution - An Exam Alert stresses concepts, terms, or any other bit of information that will most likely appear in one or more exam questions. For that reason, I think any information that's offset in Exam Alert format is worthy of unusual attentiveness on your part.

    Even if material isn't flagged as an Exam Alert, all the content in this book is associated in some way with test-related material. What appears in the chapter content is critical knowledge.

  • Notes—This book is an overall examination of the different content areas on the exam. As such, I'll dip into many different aspects of reading, writing, and mathematics. Where a body of knowledge is deeper than the scope of the book, I use notes to indicate areas of concern or specialty training.

    Note - Cramming for an exam will get you through a test, but it won't make you a competent professional. Although you can memorize just the facts you need in order to pass an exam, your daily work in the field will rapidly put you in water over your head if you don't know the underlying principles in a specific content area.

  • Tips—I provide tips that will help you to build a better foundation of knowledge or to focus your attention on an important concept that will reappear later in the book. Tips are helpful ways to remind you of the context surrounding a particular area of a topic under discussion.

    Tip - You should also read the section in the beginning of the book titled "Self-Assessment." The information contained in this section will help you to determine your readiness to challenge the PRAXIS I exam.

  • Exam Prep Questions—This section presents a short list of test questions related to the specific chapter topic. Each question is followed by an explanation of both correct and incorrect answers. The practice questions highlight the areas I found to be most important on the exam.

  • "Need to Know More?" Section—Each chapter ends with a listing of additional resources offering more details about the chapter topics.

The bulk of the book follows this chapter structure, but there are a few other elements that should be pointed out:

  • Practice Exams—The practice exams, which appear in Chapters 8, 10, and 12 (with answer keys in Chapters 9, 11, and 13), are very close approximations of the types of questions you are likely to see on the PRAXIS I exam.

  • Answer

    Keys—These provide the answers to the practice exams, com- plete with explanations of both the correct responses and the incorrect responses.

  • Glossary—This is an extensive glossary of important terms used in this book.

  • The Cram Sheet—This appears as a tear-away sheet inside the front cover of this Exam Cram book. It is a valuable tool that represents a collection of the most difficult-to-remember facts and numbers I think you should memorize before taking the test. Remember, you can dump this information out of your head onto a piece of paper as soon as you enter the testing room. These are usually facts that I've found require brute-force memorization.

    You might want to look at the Cram Sheet in your car or just before you walk in to take your exam. The Cram Sheet is divided into sections, so you can review the appropriate parts just before each test.

Test Information

The PRAXIS I Pre-Professional Skills Test (PPST) is designed to measure your knowledge and understanding in three different content areas: reading, writing, and mathematics. You must pass the PRAXIS I exam to demonstrate basic competency in these three content areas. The exam is also broken into different sections based on these content areas. The three content areas are outlined in the following list:

  • Reading—This portion of the PRAXIS I exam will test your ability to understand and evaluate written passages. The questions will vary in difficulty with some including passages with 200 words and others with only a few sentences.

  • Writing—The questions covering this content area are designed to test your basic knowledge of grammar and sentence structure. The writing portion of the exam is broken down into two sections: multiple-choice questions and an essay question.

  • Math—The mathematics section of the PRAXIS I will measure your knowledge of basic math skills and concepts. Along with focusing on basic math skills, the questions will also test your ability to reason and problem-solve.

PRAXIS Written Test Versus PRAXIS Computer Test

The PRAXIS I exam is available in two different formats: a paper-based exam or a computer-based exam. Both exam formats cover the same content areas and include the same types of questions. The main difference between the two exam formats is the number of questions and the time allocated to answer the given number of questions. Table I.1 outlines the number of questions that will appear on the two different exams.Table I.1 Written and Computer Exam Questions


PRAXIS Written

PRAXIS Computer


40 questions/60 minutes

46 questions/75 minutes


45 questions/60 minutes

51 questions/45 minutes


1 essay/30 minutes

1 essay/30 minutes


40 questions/60 minutes

46 questions/75 minutes

Registering for the Exam

As you already know, there are two different versions of the PRAXIS I exam. When you determine which exam format you prefer, you can register for the exam.Registering for the PRAXIS Written Exam

The PRAXIS I exam can be taken at specific times throughout the year. You can view the current dates when the exam is being offered at the following URL:

After you've decided on a date to take the exam, your next step will be to register for the exam or one of its components. Remember that you do not need to take all the components of the PRAXIS I exam at the same time. You can register for just a specific component if that's what you prefer. You can register for the exam in three different ways. You can do so by phone at the following numbers:

  • Within the U.S., U.S. Territories, and Canada call 1-800-772-9476.

  • For all other locations, call 1-609-771-7395.

You can register for the exam online at the following URL: If you choose, you can also register for the exam by mail. You must obtain a printed copy of the Registration Bulletin and return it to the address on the preaddressed envelope that is included with the registration information.Registering for the PRAXIS Computer-Based Test

The process for registering for the PRAXIS I computer-based test is slightly different. You can register for the computerized version by calling a testing center near you or by calling Candidate Services at Prometric at 1-800-853-6773.How to Prepare for the Exam

Preparing for most exams requires that you obtain and study materials designed to provide comprehensive information about the specific exam for which you are preparing. The following list of materials can help you study and prepare:

  • The Educational Learning Services Web site (—This site provides comprehensive information about the PRAXIS I exam, including what you should know for each exam and specific exam details such as the number of questions and time alotted.

  •—You can find exam-preparation advice, practice tests, questions of the day, and discussion groups on the Exam Cram e-learning and certification destination Web site, at

  • Preparation programs—Many organizations offer preparation programs. These would entail more formal instructor-led training.

  • Other publications—There's no shortage of materials available covering the content on the PRAXIS I exam. The "Need to Know More?" resource sections at the end of each chapter in this book give you an idea of where I think you should look for further discussion.

This set of required and recommended materials represents an unparalleled collection of sources and resources for the PRAXIS I exam. I hope you'll find that this book belongs in this company.What This Book Will Not Do

This book will not teach you everything you need to know about mathematics or the English language, or even about a given topic. This book will review what you need to know before you take the test, with the fundamental purpose dedicated to reviewing the information covered on the PRAXIS I and PRAXIS II exams.

This book uses a variety of teaching and memorization techniques that will help you analyze exam-related topics and provide you with ways to input, index, and retrieve everything you'll need to know to pass the test.What This Book Is Designed to Do

This book will discuss the areas of knowledge upon which you will be tested. In other words, you may want to read the book one time just to get an insight into how comprehensive your knowledge of the various topics is. Then, as you find weak areas in your content knowledge, you will need to seek out more information on those topics from college textbooks, friends, teachers, or any other source that you deem trustworthy. The book is also designed to be read shortly before you go for the actual test and to give you a distillation of the important information as a last-minute "brush-up." I think you can use this book to get a sense of the underlying context of any topic in the chapters or to skim-read for Exam Alerts, bulleted points, summaries, and topic headings as part of this brush-up.Study Tips

It's every candidate's goal to succeed on any exam the first time around. Of course, being well prepared and ensuring you're familiar with all the objectives for each of the domains increases your chances of success. However, don't be discouraged if you don't succeed the first time. Sometimes, just being in an exam situation is enough to throw off your train of thought. If you don't pass the first time, think positively, as you'll know exactly what to expect the second time around.

Good study habits get you one step closer to achieving success on any exam. I suggest that as you begin studying for the PRAXIS I and PRAXIS II exams, you take a close look at the objectives for each of the content areas. These objectives provide an excellent starting point for determining what topics you need to study. You can obtain the objectives for each content area from the Educational Testing Services website at

A number of resources are available that you can use to prepare for the PRAXIS exams. As already mentioned, preparation programs provide one method. Although it can cost several hundred dollars, instructor-led training is a valuable exam preparation tool. Alternatives to classroom instructor-led training are computer-based training and web-based training. The nice things about computer-based and web-based training are the affordability and flexibility they offer.

Several publishers offer PRAXIS I and PRAXIS II study guides. Some of the guides are geared toward a higher level of knowledge, teaching you everything you need to know. Others provide you with the information you absolutely need to know to pass the exam. I recommend that if you're studying for the exam on your own, you begin with a complete study guide and work through it from start to finish, and then finish with a book that points out the "need-to-know" information for the exam. Que's Exam Cram 2 does an excellent job of distilling all the information that you must know for exam success.

Practice exams are a wonderful way to test your knowledge after you've studied all the required material. A lot of study guides include practice exams designed to mimic the questions you're likely to encounter on the actual exams. There are also an abundance of Web sites that offer PRAXIS I and PRAXIS II practice exams, some of which are free and others that must be purchased. The one tip I have when using sites that offer free practice questions is to be wary of the answers. I have often encountered questions where the stated correct answer is actually incorrect.

In any case, when you are taking the practice exams, pay close attention to the answers as well. For any questions you answer incorrectly, use the explanations to understand where you went wrong and why the correct answer is indeed correct. Be sure to review study materials pertaining to the questions you answered incorrectly before taking the real exams.Test-Taking Tips

Obviously, the most important tip is to make sure you are fully prepared for the exam by using some of the study tips outlined in the preceding section. Aside from that, there are a few other tips and tricks you can use to increase your chances of performing well on the exams.

Before you begin the exam, make sure you know how much time you have to complete all the questions. You can then average how much time you can spend on each question. Of course, you may need to spend more time on some questions than others. It's generally a good idea to do a quick clock check every few questions to ensure you aren't running behind. A general rule of thumb is to plan to spend approximately one minute on each question.

The majority of test questions are multiple choice in format, so you will be presented with a minimum of four answers from which to choose. You can usually eliminate one or more of the answers immediately as being incorrect. From there, you can use your knowledge about the topic to begin eliminating the remaining answers. If you are unsure of the correct answer, try reading the question over.

Don't be surprised if you encounter an exam question for which you cannot determine the correct answer. It often happens to those of us who have fully prepared for an exam and have thoroughly studied all the necessary topics. In such cases, do not leave the question unanswered. Why? An unanswered question becomes a wrong answer. Therefore, when all else fails, a guess at least gives you a chance of answering it correctly.

In some cases, you might be able to narrow the correct answer down to two choices. Then, carefully reread the question. Sometimes one word can throw you off.

Some of the best advice ever given in such situations is to always go with your first instinct. When in doubt, always go with the answer that first jumped out at you as being correct.

© Copyright Pearson Education. All rights reserved.

Meet the Author

PRAXIS Exam CramAbout the Author

Diana Huggins has spent several years working in the field of education. After completing her Bachelor of Education degree, she began her career as an elementary school teacher and then moved into adult education. As an adult educator, she was responsible for overseeing adult learning programs, spent some time on courseware development for the Department of Education, and she also continued to spend time teaching in the classroom.


is currently an independent contractor providing both writing and consulting services. Prior to this, she worked as a senior systems consultant. Some of the projects she worked on included a security review of Microsoft's official curriculum and content development for private companies, as well as network infrastructure design and implementation projects.

Although she switched to the Information Technology industry, Diana has never given up her love of educating. She has been able to combine the two passions, and over the past few years has been writing certification study guides. To complement her efforts, she also spends a portion of her time consulting for small- to medium-sized companies in a variety of areas. She continues to work as an independent technical trainer and a substitute teacher.

Along with a Bachelor of Education degree, Diana holds several Information Technology certifications. She currently has her Microsoft Certified Systems Engineer (MCSE) and Microsoft Certified Trainer (MCT), along with several other certifications from different vendors. Diana also runs her own company, DKB Consulting Services. The main focus of the company is on developing certification training coursewareand online practice exams, as well as content delivery.

© Copyright Pearson Education. All rights reserved.

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PRAXIS I (Exam Cram Series) 4 out of 5 based on 0 ratings. 4 reviews.
Anonymous More than 1 year ago
Trout More than 1 year ago
I used the Exam Cram: Praxis 1 and passed the test. I used another book at the end, but this was the book that I primarily used. It was helpful and got me to focus on my basics. I am keeping the book, rather than selling it because it did such an excellent job going over the basics of math, grammar, and reading. I wouldn't say it covered everything in the test regarding math, but most of it.
aynek26 More than 1 year ago
Just wanted to commend the condition of this exam book that I just received WOW. For it to be a used book it was in fantastic freaking condition. Will definitely be ordering books in the future new and used from your website.
Guest More than 1 year ago
This book is excellent!! I used it (in addition to other resources) to review for the Praxis I and passed all three exams on the first try!! The content review areas are well written with minimal mistakes. Each review area is throughly explained,as well as the answers to the practice tests. The tear out cram sheet is an asset to this book!!