Read an Excerpt
Passing the PRAXIS PLT Tests
This book is designed to help you prepare to take any of the four PRAXIS II: Principles of Learning and Teaching (PLT) tests and secure your teaching license. These tests include the following:
• Principles of Learning and Teaching: Early Childhood (Test codes 0621/5621)
• Principles of Learning and Teaching: Grades K–6 (Test codes 0622/5622)
• Principles of Learning and Teaching: Grades 5–9 (Test codes 0623/5623)
• Principles of Learning and Teaching: Grades 7–12 (Test codes 0624/5624)
Although the four tests cover the same basic topics and concepts, each test is unique in the grade range and developmental level reflected in its cases and scenarios. You will also be measured on the common pedagogical knowledge assessed by all four tests.
As you near your goal of securing certification as a teacher, we know that targeted preparation for your PLT test is very important to you. Our book and the online tools that come with it give you everything you need to succeed on your exam.
Our PRAXIS II: PLT Book + Online Prep package includes:
• Complete overview of the four PLT tests
• Comprehensive review of all content categories and topics for each test
• 8 full-length practice tests (4 in the book and 4 online), with powerful diagnostic tools to pinpoint exactly what you need to study
• Detailed answer explanations that not only identify correct answers, but also explain why the other answer choices are incorrect
How to Use this Book + Online Prep
About the Review
The targeted review in this book is designed to help you sharpen your command of pedagogical skills and professional knowledge so you can succeed on the Praxis PLT test of your choice. Whether you’re a recent graduate of a traditional teacher education program or you’ve gone the alternate route, our review will reinforce what you’ve learned and show you how to relate the information you have acquired to the specific topics covered on the exam.
Our review chapters are structured according to the official PLT test outline. Each chapter includes must-know theories, terminology, and practical classroom examples.
About the REA Study Center
We know your time is valuable and you want an efficient study experience. At the online REA Study Center (www.rea.com/studycenter), you will get feedback right from the start on what you know and what you don’t know to help make the most of your study time.
Here’s what you’ll find at the REA Study Center:
• 4 Full-Length Practice Tests—These practice tests (1 test for each of the PLT exams) give you the most complete picture of your strengths and weaknesses.
After you’ve studied with the book, test what you’ve learned by taking our online practice exams. Review your score report, then go back and study any topics you missed. This will ensure you’ve mastered the material and are ready for test day.
Each online test comes with:
• Automatic Scoring—Find out how you did on your test, instantly.
• Diagnostic Score Reports—Get a specific score on each section of the test, so you can focus on the areas that challenge you the most.
• Detailed Answer Explanations—See why the correct answer is right, and why the other answer choices are incorrect.
• Timed Testing—Learn to manage your time as you practice, so you’ll feel confident on test day.
About the Praxis Series
PRAXIS is the shorthand used by Educational Testing Service (ETS) for Professional Assessments for Beginning Teachers. The PRAXIS Series is a group of teacher-licensing tests that ETS developed in concert with states across the nation. There are three categories of tests in the series: PRAXIS I, PRAXIS II, and PRAXIS III.
PRAXIS I includes the new Core Academic Skills for Educators (CORE) test. The CORE test measures reading, mathematics, and writing skills. The CORE is often a requirement for admission to a teacher education program.
PRAXIS II focuses on Subject Assessment/Specialty Area Tests, including the Principles of Learning and Teaching series. In most teacher-training programs, students take these tests after having completed their classroom training, course work, and practicum.
PRAXIS III requires ETS-trained observers to evaluate an instructor’s performance in the classroom, using nationally-validated criteria.
Who Takes the Test?
Most people who take one of the PLT exams are seeking initial licensure. Check with your state’s education agency to determine which PRAXIS test or tests you should take. You may also find the ETS PRAXIS website (www.ets.org/praxis/) and registration bulletin to be helpful in determining the tests you need to take for certification. You should check individual state requirements either online or through your college’s administrative office. In addition, be sure to consult your education program for its own test requirements.
Colleges and universities often require PRAXIS tests for entry into programs, for graduation, and for the completion of a teacher certification program. These requirements may differ from the baseline requirements the state has for teacher certification. You will need to meet both sets of requirements.
When and Where Is the Test Offered?
ETS offers the PLT exams throughout the year at a number of locations across the nation. The usual testing day is Saturday, but examinees may request an administration on an alternate day if a conflict exists. Check the ETS PRAXIS Series website for available test dates and registration deadlines.
How Do I Get More Information on the PRAXIS Exams?
To receive information on upcoming administrations of the PLT test or any other PRAXIS test, consult the ETS registration bulletin or website. Contact ETS at:
Educational Testing Service
Teaching and Learning Division
P.O. Box 6051
Princeton, NJ 08541-6051
Phone: (609) 771-7395
E-mail: www.ets.org/praxis/contact//email_praxis (use the online form)
You can also contact ETS to learn more about test sites; registration fees; reporting test scores; requesting changes in tests, centers, and dates of test; retaking tests; and other valuable information.
Accommodations for Students with Disabilities
Special accommodations are available for test-takers who meet the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) requirements. This includes the visually impaired, hearing impaired, physically disabled, or specific learning disabled. To request a special accommodation for a disability or health-related need, the test-taker must register by mail. For questions concerning disability services, contact:
ETS Disability Services: (609) 771-7780
TTY only: (609) 771-7714
Provisions are also available for examinees whose primary language is not English. The ETS registration bulletin and website include directions for those requesting such accommodations.
Paper-Delivered vs. Computer-Delivered Testing
The PLT exams are offered in both paper-delivered and computer-delivered formats. No matter what the delivery system, the tests are identical in content. Minimal computer and typing skills are required to complete the computer-delivered tests.
Check the ETS PRAXIS website for dates and locations regarding paper-delivered tests and computer-delivered tests. A “Computer-Delivered Testing Demonstration” is also available at the website.
When Will I Receive My Score Report?
Please check the ETS PRAXIS website at www.ets.org/praxis for score-release dates. Computerized testing allows for access to your scores by phone or on the web. Score reports will indicate the following:
• Your score and whether you passed
• The range of possible scores
• The raw points available in each content category
• Your Recognition of Excellence (ROE) Award status, if applicable
• Your highest score in the last 10 years on the same test, if applicable
Along with your score report, ETS will provide you with a booklet that offers details on your scores. For each test date, you may request that ETS send a copy of your scores to as many as three score recipients, provided that each institution or agency you list is eligible to receive the scores. A score-verification service is also available for a fee.
Studying for the Test
When Should I Start Studying?
It is never too early to start studying for your PLT exam. The earlier you begin, the more time you will have to sharpen your skills and focus your efforts. Do not procrastinate. Cramming is not an effective way to study, since it does not allow you enough time to learn the test material. Work out a study routine and stick to it. Reviewing your class notes and textbooks along with our book will provide you with an even better foundation for passing this exam.
Although our study plan is designed to be used in the six weeks before your exam, if necessary, it can be condensed to three weeks by combining each two-week period into one. Be sure to set aside enough time—at least two hours each day—to study. The more time you spend studying, the more prepared and relaxed you will feel on the day of the exam.
When you take the online practice tests at the REA Study Center, simulate the conditions of the test as closely as possible. Turn your television and radio off, and sit down at a quiet table free from distraction.
As you complete each test, review your score reports, study the diagnostic feedback, and review the explanations to the questions you answered incorrectly. Concentrate on one problem area at a time by reading the question and explanation, and by studying our review until you are confident that you have mastered the material. Give extra attention to the review chapters that cover your areas of difficulty, as this will build your skills in those areas.
Test Day Preparation
As test day draws near, here are a few things to keep in mind so that you’ll be prepared. Check your registration information to find out what time to arrive at the testing center. Make sure you arrive early. This will allow you to collect your thoughts and relax before the test, and will also spare you the anguish that comes with being late. (If you arrive late, you might not be admitted to the test center.) Check your admission ticket 24 hours before the test in case there is a change. If there is a change, you will have to print out a new ticket.
Before you leave for the test center, make sure you have your admission ticket and two forms of identification, one of which must contain a recent and recognizable photograph, your name, and signature (e.g., a driver’s license). All documents must be originals (no copies). You will not be admitted to the test center and you will forfeit your test fees if you do not have proper identification.
Dress comfortably, so you are not distracted by being too hot or too cold while taking the test. You may wear a watch to the test center. However, you may not wear one that makes noise, because it may disturb the other test-takers. Do not bring cell phones, smartphones, or other electronic, listening, recording, or photographic devices into the test center. Food and drink, dictionaries, textbooks, notebooks, calculators, briefcases, or packages are also not permitted. If you bring these devices into the test center, you will be dismissed from the test, your fee will be forfeited, and your test scores will be canceled.
Procedures will be followed to maintain test security. Once you enter the test center, follow all of the rules and instructions given by the test supervisor. If you do not, you risk being dismissed from the test and having your scores canceled.
When you finish your test, hand in your materials and you will be dismissed. Then, go home and relax—you deserve it!
Good luck on your PLT test!