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Praxis II Social Studies Content Knowledge (0081) W/CD-ROM [With CDROM]


REA’s PRAXIS II: Social Studies (0081) Test Prep with TestWare CD

Gets You Certified and in the Classroom!

Updated Second Edition!

Nationwide, more than 5 million teachers will be needed over the next decade, and all must take appropriate tests to be licensed. REA gets you ready for your teaching career with our outstanding library of ...

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REA’s PRAXIS II: Social Studies (0081) Test Prep with TestWare CD

Gets You Certified and in the Classroom!

Updated Second Edition!

Nationwide, more than 5 million teachers will be needed over the next decade, and all must take appropriate tests to be licensed. REA gets you ready for your teaching career with our outstanding library of Teacher Certification test preps!

Scoring well on the PRAXIS II Social Studies (0081) test doesn’t just help you get certified to teach, it helps you build your career.

Our popular PRAXIS II test prep was designed to help you master the information on the Social Studies exam. This test prep is perfect for college students, teachers, and career-changing professionals who are seeking certification as teachers of secondary Social Studies.

Written by a teaching expert, our comprehensive review chapters cover all the social studies topics tested on the exam, including: U.S. history, world history, government/civics/political science, geography, economics, and behavioral sciences.

Two full-length, multiple-choice practice tests in the book simulate the actual PRAXIS exam. Each practice test is balanced to include every type of question, subject area, and skill tested on the Social Studies exam. Our practice tests replicate the PRAXIS question format, allowing you to assess your skills and gauge your test-readiness.

This TestWare edition features both of the book’s practice tests on CD in a timed format with instant scoring, diagnostic feedback, and on-screen detailed explanations of answers. Our TestWare CD offers the most powerful scoring and diagnostic tools available today. Automatic scoring and instant reports help you zero in on the topics and types of questions that give you trouble now, so you’ll succeed when it counts!

Every practice exam comes with detailed feedback on every question. We don’t just say which answers are right—we explain why the other answer choices are wrong—so you’ll be prepared on test day. Our detailed explanations of answers help you identify your strengths and weaknesses while building your skills. This complete test prep package comes with a customized study schedule and REA’s test-taking strategies and tips.

This test prep is a must-have for teacher certification candidates across the country!

REA books and software have proven to be the extra support teacher candidates need to pass their challenging tests for licensure. Our comprehensive test preps are teacher-recommended and written by experts in the field.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780738609553
  • Publisher: Research & Education Association
  • Publication date: 7/8/2011
  • Series: PRAXIS Teacher Certification Test Prep
  • Edition description: Second
  • Edition number: 2
  • Pages: 528
  • Sales rank: 407,276
  • Product dimensions: 8.30 (w) x 10.80 (h) x 1.50 (d)

Meet the Author

Jeanne M. Bowlan teaches social studies at the Upper Academy in Elizabeth, New Jersey. Ms. Bowlan earned her B.A. from Wells College and her M.A. in History from Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey. In her high school teaching career, Ms. Bowlan has taught Advanced Placement European History, United States History, Sociology, and Anthropology. Ms. Bowlan has also taught college courses in European History, Women’s Studies, and Writing.
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Read an Excerpt


If you’re looking to secure certification as a secondary social studies teacher, many states and districts require the Praxis II Social Studies: Content Knowledge 0081 test (Praxis II 0081). Think of this book and the accompanying TestWare as your toolkit to pass the test. It will help take the mystery and anxiety out of the testing process by equipping you not only with the nuts and bolts, but also, ultimately, with the confidence to succeed alongside your peers across the United States.

We at REA have put a lot of thought into this, and the result is a book that pulls together all the critical information you need to know to pass the test. Let us help you fill in the blanks—literally and figuratively! We will provide you with the touchstones that will allow you to do your very best come test day and beyond. In this guide, REA offers our customary in-depth, up-to-date, objective coverage, with test-specific modules devoted to targeted review and realistic practice exams, in printed form and on the enclosed TestWare on CD-ROM, complete with the kind of detail that makes a difference when you’re coming down the homestretch in your preparation. We also include a quick-view answer key and competency-categorized progress chart to enable you to pinpoint your strengths and weaknesses. We strongly recommend that you begin your preparation with the TestWare tests, which provide timed conditions and instantaneous, accurate scoring.


Praxis is Educational Testing Service’s (ETS) shorthand for Professional Assessments for Beginning Teachers. The Praxis Series is a group of teacher-certification and licensing tests that ETS developed in concert with states across the nation. There are three categories of tests in the series: Praxis I, Praxis II, and Praxis III. Praxis I includes the paper-based Pre-Professional Skills Tests (PPST) and the Praxis I Computer-Based Tests (CBT). Both versions cover essentially the same subject matter. These exams measure basic reading, mathematics, and writing skills and are often a requirement for admission to a teacher education program.

Praxis II embraces Subject Assessment/Specialty Area Tests, of which the Praxis II Social Studies: Content Knowledge 0081 is a part. Most Praxis II examinations cover the subject matter that students typically study in teacher education courses such as language acquisition, school curriculum, methods of teaching, and other professional development courses. However, the Praxis II 0081 is expressly for prospective and practicing social studies teachers; it measures skills and knowledge in the areas of U.S. History, World History, Government/Civics/Political Science, Geography, Economics, and the additional behavioral sciences of Anthropology, Sociology, and Psychology.

Praxis III is different from the multiple-choice and essay tests typically used for assessment purposes. With this assessment, ETS-trained observers evaluate an instructor’s performance in the classroom, using nationally validated criteria. The observers may videotape the lesson, and other teaching experts may critique the resulting tapes.

Who Takes the Test?
Most people who take the Praxis II Social Studies: Content Knowledge are seeking initial certification. Thirty-five states require the Praxis II 0081 and you should check with your state’s education agency to determine which Praxis examination(s) you should take; the ETS Praxis website ( and registration bulletin may also help you determine the tests you need for licensure.

When and Where Can I Take the Test?
ETS offers the Praxis II Social Studies: Content Knowledge test three times a year, usually mid-month in March, June, and November. Pre-registration is required for this test, so contact your district’s administrative office for exact availability in your area.

How Do I Get More Information on the ETS Praxis Exams?

To receive information on upcoming administrations of any of the Praxis II Subject Assessments, consult the ETS registration bulletin or website, or contact ETS at:

Educational Testing Service
Teaching and Learning Division
P.O. Box 6051
Princeton, NJ 08541-6051
Phone: (609) 771-7395
E-mail: (use the online form)

Special accommodations are available for candidates who are visually impaired, hearing impaired, physically disabled, or specific learning disabled. For questions concerning disability services, contact:

ETS Disability Services: (609) 771-7780
TTY only: (609) 771-7714

Provisions are also available for examinees whose primary language is not English.

The ETS registration bulletin and website include directions for those requesting such accommodations. You can also consult ETS with regard to available test sites; reporting test scores; requesting changes in tests, centers, and dates of test; purchasing additional score reports; retaking tests; and other basic facts.

Is There a Registration Fee?

To take a Praxis examination, you must pay a registration fee, which is payable by check, money order, or with American Express, Discover, MasterCard, or Visa credit cards. In certain cases, ETS offers fee waivers. The registration bulletin and website give qualifications for receiving this benefit and describe the application process. Cash is not accepted for payment.

Can I Retake the Test?

Some states, institutions, and associations limit the number of times you can retest. Contact your state or licensing authority to confirm their retest policies.

What Do I Study First?

Read over REA’s subject reviews and suggestions for test taking. Take practice test 1 on the CD-ROM to determine your areas of weakness, and then restudy the material focusing on your specific problem areas. Studying the reviews thoroughly will reinforce the basic skills you will need to do well on the exams. Make sure to do the practice questions in this book so that you will be familiar with the format and procedures involved with taking the actual test.

When Should I Start Studying?

It is never too early to start studying; the earlier you begin, the more time you will have to sharpen your skills. Do not procrastinate! Cramming is not an effective way to study because it does not allow you the time needed to learn the test material.


The number of raw points awarded on the Praxis II Social Studies 0081 is based on the number of correct answers given. Most Praxis examinations vary by edition, which means that each test has several variations that contain different questions. The different questions are intended to measure the same general types of knowledge or skills. However, there is no way to guarantee that the questions on all editions of the test will have the same degree of difficulty. To avoid penalizing test takers who answer more difficult questions, the initial scores are adjusted for difficulty by using a statistical process known as equating. To avoid confusion between the adjusted and unadjusted scores, ETS reports the adjusted scores on a score scale that makes them clearly different from the unadjusted scores. Unadjusted scores or “raw scores” are simply the number of questions answered correctly. Adjusted scores, which are equated to the scale ETS uses for reporting the scores are called “scaled scores.”

For each edition of a Praxis test, a “raw-to-scale conversion table” is used to translate raw to scaled scores. The easier the questions are on a test edition, the more questions must be answered correctly to earn a given scaled score.

The college or university in which you are enrolled may set passing scores for the completion of your teacher education program and for graduation. Be sure to check the requirements in the catalogues or bulletins. You will also want to talk with your advisor.

The passing scores for the Praxis II tests vary from state to state. To find out which of the Praxis II tests your state requires and what your state’s set passing score is, contact your state’s education department directly. To gage how you are doing using our practice tests, if you score a 75% or above you can be assured that you passed the practice test.

When Will I Receive My Examinee Score Report and in What Form Will It Be?

ETS mails test-score reports six weeks after the test date. There is an exception for computer-based tests and for the Praxis I PPST examinations. Score reports will list your current score and the highest score you have earned on each test you have taken over the last 10 years. Along with your score report, ETS will provide you with a booklet that offers details on your scores. For each test date, you may request that ETS send a copy of your scores to as many as three score recipients, provided that each institution or agency is eligible to receive the scores.Don’t make questions more difficult than they are—there are no “trick” questions or hidden meanings.


It is critical to your success that you study effectively. To that end, here are some tips to put you in the driver’s seat on test day:

• Choose a time and place for studying that works best for you. Some people set aside a certain number of hours every morning to study; others may choose to study at night before retiring. Only you know what is most effective for you.

• Use your time wisely and be consistent. Work out a study routine and stick to it; don’t let your personal schedule interfere. Remember, seven weeks of studying is a modest investment to put you on your chosen path.

• Don’t cram the night before the test. You may have heard many amazing tales about effective cramming, but don’t kid yourself: most of them are false, and the rest are about exceptional people who, by definition, aren’t like most of us.

• When you take the practice tests, try to make your testing conditions as much like the actual test as possible. Turn off your television, radio, and telephone. Sit down at a quiet table free from distraction.

• As you complete the practice test, score your test and thoroughly review the explanations to the questions you answered incorrectly.

• Take notes on material you will want to go over again or research further.

• Keep track of your scores. By doing so, you will be able to gauge your progress and discover your strengths and weaknesses. You should carefully study the material relevant to your areas of difficulty. This will build your test-taking skills and your confidence!

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Table of Contents

About This Book and TestWare® 
About the Praxis Series
How to Use This Book and TestWare®
Format of the Test
Studying for the Test
Study Schedule
The Day of the Test

Physical Geography of North America
Native American Peoples
European Exploration and Colonization
Establishing a New Nation
The United States Constitution
Early Years of the New Nation
Continued National Development
Civil War Era
Emergence of the Modern United States
Progressive Era through the New Deal
The Second World War and the Post-war Period
Recent Developments
Suggestions to Help You Study

Human Society to Approximately 3500 BCE 
Development of City Civilizations and Ancient Empires
Disruption and Reversal
Emerging Global Interactions
Political and Industrial Revolutions, Nationalism
Conflicts, Ideologies, and Evolutions in the Twentieth Century

Foundations of Government
Economic Theories
Constitutional Foundations of the United States Government
Structure and Function of the National Government
Comparative Government and Politics
International Relations
International Law

The Spatial Perspective
The Five Themes of Geography
Maps and Mapmaking
Types of Maps
A Geographic Tour

Fundamental Concepts in Economics
The Economic Problem
Demand and Supply
Economic Systems
How a Market Economy Works
The Public Sector in the American Economy
Gross National Product
Money and Banking
Monetary Policy
Impact of the Global Economy
Developing Nation’s Economies
The Brave New World Brought About by Technology

The Behavioral Sciences

Practice Test
Answer Explanations
Answer Key and Content Categories

Practice Test
Answer Explanations
Answer Key and Competency Chart



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  • Anonymous

    Posted December 19, 2012

    I would not recommend this book as a study guide to anyone! Whil

    I would not recommend this book as a study guide to anyone! While reading I found many errors in the book and did not feel well prepared after reading the text! There were simple errors in information, grammar issues and inconsistencies in information provided.

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