Prentice Hall Reference Guide: With Exercises (Sixth Edition) / Edition 6
  • Prentice Hall Reference Guide: With Exercises (Sixth Edition) / Edition 6
  • Prentice Hall Reference Guide: With Exercises (Sixth Edition) / Edition 6

Prentice Hall Reference Guide: With Exercises (Sixth Edition) / Edition 6

by Muriel G. Harris
     
 

ISBN-10: 0131856405

ISBN-13: 9780131856400

Pub. Date: 02/28/2005

Publisher: Prentice Hall

CONTENTS

A Personal Message . . . vi

To the Instructor vii

Hints for Using This Book xvi

Question and Correct
& Compare and Correct

…  See more details below

Overview

CONTENTS

A Personal Message . . . vi

To the Instructor vii

Hints for Using This Book xvi

Question and Correct
& Compare and Correct

Question and Correct: Some
of the Most Commonly Asked Questions About Writing qc1

Compare and Correct cc1

The Writing Process

1 Purposes and Audiences 1

a Purpose 1

b Topic 1

c Thesis 2

d Audience 2

2 Writing Processes and Strategies 4

a Planning 4

b Drafting 10

c Organizing 11

d Collaborating 12

e Revising 16

f Editing and Proofreading 18

3 Paragraphs 20

a Unity 20

b Coherence 20

c Development 21

d Introductions and Conclusions 21

e Patterns of Organization 21

4 Argument 28

a Writing and Reading Arguments 28

b Considering the Audience 29

c Finding a Topic 32

d Developing Your Arguments 33

e Organizing Your Arguments 36

5 Visual Argument 39

a Similarities and Differences Between Verbal and Visual Argument 41

b Reading Visual Arguments 45

c Writing Visual Arguments 47

Revising Sentences for Accuracy, Clarity, and Variety

6 Comma Splices and Fused Sentences 49

a Comma Splices 50

b Fused or Run-On Sentences 50

7 Subject-Verb Agreement 52

a Singular and Plural Subjects 53

b Buried Subjects 53

c Compound Subjects 54

d Or and Either/Or Subjects 54

e Clauses and Phrases
as Subjects 55

f Indefinites as Subjects 55

g Collective Nouns and Amounts as Subjects 56

h Plural Words as Subjects 56

i Titles, Company Names, Words, and Quotations as Subjects 56

j Linking Verbs 57

kThere (is/are), Here (is/are) and It 57

l Who/Which/That and One of as Subjects 57

8 Sentence Fragments 59

a Unintentional Fragments 60

b Intentional Fragments 63

9 Dangling and Misplaced Modifiers 65

a Dangling Modifiers 65

b Misplaced Modifiers 67

10 Parallel Constructions 69

a Parallel Structure 69

b Faulty Parallelism 70

11 Consistency (Avoiding Shifts) 72

a Shifts in Person or Number 72

b Shifts in Verb Tense 73

c Shifts in Tone 74

d Shifts in Voice 74

e Shifts in Discourse 75

12 Faulty Predication 76

13 Coordination and Subordination 78

a Coordination 78

b Subordination 80

14 Sentence Clarity 83

a Moving from UnKnown (Old)
to known (New) Information 83

b Using Positive Instead of
Negative Statements 84

c Avoiding Double Negatives 84

d Using Verbs Instead of Nouns 85

e Making the Intended Subject
the Sentence Subject 85

f Using Active Instead of Passive
Voice 86

15 Transitions 87

a Repetition of a Key Term or Phrase 87

b Synonyms 87

c Pronouns 87

d Transitional Words and Phrases 88

e Transitions in and Between Paragraphs 89

16 Sentence Variety 93

a Combining Sentences 93

b Adding Words 94

c Changing Words, Phrases,
and Clauses 95

Parts of Sentences

17 Verbs 99

a Verb Phrases 100

b Verb Forms 100

c Verb Tense 103

d Verb Voice 111

e Verb Mood 111

f Modal Verbs 113

18 Nouns and Pronouns 114

a Nouns 114

b Pronouns 117

19 Pronoun Case and Reference 122

a Pronoun Case 122

b Pronoun Reference 127

20 Adjectives and Adverbs 132

a Adjectives and Adverbs 132

b A/An/The 135

c Comparisons 137

21 Prepositions 140

a Common Prepositions 141

b Idiomatic Prepositions 141

c Other Prepositions 142

22 Subjects 143

23 Phrases 146

24 Clauses 148

a Independent Clauses 148

b Dependent Clauses 151

25 Essential and Nonessential Clauses and Phrases 155

a Essential Clauses and Phrases 155

b Nonessential Clauses
and Phrases 156

26 Sentences 158

a Sentence Purposes 161

b Sentence Structures 161

Punctuation

27 Commas 165

a Commas in Compound
Sentences 166

b Commas After Introductory Words, Phrases, and Clauses 168

c Commas with Essential
and Nonessential Words,
Phrases, and Clauses 171

d Commas in Series and Lists 173

e Commas with Adjectives 175

f Commas with Dates, Addresses, Geographical Names,
and Numbers 177

g Other Uses for Commas 179

h Unnecessary Commas 181

28 Apostrophes 183

a Apostrophes with Possessives 183

b Apostrophes with Contractions 184

c Apostrophes with Plurals 184

d Unnecessary Apostrophes 185

29 Semicolons 189

a Semicolons in Compound
Sentences 189

b Semicolons in a Series 191

c Semicolons with Quotation
Marks 191

d Unnecessary Semicolons 192

30 Colons 193

a Colons to Announce Elements
at the End of a Sentence 193

b Colons to Separate Independent Clauses 194

c Colons to Announce
Quotations 194

d Colons in Salutations and Between Elements 195

e Colons with Quotation Marks 19

f Unnecessary Colons 195

31 Quotation Marks 197
a Quotation Marks with Direct
and Indirect Quotations 197
b Quotation Marks for Minor Titles and Parts of Wholes 199
c Quotation Marks for Words 199
d Use of Other Punctuation with Quotation Marks 200
e Unnecessary Quotation Marks 200

32 Hyphens 202
a Hyphens to Divide Words 202
b Hyphens to Form Compound Words 202
c Hyphens to Join Word Units 203
d Hyphens to Join Prefixes, Suffixes,and Letters to a Word 203
e Hyphens to Avoid Ambiguity 204
33 End Punctuation 205
a Periods 205
b Question Marks 207
c Exclamation Points 209
34 Other Punctuation 210
a Dashes 210
b Slashes 212
c Parentheses 214
d Brackets 215
e Ellipsis (Omitted Words) 217

Mechanics and Spelling

35 Capitals 219

36 Abbreviations 223
a Abbreviating Numbers 223
b Abbreviating Titles 223
c Abbreviating Place Names 224
d Abbreviating Measurements 224
e Abbreviating Dates 224
f Abbreviating Initials Used
as Names 224
g Abbreviating Latin
Expressions 225
h Abbreviating Documentation 225
37 Numbers 227
38 Underlining/Italics 230
a Underlining for Titles 230
b Other Uses of Underlining 231
39 Spelling 233
a Proofreading 233
b Using Spell-Checkers 235
c Some Spelling Guidelines 235
d Plurals 241
e Sound-Alike Words (Homonyms) 243

Style and Word Choice

40 Sexist Language 247
a Alternatives to Man 247
b Alternative Job Titles 247
c Alternatives to the Male or Female Pronoun 248
41 Unnecessary Words 250
a Conciseness 250
b Clichés 253
c Pretentious Language 254

42 Appropriate Words 255
a Standard English 255
b Colloquialisms, Slang, and Regionalisms 255
c Levels of Formality 257
d Jargon and Technical Terms 260
e General and Specific Words 261
f Concrete and Abstract Words 262
g Denotation and Connotation 264
h Offensive Language 264

ESL Concerns

43 American Style in Writing 267
44 Verbs 268
a Helping Verbs with Main Verbs 268
b Two-Word (Phrasal) Verbs 270
c Verbs with -ing and to + Verb
Forms 271
45 Omitted Words 274
a Verbs 274
b Subjects and There or It 274
46 Repeated Words 275
a Subjects 275

b Pronouns and Adverbs 275
47 Count and Noncount Nouns 276
48 Adjectives and Adverbs 279

a Placement 279
b Order 279
c A/An/The 280
d Some/Any, Much/Many, Little/Few,

Less/Fewer, Enough, No 283
49 Prepositions 284
50 Idioms 286

Research

51 Finding a Topic 289
a Deciding on a Purpose 290
b Understanding Why Plagiarism Is Wrong 292
c Deciding on a Topic 296
d Narrowing the Topic 297
e Formulating a Research Question 299
f Formulating a Thesis 300
52 Searching for Information 302
a Choosing Primary and Secondary Sources 302
b Searching the Internet 305
c Searching Libraries 312
d Searching Other Sources 315
53 Using Web Resources 318
a Web Site Bibliographic
Information 318
b Useful Web Sites 321
54 Evaluating Sources 326
a Getting Started 327
b Evaluating Internet Sources 328
c Evaluating Bibliographic Citations 335
d Evaluating Content 337
55 Collecting Information 340
a Keeping Notes on a Computer 340
b Printing and Annotating Photocopies and Printouts 341
c Starting a Working Bibliography 344
d Writing Notecards 346
56 Using Sources and Avoiding
Plagiarism 346
a Recognizing Plagiarism 346
b Summarizing Without Plagiarizing 352
c Paraphrasing Without Plagiarizing 354
d Using Quotation Marks to Avoid Plagiarizing 356
e Using Signal Words and Phrases
to Integrate Sources 361
57 Writing the Research Paper 367
a Getting Started 367
b Planning and Organizing 368
c Writing a Draft 370
d Reviewing the Draft 371
e Revising, Editing, and Checking the Format 371 MLA Documentation

58 Documenting in MLA Style 374
a In-Text Citations 375
b Endnotes 378
c Works Cited List 379
d Sample MLA-Style Research


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Product Details

ISBN-13:
9780131856400
Publisher:
Prentice Hall
Publication date:
02/28/2005
Edition description:
Spiral with Subject Tabs
Pages:
605
Product dimensions:
6.32(w) x 8.02(h) x 0.90(d)

Related Subjects

Table of Contents

CONTENTS

A Personal Message . . . vi

To the Instructor vii

Hints for Using This Book xvi

Question and Correct
& Compare and Correct

   Question and Correct: Some
of the Most Commonly Asked Questions About Writing qc1

   Compare and Correct cc1

The Writing Process

1   Purposes and Audiences 1

a Purpose 1

b  Topic 1

c  Thesis 2

d  Audience 2

2   Writing Processes and Strategies 4

a  Planning 4

b  Drafting 10

c  Organizing 11

d  Collaborating 12

e  Revising 16

f   Editing and Proofreading 18

3   Paragraphs 20

a  Unity 20

b  Coherence 20

c  Development 21

d  Introductions and Conclusions 21

e  Patterns of Organization 21

4   Argument 28

a  Writing and Reading Arguments 28

b  Considering the Audience 29

c  Finding a Topic 32

d  Developing Your Arguments 33

e  Organizing Your Arguments 36

5   Visual Argument 39

a  Similarities and Differences Between Verbal and Visual Argument 41

b  Reading Visual Arguments 45

c  Writing Visual Arguments 47

Revising Sentences for Accuracy, Clarity, and Variety

6   Comma Splices and Fused Sentences 49

a  Comma Splices 50

b  Fused or Run-On Sentences 50

7   Subject-Verb Agreement 52

a  Singular and Plural Subjects 53

b  Buried Subjects 53

c  Compound Subjects 54

d  Or and Either/Or Subjects 54

e  Clauses and Phrases
as Subjects 55

f  Indefinites as Subjects 55

g  Collective Nouns and Amounts as Subjects 56

h Plural Words as Subjects 56

     i Titles, Company Names, Words, and Quotations as Subjects 56

  j Linking Verbs 57

  kThere (is/are), Here (is/are) and It 57

l Who/Which/That and One of as Subjects 57

8   Sentence Fragments 59

a  Unintentional Fragments 60

b  Intentional Fragments 63

9   Dangling and Misplaced Modifiers 65

a  Dangling Modifiers 65

b  Misplaced Modifiers 67

10 Parallel Constructions 69

a  Parallel Structure 69

b  Faulty Parallelism 70

11 Consistency (Avoiding Shifts) 72

a  Shifts in Person or Number 72

b  Shifts in Verb Tense 73

c  Shifts in Tone 74

d  Shifts in Voice 74

e  Shifts in Discourse 75

12 Faulty Predication 76

13 Coordination and Subordination 78

a  Coordination 78

b  Subordination 80

14 Sentence Clarity 83

a  Moving from UnKnown (Old)
 to known (New) Information 83

b  Using Positive Instead of
 Negative Statements 84

c  Avoiding Double Negatives 84

d  Using Verbs Instead of Nouns 85

e  Making the Intended Subject
 the Sentence Subject 85

f   Using Active Instead of Passive
  Voice 86

15 Transitions 87

a  Repetition of a Key Term or Phrase 87

b  Synonyms 87

c  Pronouns 87

d  Transitional Words and Phrases 88

e  Transitions in and Between Paragraphs 89

16 Sentence Variety 93

a  Combining Sentences 93

b  Adding Words 94

c  Changing Words, Phrases,
and Clauses 95

Parts of Sentences

17 Verbs 99

a  Verb Phrases 100

b  Verb Forms 100

c  Verb Tense 103

d  Verb Voice 111

e  Verb Mood 111

f   Modal Verbs 113

18 Nouns and Pronouns 114

a  Nouns 114

b  Pronouns 117

19 Pronoun Case and Reference 122

a  Pronoun Case 122

b  Pronoun Reference 127

20 Adjectives and Adverbs 132

a  Adjectives and Adverbs 132

b  A/An/The 135

c  Comparisons 137

21 Prepositions 140

a  Common Prepositions 141

b  Idiomatic Prepositions 141

c  Other Prepositions 142

22 Subjects 143

23 Phrases 146

24 Clauses 148

a  Independent Clauses 148

b  Dependent Clauses 151

25 Essential and Nonessential Clauses and Phrases 155

a  Essential Clauses and Phrases 155

b  Nonessential Clauses
and Phrases 156

26 Sentences 158

a  Sentence Purposes 161

b  Sentence Structures 161

Punctuation

27 Commas 165

a  Commas in Compound
Sentences 166

b  Commas After Introductory Words, Phrases, and Clauses 168

c  Commas with Essential
and Nonessential Words,
Phrases, and Clauses 171

d  Commas in Series and Lists 173

e  Commas with Adjectives 175

f   Commas with Dates, Addresses, Geographical Names,
and Numbers 177

g  Other Uses for Commas 179

h  Unnecessary Commas 181

28 Apostrophes 183

a  Apostrophes with Possessives 183

b  Apostrophes with Contractions 184

c  Apostrophes with Plurals 184

d  Unnecessary Apostrophes 185

29 Semicolons 189

a  Semicolons in Compound
Sentences 189

b  Semicolons in a Series 191

c  Semicolons with Quotation
Marks 191

d  Unnecessary Semicolons 192

30 Colons 193

a  Colons to Announce Elements
at the End of a Sentence 193

b  Colons to Separate Independent Clauses 194

c  Colons to Announce
Quotations 194

d  Colons in Salutations and Between Elements 195

e  Colons with Quotation Marks 19

f  Unnecessary Colons 195

31 Quotation Marks 197
a Quotation Marks with Direct
and Indirect Quotations 197
b Quotation Marks for Minor Titles and Parts of Wholes 199
c Quotation Marks for Words 199
d Use of Other Punctuation with Quotation Marks 200
e Unnecessary Quotation Marks 200

32 Hyphens 202
a Hyphens to Divide Words 202
b Hyphens to Form Compound Words 202
c Hyphens to Join Word Units 203
d Hyphens to Join Prefixes, Suffixes,and Letters to a Word 203
e Hyphens to Avoid Ambiguity 204
33 End Punctuation 205
a Periods 205
b Question Marks 207
c Exclamation Points 209
34 Other Punctuation 210
a Dashes 210
b Slashes 212
c Parentheses 214
d Brackets 215
e Ellipsis (Omitted Words) 217

 Mechanics and Spelling

35 Capitals 219

36 Abbreviations 223
a Abbreviating Numbers 223
b Abbreviating Titles 223
c Abbreviating Place Names 224
d Abbreviating Measurements 224
e Abbreviating Dates 224
f Abbreviating Initials Used
as Names 224
g Abbreviating Latin
Expressions 225
h Abbreviating Documentation 225
37 Numbers 227
38 Underlining/Italics 230
a Underlining for Titles 230
b Other Uses of Underlining 231
39 Spelling 233
a Proofreading 233
b Using Spell-Checkers 235
c Some Spelling Guidelines 235
d Plurals 241
e Sound-Alike Words (Homonyms) 243

Style and Word Choice

40 Sexist Language 247
a Alternatives to Man 247
b Alternative Job Titles 247
c Alternatives to the Male or Female Pronoun 248
41 Unnecessary Words 250
a Conciseness 250
b Clichés 253
c Pretentious Language 254

 42 Appropriate Words 255
a Standard English 255
b Colloquialisms, Slang, and Regionalisms 255
c Levels of Formality 257
d Jargon and Technical Terms 260
e General and Specific Words 261
f Concrete and Abstract Words 262
g Denotation and Connotation 264
h Offensive Language 264

ESL Concerns

43 American Style in Writing 267
44 Verbs 268
a Helping Verbs with Main Verbs 268
b Two-Word (Phrasal) Verbs 270
c Verbs with -ing and to + Verb
Forms 271
45 Omitted Words 274
a Verbs 274
b Subjects and There or It 274
46 Repeated Words 275
a Subjects 275

b Pronouns and Adverbs 275
47 Count and Noncount Nouns 276
48 Adjectives and Adverbs 279

a Placement 279
b Order 279
c A/An/The 280
d Some/Any, Much/Many, Little/Few,

Less/Fewer, Enough, No 283
49 Prepositions 284
50 Idioms 286

Research

51 Finding a Topic 289
a Deciding on a Purpose 290
b Understanding Why Plagiarism Is Wrong 292
c Deciding on a Topic 296
d Narrowing the Topic 297
e Formulating a Research Question 299
f Formulating a Thesis 300
52 Searching for Information 302
a Choosing Primary and Secondary Sources 302
b Searching the Internet 305
c Searching Libraries 312
d Searching Other Sources 315
53 Using Web Resources 318
a Web Site Bibliographic
Information 318
b Useful Web Sites 321
54 Evaluating Sources 326
a Getting Started 327
b Evaluating Internet Sources 328
c Evaluating Bibliographic Citations 335
d Evaluating Content 337
55 Collecting Information 340
a Keeping Notes on a Computer 340
b Printing and Annotating Photocopies and Printouts 341
c Starting a Working Bibliography 344
d Writing Notecards 346
56 Using Sources and Avoiding
Plagiarism 346
a Recognizing Plagiarism 346
b Summarizing Without Plagiarizing 352
c Paraphrasing Without Plagiarizing 354
d Using Quotation Marks to Avoid Plagiarizing 356
e Using Signal Words and Phrases
to Integrate Sources 361
57 Writing the Research Paper 367
a Getting Started 367
b Planning and Organizing 368
c Writing a Draft 370
d Reviewing the Draft 371
e Revising, Editing, and Checking  the Format 371 MLA Documentation

58 Documenting in MLA Style 374
a In-Text Citations 375
b Endnotes 378
c Works Cited List 379
d Sample MLA-Style Research

59 Documenting in APA Style 422

a In-Text Citations 423

b Footnotes 426

c References List 426

d Sample APA-Style Research Paper 435

60 Documenting in Other Styles 462

a Chicago Manual of Style (CM) 462

b Council of Science Editors (CSE) 471

c Columbia Online Style (COS) 475

d Resources for Other Styles 482

Document Design, Public Writing, and Writing About Literature

61 Document Design 485

a Principles of Document Design 486

b Visual Elements 488

c Web Page Design 490

d Paper Preparation 497

62 Public Writing 504

a Public Documents 505

b Résumés 514

63 Writing About Literature 527

a Ways to Write About Literature 527

b Writing the Assignment 529

c A Glossary of Literary Terms 531

d Conventions in Writing

About Literature 531

e Sample Paper 533

Glossary of Usage 539

Glossary of Grammatical Terms 550

Index 570

 

 

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