Prescott, Harley, Klein's Microbiology / Edition 7

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Available with Prescott, Harley, and Klein's Microbiology, Seventh Edition, are more than 150 animations to harness the visual impact of microbiology processes in motion. These animations can be found on the ARIS Presentation Center at Since you control the action, these 3-D clips make great review and study tools! Each animation includes five questions to test your understanding of the concepts. Instructors can also import the animations into classroom presentations or online course materials!
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780073302089
  • Publisher: McGraw-Hill Companies, The
  • Publication date: 1/12/2007
  • Edition description: REV
  • Edition number: 7
  • Pages: 1088
  • Product dimensions: 9.20 (w) x 11.10 (h) x 1.50 (d)

Table of Contents

About the Authors     xi
Preface     xii
Introduction to Microbiology
The History and Scope of Microbiology     1
Members of the Microbial World     1
The Discovery of Microorganisms     3
The Conflict over Spontaneous Generation     6
The Golden Age of Microbiology     8
The Scientific Method     10
Koch's Molecular Postulates     11
The Development of Industrial Microbiology and Microbial Ecology     12
The Scope and Relevance of Microbiology     13
The Future of Microbiology     14
The Study of Microbial Structure: Microscopy and Specimen Preparation     17
Lenses and the Bending of Light     17
The Light Microscope     18
Preparation and Staining of Specimens     25
Electron Microscopy     28
Newer Techniques in Microscopy     31
Procaryotic Cell Structure and Function     39
An Overview of Procaryotic Cell Structure     39
Procaryotic Cell Membranes     42
Monstrous Microbes     43
The Cytoplasmic Matrix     48
Living Magnets     51
The Nucleoid     52
Plasmids     53
The Bacterial Cell Wall     55
Archaeal Cell Walls     62
Protein Secretion in Procaryotes     63
Components External to the Cell Wall     65
Chemotaxis     71
The Bacterial Endospore     73
Eucaryotic Cell Structure and Function     79
An Overview of Eucaryotic Cell Structure     79
The Plasma Membrane and Membrane Structure     81
The Cytoplasmic Matrix, Microfilaments, Intermediate Filaments, and Microtubules     83
Getting Around     84
Organelles of the Biosynthetic-Secretory and Endocytic Pathways     84
Eucaryotic Ribosomes     88
Mitochondria     88
Chloroplasts     90
The Origin of the Eucaryotic Cell     91
The Nucleus and Cell Division     91
External Cell Coverings     94
Cilia and Flagella     95
Comparison of Procaryotic and Eucaryotic Cells     96
Microbial Nutrition, Growth, and Control
Microbial Nutrition     101
The Common Nutrient Requirements     101
Requirements for Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, and Electrons     102
Nutritional Types of Microorganisms     102
Requirements for Nitrogen, Phosphorus, and Sulfur      104
Growth Factors     105
Uptake of Nutrients by the Cell     105
Culture Media     110
The Discovery of Agar as a Solidifying Agent and the Isolation of Pure Cultures     112
Isolation of Pure Cultures     113
The Enrichment and isolation of Pure Cultures     116
Microbial Growth     119
The Procaryotic Cell Cycle     119
The Growth Curve     123
Measurement of Microbial Growth     128
The Continuous Culture of Microorganisms     131
The Influence of Environmental Factors on Growth     132
Life Above 100[degree]C     138
Microbial Growth in Natural Environments     142
Control of Microorganisms by Physical and Chemical Agents     149
Definitions of Frequently Used Terms     149
Safety in the Microbiology Laboratory     150
The Pattern of Microbial Death     151
Conditions Influencing the Effectiveness of Antimicrobial Agents     152
The Use of Physical Methods in Control     153
The Use of Chemical Agents in Control     158
Universal Precautions for Microbiology Laboratories     160
Evaluation of Antimicrobial Agent Effectiveness      164
Microbial Metabolism
Metabolism: Energy, Enzymes, and Regulation     167
An Overview of Metabolism     167
Energy and Work     169
The Laws of Thermodynamics     169
Free Energy and Reactions     170
The Role of ATP in Metabolism     171
Oxidation-Reduction Reactions, Electron Carriers, and Electron Transport Systems     172
Enzymes     174
The Nature and Significance of Metabolic Regulation     180
Metabolic Channeling     180
Control of Enzyme Activity     181
Metabolism: Energy Release and Conservation     191
Chemoorganotrophic Fueling Processes     191
Aerobic Respiration     193
The Breakdown of Glucose to Pyruvate     194
The Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle     198
Electron Transport and Oxidative Phosphorylation     200
Anaerobic Respiration     205
Fermentations     207
Microbiology and World War I     210
Catabolism of Carbohydrates and Intracellular Reserve Polymers     210
Lipid Catabolism     211
Protein and Amino Acid Catabolism     212
Chemolithotrophy     212
Phototrophy     214
Acid Mine Drainage     215
Metabolism: The Use of Energy in Biosynthesis     225
Principles Governing Biosynthesis     226
The Precursor Metabolites     227
The Fixation of CO[subscript 2] by Autotrophs     228
Synthesis of Sugars and Polysaccharides     230
Synthesis of Amino Acids     235
Synthesis of Purines, Pyrimidines, and Nucleotides     241
Lipid Synthesis     242
Microbial Molecular Biology and Genetics
Microbial Genetics: Gene Structure, Replication, and Expression     247
The Elucidation of DNA Structure     248
DNA as Genetic Material     249
The Flow of Genetic Information     251
Nucleic Acid Structure     252
DNA Replication     253
Gene Structure     264
Transcription     268
Catalytic RNA (Ribozymes)     268
The Genetic Code     275
Translation     276
Microbial Genetics: Regulation of Gene Expression     291
Levels of Regulation of Gene Expression     292
Regulation of Transcription Initiation     293
The Discovery of Gene Regulation     294
Regulation of Transcription Elongation     302
Regulation at the Level of Translation     305
Global Regulatory Systems     307
Regulation of Gene Expression in Eucarya and Archaea     313
Microbial Genetics: Mechanisms of Genetic Variation     317
Mutations and Their Chemical Basis     317
Detection and Isolation of Mutants     324
DNA Repair     326
Creating Genetic Variability     329
Transposable Elements     332
Bacterial Plasmids     334
Bacterial Conjugation     337
DNA Transformation     342
Transduction     345
Mapping the Genome     349
Recombination and Genome Mapping in Viruses     350
DNA Technology and Genomics
Recombinant DNA Technology     357
Historical Perspectives     357
Synthetic DNA     361
The Polymerase Chain Reaction     362
Gel Electrophoresis     366
Cloning Vectors and Creating Recombinant DNA     366
Construction of Genomic Libraries     370
Inserting Recombinant DNA into Host Cells     371
Expressing Foreign Genes in Host Cells     371
Visualizing Proteins with Green Fluorescence     374
Applications of Genetic Engineering      375
Plant Tumors and Nature's Genetic Engineer     378
Social Impact of Recombinant DNA Technology     380
Microbial Genomics     383
Introduction     383
Determining DNA Sequences     384
Whole-Genome Shotgun Sequencing     384
Bioinformatics     388
Functional Genomics     388
Comparative Genomics     391
Proteomics     393
Insights from Microbial Genomes     395
Environmental Genomics     402
The Viruses
The Viruses: Introduction and General Characteristics     407
Early Development of Virology     407
Disease and the Early Colonization of America     408
General Properties of Viruses     409
The Structure of Viruses     409
Virus Reproduction     417
The Cultivation of Viruses     417
Virus Purification and Assays     419
Principles of Virus Taxonomy     423
The Origin of Viruses     423
The Viruses: Viruses of Bacteria and Archaea     427
Classification of Bacterial and Archaeal Viruses     428
Virulent Double-Stranded DNA Phages     428
Host-Independent Growth of an Archaeal Virus      429
Single-Stranded DNA Phages     436
RNA Phages     437
Temperate Bacteriophages and Lysogeny     438
Bacteriophage Genomes     444
The Viruses: Eucaryotic Viruses and Other Acellular Infectious Agents     447
Taxonomy of Eucaryotic Viruses     447
Reproduction of Vertebrate Viruses     448
SARS: Evolution of a Virus     451
Constructing a Virus     458
Cytocidal Infections and Cell Damage     459
Persistent, Latent, and Slow Virus Infections     461
Viruses and Cancer     461
Plant Viruses     463
Viruses of Fungi and Protists     466
Insect Viruses     466
Viroids and Virusoids     467
Prions     468
The Diversity ofthe Microbial World
Microbial Evolution, Taxonomy, and Diversity     471
Microbial Evolution     471
Introduction to Microbial Classification and Taxonomy     477
Taxonomic Ranks     480
Techniques for Determining Microbial Taxonomy and Phylogeny     481
Assessing Microbial Phylogeny     488
The Major Divisions of Life     489
Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology      493
"Official" Nomenclature Lists-A Letter from Bergey's     494
A Survey of Procaryotic Phylogeny and Diversity     494
The Archaea     503
Introduction to the Archaea     503
Phylum Crenarchaeota     507
Phylum Euryarchaeota     508
Archaeal Phylogeny: More Than Just the Crenarchaeota and Euryarchaeota?     511
Methanotrophic Archaea     513
Bacteria: The Deinococci and Nonproteobacteria Gram Negatives     519
Aquificae and Thermotogae     519
Deinococcus-Thermus     520
Photosynthetic Bacteria     520
The Mechanism of Gliding Motility     527
Phylum Planctomycetes     530
Phylum Chlamydiae     531
Phylum Spirochaetes     532
Phylum Bacteroidetes     534
Bacteria: The Proteobacteria     539
Class Alphaproteobacteria     540
Class Betaproteobacteria     546
Class Gammaproteobacteria     551
Bacterial Bioluminescence     559
Class Deltaproteobacteria     562
Class Epsilonproteobacteria     567
Bacteria: The Low G + C Gram Positives     571
General Introduction     571
Class Mollicutes (The Mycoplasmas)     571
Peptidoglycan and Endospore Structure     572
Spores in Space     576
Class Clostridia     576
Class Bacilli     578
Bacteria: The High G + C Gram Positives     589
General Properties of the Actinomycetes     589
Suborder Actinomycineae     593
Suborder Micrococcineae     593
Suborder Corynebacterineae     595
Suborder Micromonosporineae     597
Suborder Propionibacterineae     598
Suborder Streptomycineae     598
Suborder Streptosporangineae     602
Suborder Frankineae     602
Order Bifidobacteriales     602
The Protists     605
Distribution     606
Nutrition     606
Morphology     607
Encystment and Excystment     608
Reproduction     608
Protist Classification     609
Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs)     621
Practical Importance of Diatoms     624
The Fungi (Eumycota)     629
Distribution     630
Importance     630
Structure     631
Nutrition and Metabolism      632
Reproduction     632
Characteristics of the Fungal Divisions     635
Ecology and Symbiosis
Biogeochemical Cycling and Introductory Microbial Ecology     643
Foundations in Microbial Diversity and Ecology     643
Microbial Ecology Versus Environmental Microbiology     644
Biogeochemical Cycling     644
The Physical Environment     653
Microbial Ecology and Its Methods: An Overview     659
Thermophilic Microorganisms and Modern Biotechnology     660
Microorganisms in Marine and Freshwater Environments     667
Marine and Freshwater Environments     667
New Agents in Medicine-The Sea as the New Frontier     668
Microbial Adaptations to Marine and Freshwater Environments     671
Microorganisms in Marine Environments     673
Microorganisms in Freshwater Environments     682
Microorganisms in Terrestrial Environments     687
Soils as an Environment for Microorganisms     687
Soils, Plants, and Nutrients     689
An Unintended Global-Scale Nitrogen Experiment     691
Microorganisms in the Soil Environment     692
Microorganisms and the Formation of Different Soils     693
Microorganism Associations with Vascular Plants     696
Mycorrhizae and the Evolution of Vascular Plants     697
Soil Microorganisms and the Atmosphere     708
Soils, Termites, Intestinal Microbes, and Atmospheric Methane     709
Keeping Inside Air Fresh with Soil Microorganisms     710
The Subsurface Biosphere     711
Soil Microorganisms and Human Health     713
Microbial Interactions     717
Microbial Interactions     717
Wolbachia pipientis: The World's Most Infectious Microbe? 720
Coevolution of Animals and Their Gut Microbial Communities     725
Human-Microbe Interactions     734
Normal Microbiota of the Human Body     735
Probiotics for Humans and Animals     739
Nonspecific (Innate) Resistance and the Immune Response
Nonspecific (Innate) Host Resistance     743
Overview of Host Resistance     743
Cells, Tissues, and Organs of the Immune System     744
Phagocytosis     752
Inflammation     756
Physical Barriers in Nonspecific (Innate) Resistance     758
Chemical Mediators in Nonspecific (Innate) Resistance     762
Specific (Adaptive) Immunity     773
Overview of Specific (Adaptive) Immunity     774
Antigens      774
Types of Specific (Adaptive) Immunity     776
Recognition of Foreignness     778
Donor Selection for Tissue or Organ Transplants     779
T Cell Biology     781
B Cell Biology     786
Antibodies     789
Action of Antibodies     799
Monoclonal Antibody Technology     800
Summary: The Role of Antibodies and Lymphocytes in Immune Defense     802
Acquired Immune Tolerance     802
Immune Disorders     803
Microbial Diseases and Their Control
Pathogenicity of Microorganisms     815
Host-Parasite Relationships     815
Pathogenesis of Viral Diseases     818
Overview of Bacterial Pathogenesis     820
Toxigenicity     824
Detection and Removal of Endotoxins     830
Host Defense Against Microbial Invasion     830
Microbial Mechanisms for Escaping Host Defenses     832
Antimicrobial Chemotherapy     835
The Development of Chemotherapy     835
The Use of Antibiotics in Microbiological Research     837
General Characteristics of Antimicrobial Drugs     837
Determining the Level of Antimicrobial Activity      840
Antibacterial Drugs     841
Factors Influencing Antimicrobial Drug Effectiveness     849
Drug Resistance     849
Antibiotic Misuse and Drug Resistance     850
Antifungal Drugs     854
Antiviral Drugs     855
Antiprotozoan Drugs     856
Clinical Microbiology and Immunology     859
Specimens     859
Standard Microbial Practices     861
Identification of Microorganisms from Specimens     864
Biosensors: The Future Is Now     871
Clinical Immunology     875
History and Importance of Serotyping     876
Susceptibility Testing     882
Computers in Clinical Microbiology     882
The Epidemiology of Infectious Disease     885
Epidemiological Terminology     886
John Snow-The First Epidemiologist     886
Measuring Frequency: The Epidemiologist's Tools     887
Recognition of an Infectious Disease in a Population     888
"Typhoid Mary"     889
Recognition of an Epidemic     889
The Infectious Disease Cycle: Story of a Disease     891
The First Indications of Person-to-Person Spread of an Infectious Disease      896
Virulence and the Mode of Transmission     897
Emerging and Reemerging Infectious Diseases and Pathogens     897
Control of Epidemics     900
The First Immunizations     902
Bioterrorism Preparedness     905
1346-The First Recorded Biological Warfare Attack     905
Global Travel and Health Considerations     907
Nosocomial Infections     908
Human Diseases Caused by Viruses and Prions     913
Airborne Diseases     914
Reye's and Guillain-Barre Syndromes     918
Arthropod-Borne Diseases     922
Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers-A Microbial History Lesson     923
Direct Contact Diseases     925
Food-Borne and Waterborne Diseases     939
A Brief History of Polio     941
Zoonotic Diseases     941
Prion Diseases     944
Human Diseases Caused by Bacteria     947
Airborne Diseases     948
Arthropod-Borne Diseases     960
The Hazards of Microbiological Research     960
Direct Contact Diseases     964
Biofilms     969
Antibiotic-Resistant Staphylococci     972
A Brief History of Syphilis      974
Food-Borne and Waterborne Diseases     979
Clostridial Toxins as Therapeutic Agents-Benefits of Nature's Most Toxic Proteins     983
Sepsis and Septic Shock     987
Zoonotic Diseases     987
Dental Infections     991
Human Diseases Caused by Fungi and Protists     997
Pathogenic Fungi and Protists     997
Airborne Diseases     999
Arthropod-Borne Diseases     1001
A Brief History of Malaria     1002
Direct Contact Diseases     1008
Food-Borne and Waterborne Diseases     1012
Opportunistic Diseases     1016
The Emergence of Candidiasis     1018
Food and Industrial Microbiology
Microbiology of Food     1023
Microorganism Growth in Foods     1024
Microbial Growth and Food Spoilage     1026
Controlling Food Spoilage     1028
An Army Travels on Its Stomach     1030
Food-Borne Diseases     1032
Typhoid Fever and Canned Meat     1033
Detection of Food-Borne Pathogens     1035
Microbiology of Fermented Foods     1036
Chocolate: The Sweet Side of Fermentation     1037
Starter Cultures, Bacteriophage Infections, and Plasmids      1039
Microorganisms as Foods and Food Amendments     1046
Applied and Industrial Microbiology     1049
Water Purification and Sanitary Analysis     1050
Waterborne Diseases, Water Supplies, and Slow Sand Filtration     1051
Wastewater Treatment     1054
Microorganisms Used in Industrial Microbiology     1060
The Potential of Thermophilic Archaea in Biotechnology     1061
Microorganism Growth in Controlled Environments     1064
Major Products of Industrial Microbiology     1070
Biodegradation and Bioremediation by Natural Communities     1075
Methanogens-A New Role for a Unique Microbial Group     1078
Bioaugmentation     1080
A Fungus with a Voracious Appetite     1081
Microbes As Products     1082
Streptavidin-Biotin Binding and Biotechnology     1084
Impacts of Microbial Biotechnology     1086
A Review of the Chemistry of Biological Molecules     A-1
Common Metabolic Pathways     A-13
Glossary     G-1
Credits     C-1
Index     I-1
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