1. Perspectives on the Presidency.
Introductory Case: Mr. Clinton Goes to Washington.
Why Study the Presidency? The Dilemma of Presidential Government.
Learning about the Presidency.
The Research Agenda.
The Plan of the Book.
2. The Creation of the Presidency.
Introductory Case: Shays's Rebellion.
Failure of the Articles of Confederation.
Choices for the Convention.
Presidential vs. Parliamentary Government.
A Constitution of Original Intent?
The Constitutional Experiment.
3. The Development of the Presidency.
Introductory Case: Teddy Roosevelt Transforms the Presidency.
The Pre-Modern Presidency.
The Modern Presidency.
The Institutionalized Presidency.
The Partisan Presidency.
The Postmodern Presidency.
The Transformation of the Presidency.
4. The Presidential Prerogative.
Introductory Case: Lincoln's "Constitutional Dictatorship".
Prerogative Power and the Constitution.
The Prerogative Style of Governance.
The Outcomes of Prerogative Government.
The Watergate Scandal.
The Imperial Presidency.
Prospects for Prerogative Governance.
5. The Road to the White House.
Introductory Case: An Ambush in New Hampshire.
Making the Race.
Organizing a Campaign.
Nominations and Governance.
6. Presidential Elections.
Introductory Case: "Give 'Em Hell, Harry!"
Competing for Electoral College Votes.
On the Campaign Trail.
The Voters Decide.
A Plebiscitary Presidency?
7. Party Politics.
Introductory Case: President Roosevelt Tries a Purge.
Titular Party Leadership.
Controlling Party Machinery.
The Congressional and State Parties.
Regime Formation and Political Time.
Critique of Cyclical Theories.
The Anti-Party Presidency.
8. National Agenda Politics.
Introductory Case: Franklin Roosevelt's Hundred Days.
Presidential Opinion Leadership in American History.
Controlling the National Agenda.
The Selling of Health Care Plans.
Media Coverage of the White House.
Presidential Popularity and Issue Support.
The Public Presidency.
9. The President and Congress.
Introductory Case: Congress Passes the Marshall Plan.
The Constitutional Framework.
Presidential Program Innovation.
The Legislative Struggle.
The White House and the "New Congress".
Passing the President's Program.
Are There "Two Presidencies"?
Vetoing Bills. The Legislative Presidency.
10. The President and The Bureaucracy.
Introductory Case: Secretary Babbitt's "Year of Decision".
Executive Power in the Constitution.
Appointing and Removing Officials.
Presidential Control of Administration.
Political Executives and Careerists.
Public Service Ethics.
Congress and the Bureaucracy.
Iron Triangles and Issue Networks.
The New Administrative Presidency.
11. The President and the Courts.
Introductory Case: Roosevelt's Court-Packing Plan.
The Constitutional Dimension.
Senate Advise and Consent.
Presidential Powers and the Courts.
The Courts and the National Security Presidency.
Presidential War Powers and the Courts.
The Courts and the Administrative Presidency.
The Least Dangerous Branch.
12. Presidential Budgeting.
Introductory Case: President Reagan Upends the Budget Process.
The Executive Budget.
Congress and the Executive Budget.
Budgeting in the 1990s.
The Failure of Presidential Budgeting.
13. Presidential Economics.
Introductory Case: President Reagan Reforms the Tax Code.
The President as Economic Manager.
Presidential Political Stakes.
The White House Economic Advisory System.
The Limits to Presidential Economics.
14. Presidential Diplomacy.
Introductory Case: President Carter Mediates at Camp David.
The Constitutional Framework.
President vs. Congress.
The White House Foreign Policy Advisory System.
Kennedy and the Cuban Missile Crisis.
Reagan and the Iran-Contra Affair.
Presidential Diplomacy in a Changing World.
Foreign Policymaking and American Democracy.
15. Presidential Warmaking.
Introductory Case: Bush, Clinton and Somalia.
The Powers of the President as Commander in Chief.
The Ultimate Decision.
Legitimizing Presidential Warmaking.
Congress and Presidential War Powers.
Presidential Opposition to Congressional Restrictions.
The Courts and the War Powers Resolution.
"Soft" Prerogative: President Bush and the Persian Gulf War.
"Postmodern" Presidential Uses of the Armed Forces.
16. The Reform Agenda.
Introductory Case: Woodrow Wilson and the Reform of the Presidency.
The "No Confidence" Vote.
Constitutional Reform or Institutional Adaptation.
The Future of the Presidency.
Appendix A. Provisions Relating to the Presidency in the Constitution of the United States of America.
Appendix B. Presidential Terms of Office, 1789-1997.
Appendix C. Vice Presidential Terms of Office, 1789-1997.
Appendix D. Presidential Election Statistics, 1789-1992.