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This balanced readable analysis of how the two major branches of government work together to make public policy includes 16 case studies and reflects on changes since the 9/11 attacks.
The authors of this text, one a presidential scholar and the other a congressional scholar, view the two branches as coequals in policymaking. They take a “shared governance” approach and provide a policy focus, looking not only at the policy process but also evaluating policy results in the areas of foreign policy, civil rights, economic and budget policy, and social welfare. It is organized around an original framework that identifies four patterns of policymaking: presidential leadership, congressional leadership, consensus/cooperation, and deadlock/extraordinary resolution. A separate case study illustrates each of the four patterns in each of the four policy areas, serving as an integral part of the text to enhance the student's understanding. The four patterns of policymaking and the case studies comprise an effective tool for helping students understand the increasingly complex relations between Congress and the President. Two new case studies look at the Bush tax cut and the Anti-terrorist (Patriot) Act.
1. Patterns of Policymaking: Partners or Partisans?
Perspectives on Legislative and Executive Power.
Partisan Control and Divided Government.
Determinants of Policymaking Patterns.
Consequences of Presidential-Congressional Policymaking.
2. The Constitution and Shared Governance.
Prelude to Constitution Making.
Shaping Legislative and Executive Branches.
Policymaking Patterns in the Early Republic.
Policymaking Patterns from the Jackson Era to the Civil War.
Policymaking Patterns from Reconstruction to the Depression.
Policymaking Patterns in the Modern Era.
The Impact of the Courts: Legislative-Executive Power.
3. The Presidency and Policymaking.
The Potential for Presidential Leadership.
The Presidential Agenda.
The Legislative Records of Modern Presidents.
4. Congress and Policymaking.
The Potential for Congressional Leadership.
Elections and the Political Environment.
Committees, Party Leaders and the Policy Agenda.
5. Foreign Policy.
The Evolution of U.S. Foreign Policy.
The New International Environment.
Making Foreign Policy.
Presidential Dominance: The Persian Gulf War (1991).
Congressional Dominance: Cuban Sanctions Legislation (1996).
Consensus/Cooperation: The Panama Canal Treaties (1978).
Deadlock/Extraordinary Resolution: Aid to the Nicaraguan Contras (1982-89).
6. Civil Rights Policy.
The Evolution of Civil Rights Policy.
The Environment for Civil Rights Policy.
Making Civil Rights Policy.
Presidential Leadership: The Anti-terrorism (Patriot) Act (2001).
Congressional Leadership: The Civil Rights Restoration Act (1988).
Cooperation/Consensus: Same Sex Marriage Law (1996).
Deadlock/Extraordinary Resolution: The Civil Rights Act (1991).
7. Economic and Budget Policy.
The Evolution of of U.S. Economic and Budget Policy.
The Environment for Economic and Budget Policy.
Making Economic and Budget Policy.
Presidential Leadership: The Tax Cut (2001).
Congressional Leadership: The Shareholder Lawsuits Bill (1995).
Consensus/Cooperation: The Tax Reform Act (1986).
Deadlock/Extraordinary Resolution: The Balanced Budget Standoff (1995-96).
8. Social Welfare Policy.
The Evolution of Social Welfare Policy.
The Environment for Social Welfare Policy.
Making Social Welfare Policy.
Presidential Leadership: The Economic Opportunity Act (1964).
Congressional Leadership: Catastrophic Health Care Insurance (1988-1989).
Cooperation/Consensus: Comprehensive Welfare Reform (1996).
Deadlock/Extraordinary Resolution: The Social Security Bailout (1983).
9. Patterns and Consequences: Can Presidential-Congressional Policymaking Be Improved?
Can Presidential-Congressional Policymaking Be Improved?