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In this timely, illuminating, and often shocking book, Richard Shenkman reveals that it is not just recent presidents but all presidents who have been ambitious?and at times frighteningly so, willing to sacrifice their health, family, loyalty, and values. Presidential Ambition is a book that will permanently alter the way we think about past, present, and future American presidents.
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In this timely, illuminating, and often shocking book, Richard Shenkman reveals that it is not just recent presidents but all presidents who have been ambitious—and at times frighteningly so, willing to sacrifice their health, family, loyalty, and values. Presidential Ambition is a book that will permanently alter the way we think about past, present, and future American presidents.
How George Washington, alone among the presidents, was able to gain power and get things done without compromising himself or his principles
There was a touching scene at the outset of his presidency that was almost too good to be true. When Charles Thomson, the secretary of the Congress, arrived at Mount Vernon to tell Washington he had been elected president, the two men withdrew to the main room of the house and delivered little speeches to each other. Thomson told Washington that the Congress was delighted he had agreed "to sacrifice domestic ease and private enjoyments to preserve the happiness of your country." Washington responded that he had accepted in deference to the public's desires. He couldn't promise to be a great president, he added, but "I can promise . . . to accomplish that which can be done by honest zeal." It was almost comically stilted, like one of those scenes out of a 1930s Frank Capra movie in which Jimmy Stewart stands up and delivers a sincere and selfless sermon on patriotism. But it happened. And Washington came off looking exceptionally decent.
He hadn't always seemed so decent.
As a young man there was a certain crassness about him that was almost palpable. Though he was a born aristocrat he was very much a man on the make. Land was everything in Washington's youth, the symbol of wealth and prestige, and he had set out to acquire as much of it as he could. Through inheritance he had received Mount Vernon and about two thousand acres. But that hadn't come nearly close to satisfying his appetite. He didn't want just a lot of land. He wanted more land thananybody else. Which was, apparently, the prime factor in his decision to court Martha. She was, even though youthful, neither particularly pretty nor particularly socially adept. And Washington didn't love her (not at first anyway); as he admitted in a letter at the time of his engagement, he was actually in love with Sally Fairfax, his best friend's wife. "You have drawn me," he wrote Sally, "into an honest confession of a simple Fact." But keep it a secret: "The world has no business to know the object of my Love, declared in this manner to you, when I want to conceal it."
But Martha was not without her attractions. One of the richest widows in North America, she possessed thousands of acres of land. Under the laws then in effect, her land became his upon marriage, instantly turning Washington into one of the richest men in America. Through Martha he received a hundred slaves, another six thousand acres, and enough money to buy thousands and thousands of acres more.
Not even all that was enough to satisfy him. In 1767, eight years after his marriage, he made a grab for land expressly set aside for the Indians. It happened to be illegal under laws promulgated by the Crown. Washington didn't care. He told his surveyor "to keep this whole matter a profound secret." If anybody asked the surveyor what he was up to, Washington instructed, the surveyor was to lie. Over the next few years he was to acquire another twenty thousand acres from the British government in return for his service as a colonel in the Virginia militia. He wasn't really entitled to the land; in fact when he had signed up the government had made it clear that the property was supposed to go to soldiers, not officers. But Washington had dextrously arranged for the officers to receive land, too. As the leader of his regiment, Washington had the responsibility of deciding who received which parcels (two hundred thousand acres of land were to be handed out). Washington saw to it that he received the best, "the cream of the Country," as he subsequently boasted.
But then the Revolution had come. It changed Washington as it did many of the leading figures in the colonies. Suddenly Washington, the "inveterate land grabber," as historian John Clark called him, became Washington, the enlightened revolutionary. Acquiring land was no longer enough. Being rich was no longer enough. Believing himself to be in a position to affect history, Washington lifted his sights and became something no one had any right to expect he would. Now, instead of acquiring land, he would seek to acquire what people in the eighteenth century called fame.
In our time fame has taken on a pejorative meaning. But in his day fame was far more sublime. To be famous was to be immortal. It was believed at the time that there were many ways to gain fame. But the most honorable way of all, it was felt, was to found a commonwealth. Thus did Washington, as fired by ambition as ever, decide to dedicate himself to the patriot cause, inspiring his fellow Americans as no one else did.
He didn't prove to be a brilliant general. In fact, he never won any major battles. But he kept the army together during awful times, and by strength of character was able to command the people's respect. At the end of the war he was held in such high esteem that he might very well have been able to crown himself king--as a lot of people wanted. But Washington refused, wouldn't even consider the subject. All he wanted to do was return to Mount Vernon. When friends in the army demanded that he make himself dictator after Congress refused to pay the soldiers their back wages, he looked upon the proposal with sheer horror.
When the war finally ended and the British evacuated the country Washington, like Cincinnatus, his Roman hero, laid down his sword and went back to his plow. It was his intention to remain at his plow for the remainder of his life. But events intervened: The Confederation collapsed, the Constitution was adopted, and Washington was drafted for president.
Presidential Ambition. Copyright © by Richard Shenkman. Reprinted by permission of HarperCollins Publishers, Inc. All rights reserved. Available now wherever books are sold.
|1||In the Garden of Eden||1|
|2||The Birth of the Two-Party System||16|
|3||The Revolution in the Suffrage||37|
|5||The Story of Franklin Pierce||78|
|6||The Slavery Crisis||95|
|7||The Story of Abraham Lincoln||121|
|8||The Birth of Industrial Capitalism||169|
|9||The Birth of Machine Politics||182|
|10||The Story of Chester A. Arthur||194|
|11||The Arrival of the Immigrants||211|
|13||World Power: I||242|
|14||World Power: II||260|
|15||World Power: III||272|
|16||FDR: The Great Depression||286|
|17||FDR: World War II||304|
|18||The Cold War||315|
|Table of Presidents||339|