Preventing Web Attacks with Apache

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Overview

“Ryan Barnett has raised the bar in terms of running Apache securely. If you run Apache, stop right now and leaf through this book; you need this information.”

–Stephen Northcutt, The SANS Institute

The only end-to-end guide to securing Apache Web servers and Web applications

Apache can be hacked. As companies have improved perimeter security, hackers have increasingly focused on attacking Apache Web servers and Web applications. Firewalls and SSL won’t protect you: you must systematically harden your Web application environment. Preventing Web Attacks with Apache brings together all the information you’ll need to do that: step-by-step guidance, hands-on examples, and tested configuration files.

Building on his groundbreaking SANS presentations on Apache security, Ryan C. Barnett reveals why your Web servers represent such a compelling target, how significant exploits are performed, and how they can be defended against. Exploits discussed include: buffer overflows, denial of service, attacks on vulnerable scripts and programs, credential sniffing and spoofing, client parameter manipulation, brute force attacks, web defacements, and more.

Barnett introduces the Center for Internet Security Apache Benchmarks, a set of best-practice Apache security configuration actions and settings he helped to create. He addresses issues related to IT processes and your underlying OS; Apache downloading, installation, and configuration; application hardening; monitoring, and more. He also presents a chapter-length case study using actual Web attack logs and data captured “in the wild.”

For every sysadmin, Web professional, andsecurity specialist responsible for Apache or Web application security.

With this book, you will learn to

  • Address the OS-related flaws most likely to compromise Web server security
  • Perform security-related tasks needed to safely download, configure, and install Apache
  • Lock down your Apache httpd.conf file and install essential Apache security modules
  • Test security with the CIS Apache Benchmark Scoring Tool
  • Use the WASC Web Security Threat Classification to identify and mitigate application threats
  • Test Apache mitigation settings against the Buggy Bank Web application
  • Analyze an Open Web Proxy Honeypot to gather crucial intelligence about attackers
  • Master advanced techniques for detecting and preventing intrusions
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780321321282
  • Publisher: Addison-Wesley
  • Publication date: 2/7/2006
  • Pages: 624
  • Product dimensions: 6.92 (w) x 9.40 (h) x 1.14 (d)

Meet the Author

Ryan C. Barnett is a chief security officer for EDS. He currently leads both Operations Security and Incident Response Teams for a government bureau in Washington, DC. In addition to his nine-to-five job, Ryan is also a faculty member for the SANS Institute, where his duties include instructor/courseware developer for Apache Security, Top 20 Vulnerabilities team member, and local mentor for the SANS Track 4, “Hacker Techniques, Exploits, and Incident Handling,” course. He holds six SANS Global Information Assurance Certifications (GIAC): Intrusion Analyst (GCIA), Systems and Network Auditor (GSNA), Forensic Analyst (GCFA), Incident Handler (GCIH), Unix Security Administrator (GCUX), and Security Essentials (GSEC). In addition to the SANS Institute, he is also the team lead for the Center for Internet Security Apache Benchmark Project and a member of the Web Application Security Consortium.

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Read an Excerpt

ForewordForeword

Ryan Barnett recently asked if I'd write the foreword to his book. I was delighted to even be considered because Ryan is an exceptional security professional and the honor could have easily gone to anyone in the industry. Ryan has a background as someone who actively defends government web sites. He's the person who led the effort to create the Apache Benchmark standard for the Center for Internet Security (CIS). He's a co-author of the Web Security Threat Classification for the Web Application Security Consortium (WASC), and has more certifications than I knew existed. Ryan is also a SANS Instructor for Apache Security. There's quite a bit more, but suffice it to say Ryan has to be one of the most-qualified experts to write Preventing Web Attacks with Apache.

A foreword is an opportunity to express why a particular topic is important and describe what role the information plays in a broader context. Even though I've been part of the web application security field for a really long time (back before there was a term to describe what we do), more research was in order. I fired up Firefox and headed on over to Google for some investigation. Netcraft, the WASC, the CIS, the Open Source Vulnerability Database (OSVDB), SecurityFocus, and Wikipedia are incredible resources for collecting security information. While I was taking notes and saving bookmarks, it suddenly occurred to me that during my research, I must have crossed paths with hundreds of Apache web servers without realizing it. What a perfect way to describe the importance of Apache security!

According to Netcraft's Web Server Survey (September 2005), Apacheaccounts for roughly 70 percent of the Internet's web servers. Through our tiny browser window, it's difficult to imagine the global hum of 72 million web servers, the keyboard chatter of over 800 million international netizens, wading through a sea of 8 billion web pages. Apache is a fundamental part of our daily online lives—so much so, it's become a transparent artifact in the architecture of the web. When we shop for books, reserve plane tickets, read the news, check our bank account, bid in an auction, or do anything else with a web browser, the odds are there's an Apache web server involved. How's that for important?

The web has become bigger and more powerful than we ever imagined. 24x7x365, web sites carry out mission-critical business processes, exchanging even the most sensitive forms of information including names, addresses, phone numbers, social security numbers, financial records, medical history, birth dates, business contacts, and more. Web sites may also supply access to source code, intellectual property, customer lists, payroll data, HR data, routers, and servers. If a particular computer system or business process isn't web-enabled today, bet that it will be tomorrow. Anything a cyber-criminal would ever want is available somewhere on a web site. With all the great things we can do on the web, one must temper the benefits with the risk that any information available on or behind a web site is also a target for identify theft, industrial espionage, extortion, and fraud. It should come as no surprise that the attack trends we're witnessing are migrating from the network layer up to the web application layer.

Here's where things get interesting and scary at the same time. Firewalls, anti-virus scanners, and Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) do not help secure a web site. Let me say that again. Firewalls, anti-virus scanners, and SSL do not help secure a web site. When you visit any web site, we don't see any of these things because they functionally don't exist at the web layer. On the web, there's nothing standing between a hacker, your web server, your web applications, and your database. With something as pervasive as Apache, the knowledge of how to prevent web attacks is vital.

A martial arts black belt is a suitable analogy. It might take someone years to acquire the knowledge required to proficiently react to a given security scenario. Both Ryan and myself have experience defending extremely large and public web-enabled systems. We've witnessed the sophisticated and voluminous attacks that inundate our web servers. From Brute-Force or Cross-Site Scripting to Denial of Service or SQL Injection and Worms, the attacks are varied and pervasive. A single day of monitoring web server log files is enough to appreciate how much skill is required to thwart the ever-growing security threats.

Ryan has done a remarkable job combining his years of personal experience with the collective knowledge of a community of experts. Readers will be well served by this material for as long as there are web servers. I'll finish up with a famous quote I feel captures the essence of Preventing Web Attacks with Apache.

"The significant problems we face cannot be solved at the same level of thinking we were at when we created them."

—Albert Einstein (1879-1955)

We must be diligent, we must keep learning, we will prevail.

Jeremiah Grossman
Founder and CTO of WhiteHat Security
Cofounder of the Web Application Security Consortium (WASC)
September, 2005

© Copyright Pearson Education. All rights reserved.

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Table of Contents

Ch. 1 Web insecurity contributing factors 1
Ch. 2 CIS Apache benchmark 13
Ch. 3 Downloading and installing Apache 53
Ch. 4 Configuring the httpd.conf file 81
Ch. 5 Essential security modules for Apache 125
Ch. 6 Using the center for Internet security Apache benchmark scoring tool 171
Ch. 7 Mitigating the WASC Web security threat classification with Apache 181
Ch. 8 Protecting a flawed Web application : buggy bank 255
Ch. 9 Prevention and countermeasures 295
Ch. 10 Open Web proxy honeypot 431
Ch. 11 Putting it all together 509
App. A Web application security consortium glossary 523
App. B Apache module listing 533
App. C Example httpd.conf file 549
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  • Anonymous

    Posted March 6, 2006

    bolt down your Apache

    Apache is the most common web server out there. It has been heavily built up in functionality by volunteer programmers. Naturally, there are numerous books detailing all that you can do with it. Very versatile. Unfortunately, that is one of the problems! As many commercial websites use Apache, there is a huge incentive for crackers to subvert it in various fashions. Perhaps to get at the back end SQL database. In which might be stored useful information like people's names and credit card data. Barnett offers inoculation. You can read this book as the sysadmin's manual to installing and running Apache. Where the overriding priority is to bolt down any known weaknesses from the get go. There is a comprehensive list of attacks. Some might not necessarily be directed against Apache per se, but against any web server. But there are others that might scan for particular versions of Apache or the operating system, if these have bugs that can be exploited. The text suggests possibly providing disinformation. In an earlier, more innocent time, a web server might write its name and version at the bottom of a page that it publishes, for example. Now, you are shown how Apache can suppress this. Better yet, you can tell Apache to pretend to be another web server. A defensive fib that makes the cracker's job a little harder. Buffer overflows, cross site scripting and SQL injection are possibly the most dangerous attacks explained. For each attack, examples are usually given. Followed by Apache countermeasures. Tangentially, you also get to cast scrutiny at your database and at the entire way your multitier server system is arranged. The book is a sad but necessary commentary on the times we live in.

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