A Primer for the Exercise and Nutrition Sciences: Thermodynamics, Bioenergetics, Metabolism / Edition 1

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The subject of thermodynamics is rarely found in Nutrition and Exercise Physiology textbooks. Yet this material is fundamental to any serious inquisition concerning energy exchange. This book provides a fresh approach to the study of energy expenditure by introducing the latest concepts in open system thermodynamics and cellular to whole-body energy exchange. A journey is undertaken by the reader, beginning with what energy is and where the energy in glucose is found, and ending with the concept of high versus low intensity exercise in augmenting weight loss. The text traces biological energy exchange, from the molecules in the food we eat to the energy demands of rest, physical exertion and its recovery. Because of life's continuous need for exchanges to take place with the environment, metabolism is proposed to be as much an act of engineering as it is biochemistry. The carefully researched text advances traditional exercise physiology concepts by incorporating contemporary thermodynamic and cellular physiology principles into the context of a 'working' metabolism. This book is written for upper level undergraduate and graduate students, but will also appeal to exercise physiologists, registered dieticians and nutritionists, and applies to cardiac rehabilitation, exercise science and health fitness programs. Written for: Sports nutritionists, biochemists, physiologists, and sports medicine specialists

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9781603273824
  • Publisher: Springer-Verlag New York, LLC
  • Publication date: 9/30/2008
  • Edition description: 2008
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 166
  • Product dimensions: 6.40 (w) x 9.30 (h) x 0.70 (d)

Table of Contents

1 Introduction: Thermodynamics, Bioenergetics, Metabolism 1

References 3

Part I Thermodynamics

2 Within and Without: Systems and Surroundings 7

2.1 Isolated Systems 8

2.2 Closed Systems 8

2.3 Open Systems 9

2.4 Life is an Open System 11

3 Conservation 13

4 Matter and Energy 17

4.1 Matter 17

4.2 Energy 19

4.3 Internal Energy 21

4.4 Internal Energy (U) Exchanges 23

References 25

Bibliography 25

5 Energy Accountability: Enthalpy (H) 27

5.1 The Chemical Reaction System 27

5.2 Chemical (Standard) Enthalpy Exchanges 28

5.3 Chemical (Nonstandard) Enthalpy Exchange 31

Bibliography 33

6 Energy Has Bias: Entropy (S) 35

6.1 Second Laws of Thermodynamics 35

6.2 Energy Distribution 37

References 42

Bibliography 42

7 The Energy Exchange Gradient: Gibbs Energy (G) 43

7.1 [delta]G[degree] 43

7.2 Energy Unification 45

7.3 [delta]G[degree]': Closed Systems Under Standard Conditions 47

7.4 [delta]G: Nonstandard Conditions 49

References 52

Bibliography 52

Part II Bioenergetics

8 Life's Currency: ATP 55

8.1 ATP: Structure and Content 55

8.2 ATP: Energy Exchange 56

8.3 ATP: Turnover Efficiency 57

8.4 ATP Utilization (Energy Demand) 58

8.5 ATP Resynthesis (Energy Supply) 60

References 61

9 Metabolism as an Energy-Exchange Device 63

9.1 Metabolic Power: Force and Flow 64

9.2 Negative Entropy (?) 66

9.3 Dynamics of a Metabolic Pathway 67

9.4 Intracellular Transport 68

9.5 Time 71

9.6 Exergy Synopsis 72

References 72

10 Anaerobic Metabolism 75

10.1 A Brief History of Anaerobic Biochemistry 75

10.2 The Glycolytic Gradient 76

10.3 Glycolytic Enthalpy and Entropy80

10.4 "High-Energy" Phosphate Buffering 81

10.5 Anaerobic "Speed" 82

References 84

11 Aerobic Metabolism 87

11.1 Mitochondria 87

11.2 Krebs Cycle: Gradient 1 88

11.3 Electron Transport Chain: Gradient 2 91

11.4 Proton-Motive Force: Gradient 3 92

11.5 The Creatine Phosphate Shuttle 94

11.6 ATP Tally 95

References 96

Part III Metabolism

12 Aerobic Energy Expenditure 99

12.1 Combustion, Respiration, and Heat 99

12.2 Thornton's Law: Combustion 100

12.3 Respiration and Energy Expenditure 103

12.4 Heat and Gas Exchange 105

12.5 Aerobic Energy Expenditure as Heat and Entropy 106

12.6 CO[subscript 2] and O[subscript 2]: RER = Aerobic and Anaerobic Energy Exchange 108

References 110

13 Anaerobic Energy Expenditure 111

13.1 The Oxygen Deficit 111

13.2 Lactate 115

References 121

14 Metabolic Energy Expenditure at Rest 123

14.1 Measuring Energy Expenditure: Calorimetry 123

14.2 The Energy Expenditure of Rest 127

14.3 Eating and Energy Expenditure 130

14.4 Pregnancy and Energy Expenditure 131

References 133

15 Metabolic Energy Expenditure of Activity (Work and Exercise) 137

15.1 Rate vs. Capacity vs. METs 137

15.2 Muscle 141

15.3 Work and Energy Expenditure Relationships 143

15.4 Glycolytic vs. Respiratory Efficiency 145

References 147

16 Total Energy Expenditure of Exercise and Recovery 149

16.1 Aerobic Exercise Energy Expenditure 149

16.2 Anaerobic Exercise Energy Expenditure 151

16.3 Aerobic Recovery Energy Expenditure 153

16.4 Dismissing the Oxygen Debt Hypothesis 155

16.5 Total Energy Expenditure 157

16.6 Weight Loss: Low vs. High Intensity Activity 158

References 160

Index 163

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