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A Primer of Ecology / Edition 4

A Primer of Ecology / Edition 4

by Nicholas J. Gotelli

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ISBN-10: 0878933182

ISBN-13: 9780878933181

Pub. Date: 05/15/2008

Publisher: Sinauer Associates, Incorporated

Product Details

Sinauer Associates, Incorporated
Publication date:
Edition description:
New Edition
Sales rank:
Product dimensions:
5.90(w) x 8.90(h) x 0.60(d)

Table of Contents

Preface to the Third EditionXI
Preface to the Second EditionXIII
Preface to the First EditionXIV
To the StudentXX
Chapter 1Exponential Population Growth1
Model Presentation and Predictions2
Elements of Population Growth2
Projecting Population Size6
Calculating Doubling Time6
Model Assumptions9
Model Variations11
Continuous versus Discrete Population Growth11
Environmental Stochasticity13
Demographic Stochasticity16
Empirical Examples19
Pheasants of Protection Island19
Grizzly Bears of Yellowstone National Park20
Chapter 2Logistic Population Growth25
Model Presentation and Predictions26
Density Dependence26
Carrying Capacity28
Model Assumptions30
Model Variations32
Time Lags32
Discrete Population Growth35
Random Variation in Carrying Capacity38
Periodic Variation in Carrying Capacity38
Empirical Examples41
Song Sparrows of Mandarte Island41
Population Dynamics of Subtidal Ascidians43
Logistic Growth and the Collapse of Fisheries Populations45
Chapter 3Age-Structured Population Growth49
Model Presentation and Predictions50
Exponential Growth with Age Structure50
Notation for Ages and Age Classes50
The Fecundity Schedule [b(x)]52
Fecundity Schedules in Nature53
The Survivorship Schedule [l(x)]53
Survival Probability [g(x)]54
Survivorship Schedules in Nature55
Calculating Net Reproductive Rate (R[subscript 0])56
Calculating Generation Time (G)57
Calculating Intrinsic Rate of Increase (r)58
Describing Population Age Structure59
Calculating Survival Probabilities for Age Classes (P[subscript i])60
Calculating Fertilities for Age Classes (F[subscript i])60
The Leslie Matrix61
Stable and Stationary Age Distributions63
Model Assumptions66
Model Variations66
Derivation of the Euler Equation66
Reproductive Value67
Life History Strategies69
Stage- and Size-Structured Population Growth71
Empirical Examples74
Life Tables for Ground Squirrels74
Stage Projection Matrices for Teasel76
Chapter 4Metapopulation Dynamics81
Model Presentation and Predictions82
Metapopulations and Extinction Risk83
A Model of Metapopulation Dynamics84
Model Assumptions87
Model Variations88
The Island-Mainland Model88
Internal Colonization88
The Rescue Effect90
Other Variations91
Empirical Examples93
The Checkerspot Butterfly93
Heathland Carabid Beetles94
Chapter 5Competition99
Model Presentation and Predictions100
Competitive Interactions100
The Lotka-Volterra Competition Model101
Competition Coefficients102
Equilibrium Solutions103
The State Space104
Graphical Solutions to the Lotka-Volterra Competition Model107
The Principle of Competitive Exclusion112
Model Assumptions114
Model Variations115
Intraguild Predation115
Empirical Examples116
Competition between Intertidal Sandflat Worms116
The Shape of a Gerbil Isocline120
Chapter 6Predation125
Model Presentation and Predictions126
Modeling Prey Population Growth126
Modeling Predator Population Growth127
Equilibrium Solutions128
Graphical Solutions to the Lotka-Volterra Predation Model128
Model Assumptions133
Model Variations134
Incorporating a Victim Carrying Capacity134
Modifying the Functional Response135
The Paradox of Enrichment140
Incorporating Other Factors in the Victim Isocline142
Modifying the Predator Isocline143
Empirical Examples147
Population Cycles of Hare and Lynx147
Population Cycles of Red Grouse148
Chapter 7Island Biogeography155
Model Presentation and Predictions156
The Species-Area Relationship156
The Habitat Diversity Hypothesis158
The Equilibrium Model of Island Biogeography159
Model Assumptions165
Model Variations166
Nonlinear Immigration and Extinction Curves166
Area and Distance Effects167
The Rescue Effect168
The Target Effect169
The Passive Sampling Model170
Empirical Examples171
Insects of Mangrove Islands171
Breeding Birds of Eastern Wood173
Breeding Birds of the Pymatuning Lake Islands175
Chapter 8Succession179
Model Presentation and Predictions181
Three Verbal Models of Succession181
Matrix Models of Succession183
Setting the Stages183
Specifying the Time Step184
Constructing the Stage Vector184
Constructing the Transition Matrix184
Loop Diagrams185
Projecting Community Change186
Determining the Equilibrium187
Stage Vectors and Transition Matrices: Two Interpretations188
Model Assumptions190
Model Variations191
Successional Models Revisited191
Facilitation Model191
Inhibition model192
Tolerance Model194
Model Comparisons194
Other Models196
Empirical Examples197
Markovian Dynamics of Desert Vegetation197
Models of Coral Reef Succession199
Constructing a Population Model203
The Derivative: The Velocity of a Population203
Modeling Population Growth205
Solving for the Equilibrium206
Analyzing the Stability of the Equilibrium207
The Integral: Projecting Population Growth212
Solutions to Problems215
Chapter 1215
Chapter 2218
Chapter 3221
Chapter 4223
Chapter 5225
Chapter 6226
Chapter 7228
Chapter 8229
Literature Cited249

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