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Designed to show readers how to use chemical principles in solving geological problems, this book emphasizes a quantitative approach to problem solving and demonstrates how chemical principles control geologic processes in atomic and large-scale environments. The book starts with basic principles and emphasizes quantitative methods of problem-solving. It uses the principles of isotope geology to enhance the understanding of appropriate geochemical subject areas. The book also examines the geochemical processes that affect the chemical composition of surface water and that determine its quality for human consumption. For anyone interested in Geochemistry or Geology.
I. PLANET EARTH IN THE SOLAR SYSTEM.
1. What Is Geochemistry?
2. In the Beginning.
3. The Solar System.
4. Chemical Differentiation of the Earth.
II. PRINCIPLES OF INORGANIC GEOCHEMISTRY.
5. The Electronic Structure of Atoms.
6. The Periodic Table and Atomic Weights.
7. Chemical Bonds, Ionic Radii, and Crystals.
8. Ionic Substitution in Crystals.
III. AQUEOUS GEOCHEMISTRY AND THE STABILITY OF MINERALS.
9. Acids and Bases.
10. Salts and Their Ions.
12. Mineral Stability Diagrams.
13. Clay Minerals.
14. Oxidation-Reduction Reactions.
15. Rates of Geothermal Processes.
IV. ISOTOPE GEOCHEMISTRY AND MIXING.
16. Isotopic Geochronometers.
17. Isotope Fractionation.
18. Mixing and Dilution.
V. APPLICATIONS OF GEOCHEMISTRY TO THE SOLUTION OF GLOBAL PROBLEMS.
19. Consequences of Chemical Weathering.
20. The Chemical Composition of Surface Water.
21. Chemical Weathering of Mineral Deposits.
22. Geochemical Cycles.
23. Chemistry of the Atmosphere.
24. Environmental Geochemistry: Disposal of Radioactive Waste.
25. Effect of Environmental Lead on Human Health.
Appendix 1. Useful Data Tables.
Appendix 2. Standard Gibbs Free Energies (G f0) and Standard Enthalpies of Formation (H f0).