Principles and Applications of Tribology

Overview

This fully updated Second Edition provides the reader with the solid understanding of tribology which is essential to engineers involved in the design of, and ensuring the reliability of, machine parts and systems. It moves from basic theory to practice, examining tribology from the integrated viewpoint of mechanical engineering, mechanics, and materials science. It offers detailed coverage of the mechanisms of material wear, friction, and all of the major lubrication techniques - liquids, solids, and gases - and...

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Overview

This fully updated Second Edition provides the reader with the solid understanding of tribology which is essential to engineers involved in the design of, and ensuring the reliability of, machine parts and systems. It moves from basic theory to practice, examining tribology from the integrated viewpoint of mechanical engineering, mechanics, and materials science. It offers detailed coverage of the mechanisms of material wear, friction, and all of the major lubrication techniques - liquids, solids, and gases - and examines a wide range of both traditional and state-of-the-art applications.

For this edition, the author has included updates on friction, wear and lubrication, as well as completely revised material including the latest breakthroughs in tribology at the nano- and micro- level and a revised introduction to nanotechnology. Also included is a new chapter on the emerging field of green tribology and biomimetics.

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Editorial Reviews

From the Publisher

“Summing Up: Recommended. Upper-division undergraduates and graduate students in engineering, researchers/faculty, and professionals/practitioners.” (Choice, 1 October 2013)

Booknews
Examines tribology from the integrated viewpoint of mechanical engineering, mechanics, and materials science, moving from basic theory to practice. Offers detailed coverage of the mechanisms of material wear, friction, and all of the major lubrication techniques, and examines a wide range of both traditional and state-of-the-art applications. Emphasizes a contemporary knowledge of tribology that includes the emerging field of micro/nanotribology and various industrial applications, including cutting-edge topics such as magnetic information storage devices and microelectromechanical systems. Annotation c. by Book News, Inc., Portland, Or.
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9781119944546
  • Publisher: Wiley
  • Publication date: 3/25/2013
  • Series: Tribology in Practice Series
  • Edition number: 2
  • Pages: 1006
  • Product dimensions: 6.90 (w) x 9.80 (h) x 2.00 (d)

Meet the Author

Dr Bhushan is Ohio Eminent Scholar and The Howard D. Winbigler Professor as well as Director of the Nanoprobe Laboratory for Bio- & Nanotechnology and Biomimetics at The Ohio State University. During his career he has received a number of awards and accolades as well as being central to teaching and formulating the curriculum in Tribology-related topics. He is a Fellow and Life Member of American Society of Mechanical Engineers, Society of Tribologists and Lubrication Engineers, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, as well as various other professional societies.

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Table of Contents

About the Author xv

Foreword xvii

Series Preface xix

Preface to Second Edition xxi

Preface to First Edition xxiii

1 Introduction 1

1.1 Definition and History of Tribology 1

1.2 Industrial Significance of Tribology 3

1.3 Origins and Significance of Micro/Nanotribology 4

1.4 Organization of the Book 6

References 7

2 Structure and Properties of Solids 9

2.1 Introduction 9

2.2 Atomic Structure, Bonding and Coordination 9

2.2.1 Individual Atoms and Ions 9

2.2.2 Molecules, Bonding and Atomic Coordination 13

2.3 Crystalline Structures 33

2.3.1 Planar Structures 33

2.3.2 Nonplanar Structures 39

2.4 Disorder in Solid Structures 41

2.4.1 Point Defects 41

2.4.2 Line Defects (Dislocations) 41

2.4.3 Surfaces/Internal Boundaries 44

2.4.4 Solid Solutions 45

2.5 Atomic Vibrations and Diffusions 45

2.6 Phase Diagrams 46

2.7 Microstructures 48

2.8 Elastic and Plastic Deformation, Fracture and Fatigue 49

2.8.1 Elastic Deformation 51

2.8.2 Plastic Deformation 53

2.8.3 Plastic Deformation Mechanisms 56

2.8.4 Fracture 62

2.8.5 Fatigue 68

2.9 Time-Dependent Viscoelastic/Viscoplastic Deformation 74

2.9.1 Description of Time-Dependent Deformation Experiments 77

Problems 80

References 81

Further Reading 82

3 Solid Surface Characterization 83

3.1 The Nature of Surfaces 83

3.2 Physico-Chemical Characteristics of Surface Layers 84

3.2.1 Deformed Layer 84

3.2.2 Chemically Reacted Layer 85

3.2.3 Physisorbed Layer 86

3.2.4 Chemisorbed Layer 87

3.2.5 Surface Tension, Surface Energy, and Wetting 87

3.2.6 Methods of Characterization of Surface Layers 90

3.3 Analysis of Surface Roughness 90

3.3.1 Average Roughness Parameters 92

3.3.2 Statistical Analyses 99

3.3.3 Fractal Characterization 125

3.3.4 Practical Considerations in the Measurement of Roughness Parameters 127

3.4 Measurement of Surface Roughness 131

3.4.1 Mechanical Stylus Method 133

3.4.2 Optical Methods 137

3.4.3 Scanning Probe Microscopy (SPM) Methods 155

3.4.4 Fluid Methods 163

3.4.5 Electrical Method 166

3.4.6 Electron Microscopy Methods 166

3.4.7 Analysis of Measured Height Distribution 168

3.4.8 Comparison of Measurement Methods 168

3.5 Closure 174

Problems 175

References 176

Further Reading 179

4 Contact between Solid Surfaces 181

4.1 Introduction 181

4.2 Analysis of the Contacts 182

4.2.1 Single Asperity Contact of Homogeneous and Frictionless Solids 182

4.2.2 Single Asperity Contact of Layered Solids in Frictionless and Frictional Contacts 199

4.2.3 Multiple Asperity Dry Contacts 209

4.3 Measurement of the Real Area of Contact 251

4.3.1 Review of Measurement Techniques 251

4.3.2 Comparison of Different Measurement Techniques 255

4.3.3 Typical Measurements 259

4.4 Closure 262

Problems 264

References 265

Further Reading 269

5 Adhesion 271

5.1 Introduction 271

5.2 Solid–Solid Contact 272

5.2.1 Covalent Bond 276

5.2.2 Ionic or Electrostatic Bond 276

5.2.3 Metallic Bond 277

5.2.4 Hydrogen Bond 278

5.2.5 Van der Waals Bond 278

5.2.6 Free Surface Energy Theory of Adhesion 279

5.2.7 Polymer Adhesion 287

5.3 Liquid-Mediated Contact 288

5.3.1 Idealized Geometries 290

5.3.2 Multiple-Asperity Contacts 305

5.4 Closure 316

Problems 317

References 317

Further Reading 320

6 Friction 321

6.1 Introduction 321

6.2 Solid–Solid Contact 323

6.2.1 Rules of Sliding Friction 323

6.2.2 Basic Mechanisms of Sliding Friction 328

6.2.3 Other Mechanisms of Sliding Friction 349

6.2.4 Friction Transitions During Sliding 354

6.2.5 Static Friction 356

6.2.6 Stick-Slip 358

6.2.7 Rolling Friction 362

6.3 Liquid-Mediated Contact 366

6.4 Friction of Materials 369

6.4.1 Friction of Metals and Alloys 371

6.4.2 Friction of Ceramics 375

6.4.3 Friction of Polymers 380

6.4.4 Friction of Solid Lubricants 383

6.5 Closure 392

Problems 396

References 397

Further Reading 400

7 Interface Temperature of Sliding Surfaces 403

7.1 Introduction 403

7.2 Thermal Analysis 404

7.2.1 Fundamental Heat Conduction Solutions 405

7.2.2 High Contact-Stress Condition (Ar /Aa ∼ 1) (Individual Contact) 406

7.2.3 Low Contact-Stress Condition (Ar /Aa I 1) (Multiple-Asperity Contact) 415

7.3 Interface Temperature Measurements 431

7.3.1 Thermocouple and Thin-Film Temperature Sensors 431

7.3.2 Radiation Detection Techniques 434

7.3.3 Metallographic Techniques 440

7.3.4 Liquid Crystals 441

7.4 Closure 442

Problems 444

References 444

8 Wear 447

8.1 Introduction 447

8.2 Types of Wear Mechanisms 448

8.2.1 Adhesive Wear 448

8.2.2 Abrasive Wear (by Plastic Deformation and Fracture) 459

8.2.3 Fatigue Wear 475

8.2.4 Impact Wear 484

8.2.5 Chemical (Corrosive) Wear 493

8.2.6 Electrical Arc-Induced Wear 495

8.2.7 Fretting and Fretting Corrosion 497

8.3 Types of Particles Present in Wear Debris 499

8.3.1 Plate-Shaped Particles 499

8.3.2 Ribbon-Shaped Particles 499

8.3.3 Spherical Particles 500

8.3.4 Irregularly Shaped Particles 503

8.4 Wear of Materials 503

8.4.1 Wear of Metals and Alloys 505

8.4.2 Wear of Ceramics 510

8.4.3 Wear of Polymers 517

8.5 Closure 522

Appendix 8.A Indentation Cracking in Brittle Materials 525

8.A.1 Blunt Indenter 526

8.A.2 Sharp Indenter 526

Appendix 8.B Analysis of Failure Data Using the Weibull Distribution 532

8.B.1 General Expression of the Weibull Distribution 532

8.B.2 Graphical Representation of a Weibull Distribution 534

Problems 538

References 539

Further Reading 543

9 Fluid Film Lubrication 545

9.1 Introduction 545

9.2 Regimes of Fluid Film Lubrication 546

9.2.1 Hydrostatic Lubrication 546

9.2.2 Hydrodynamic Lubrication 546

9.2.3 Elastohydrodynamic Lubrication 548

9.2.4 Mixed Lubrication 549

9.2.5 Boundary Lubrication 549

9.3 Viscous Flow and the Reynolds Equation 550

9.3.1 Viscosity and Newtonian Fluids 550

9.3.2 Fluid Flow 555

9.4 Hydrostatic Lubrication 569

9.5 Hydrodynamic Lubrication 579

9.5.1 Thrust Bearings 581

9.5.2 Journal Bearings 594

9.5.3 Squeeze Film Bearings 613

9.5.4 Gas-Lubricated Bearings 616

9.6 Elastohydrodynamic Lubrication 632

9.6.1 Forms of Contacts 633

9.6.2 Line Contact 634

9.6.3 Point Contact 644

9.6.4 Thermal Correction 645

9.6.5 Lubricant Rheology 646

9.7 Closure 647

Problems 649

References 650

Further Reading 652

10 Boundary Lubrication and Lubricants 655

10.1 Introduction 655

10.2 Boundary Lubrication 656

10.2.1 Effect of Adsorbed Gases 658

10.2.2 Effect of Monolayers and Multilayers 659

10.2.3 Effect of Chemical Films 662

10.2.4 Effect of Chain Length (or Molecular Weight) 664

10.3 Liquid Lubricants 665

10.3.1 Principal Classes of Lubricants 665

10.3.2 Physical and Chemical Properties of Lubricants 671

10.3.3 Additives 680

10.4 Ionic Liquids 681

10.4.1 Composition of Ionic Liquids 682

10.4.2 Properties of Ionic Liquids 684

10.4.3 Lubrication Mechanisms of ILs 685

10.4.4 Issues on the Applicability of Ionic Liquids as Lubricants 685

10.5 Greases 686

10.6 Closure 686

References 687

Further Reading 688

11 Nanotribology 689

11.1 Introduction 689

11.2 SFA Studies 691

11.2.1 Description of an SFA 692

11.2.2 Static (Equilibrium), Dynamic, and Shear Properties of Molecularly Thin Liquid Films 694

11.3 AFM/FFM Studies 703

11.3.1 Description of AFM/FFM and Various Measurement Techniques 704

11.3.2 Surface Imaging, Friction, and Adhesion 712

11.3.3 Wear, Scratching, Local Deformation, and Fabrication/Machining 741

11.3.4 Indentation 752

11.3.5 Boundary Lubrication 758

11.4 Atomic-Scale Computer Simulations 773

11.4.1 Interatomic Forces and Equations of Motion 773

11.4.2 Interfacial Solid Junctions 775

11.4.3 Interfacial Liquid Junctions and Confined Films 776

11.5 Closure 778

References 781

Further Reading 788

12 Friction and Wear Screening Test Methods 789

12.1 Introduction 789

12.2 Design Methodology 789

12.2.1 Simulation 790

12.2.2 Acceleration 790

12.2.3 Specimen Preparation 790

12.2.4 Friction and Wear Measurements 791

12.3 Typical Test Geometries 794

12.3.1 Sliding Friction and Wear Tests 794

12.3.2 Abrasion Tests 797

12.3.3 Rolling-Contact Fatigue Tests 799

12.3.4 Solid-Particle Erosion Test 799

12.3.5 Corrosion Tests 800

12.4 Closure 802

References 802

Further Reading 803

13 Bulk Materials, Coatings, and Surface Treatments for Tribology 805

13.1 Introduction 805

13.2 Bulk Materials 806

13.2.1 Metals and Alloys 808

13.2.2 Ceramics and Cermets 826

13.2.3 Ceramic-Metal Composites 840

13.2.4 Solid Lubricants and Self-Lubricating Solids 841

13.3 Coatings and Surface Treatments 861

13.3.1 Coating Deposition Techniques 864

13.3.2 Surface Treatment Techniques 885

13.3.3 Criteria for Selecting Coating Material/Deposition and Surface Treatment Techniques 890

13.4 Closure 892

References 892

Further Reading 896

14 Tribological Components and Applications 899

14.1 Introduction 899

14.2 Common Tribological Components 899

14.2.1 Sliding-Contact Bearings 899

14.2.2 Rolling-Contact Bearings 901

14.2.3 Seals 903

14.2.4 Gears 905

14.2.5 Cams and Tappets 907

14.2.6 Piston Rings 908

14.2.7 Electrical Brushes 910

14.3 MEMS/NEMS 912

14.3.1 MEMS 914

14.3.2 NEMS 921

14.3.3 BioMEMS 921

14.3.4 Microfabrication Processes 922

14.4 Material Processing 923

14.4.1 Cutting Tools 923

14.4.2 Grinding and Lapping 927

14.4.3 Forming Processes 927

14.4.4 Cutting Fluids 928

14.5 Industrial Applications 930

14.5.1 Automotive Engines 930

14.5.2 Gas Turbine Engines 932

14.5.3 Railroads 934

14.5.4 Magnetic Storage Devices 935

14.6 Closure 942

References 943

Further Reading 947

15 Green Tribology and Biomimetics 949

15.1 Introduction 949

15.2 Green Tribology 949

15.2.1 Twelve Principles of Green Tribology 950

15.2.2 Areas of Green Tribology 951

15.3 Biomimetics 954

15.3.1 Lessons from Nature 955

15.3.2 Industrial Significance 958

15.4 Closure 959

References 959

Further Reading 961

Appendix A Units, Conversions, and Useful Relations 963

A.1 Fundamental Constants 963

A.2 Conversion of Units 963

A.3 Useful Relations 964

Index 965

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First Chapter

Principles And Applications Of Tribology
Bharat Bhushan
ISBN: 0-471-59407-5

(NOTE: The figures and/or tables mentioned in this sample chapter do not appear on web version.)

Introduction

In this introductory chapter, the definition and history of tribology and their industrial significance are described, followed by origins and significance of an emerging field of micro/nanotribology. In the last section, organization of the book is presented.

1.1 DEFINITION AND HISTORY OF TRIBOLOGY
The word tribology was first reported in a landmark report by Jost (1966). The word is derived from the Greek word tribos meaning rubbing, so the literal translation would be "the science of rubbing."' Its popular English language equivalent is friction and wear or lubrication science, alternatively used. The latter term is hardly all-inclusive. Dictionaries define tribology as the science and technology of interacting surfaces in relative motion and of related subjects and practices. Tribology is the art of applying operational analysis to problems of great economic significance, namely, reliability, maintenance, and wear of technical equipment, ranging from spacecraft to household appliances. Surface interactions in a tribological interface are highly complex, and their understanding requires knowledge of various disciplines including physics, chemistry, applied mathematics, solid mechanics, fluid mechanics, thermodynamics, heat transfer, materials science, rheology, lubrication, machine design, performance and reliability.
It is only the name tribology that is relatively new, because interest in the constituent parts of tribology is older than recorded history (Dowson, 1998). It is known that drills made during the Paleolithic period for drilling holes or producing fire were fitted with bearings made from antlers or bones, and potters' wheels or stones for grinding cereals, etc., clearly had a requirement for some form of bearings (Davidson, 1957). A ball thrust bearing dated about AD 40 was found in Lake Nimi near Rome.
Records show the use of wheels from 3500 BC, which illustrates our ancestors' concern with reducing friction in translationary motion. The transportation of large stone building blocks and monuments required the know-how of frictional devices and lubricants, such as water-lubricated sleds. Figure 1.1.1 illustrates the use of a sledge to transport a heavy statue by Egyptians Circa 1880 BC (Layard, 1853). In this transportation, 172 slaves are being used to drag a large statue weighing about 600 kN along a wooden track. One man, standing on the sledge supporting the statue, is seen pouring a liquid into the path of motion; perhaps he was one of the earliest lubrication engineers. [Dowson (1998) has estimated that each man exerted a pull of about 800 N. On this basis, the total effort, which must at least equal the friction force, becomes 172 x 800 N. Thus, the coefficient of friction is about 0.23.] A tomb in Egypt that was dated several thousand years BC provides the evidence of use of lubricants. A chariot in this tomb still contained some of the original animal-fat lubricant in its wheel bearings.
During and after the glory of the Roman empire, military engineers rose to prominence by devising both war machinery and methods of fortification, using tribological principles. It was the renaissance engineer-artist Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519), celebrated in his days for his genius in military construction as well as for his painting and sculpture, who first postulated a scientific approach to friction. Da Vinci deduced the laws governing the motion of a rectangular block sliding over a flat surface. He introduced, for the first time, the concept of coefficient of friction as the ratio of the friction force to normal load. His work had no historical influence, however, because his notebooks remained unpublished for hundreds of years. In 1699, the French physicist Guillaume Amontons rediscovered the laws of friction after he studied dry sliding between two flat surfaces (Amontons, 1699). First, the friction force that resists sliding at an interface is directly proportional to the normal load. Second, the amount of friction force does not depend on the apparent area of contact. These observations were verified by French physicist Charles-Augustin Coulomb (better known for his work on electrostatics) (Coulomb, 1785). He added a third law that the friction force is independent of velocity once motion starts. He also made a clear distinction between static friction and kinetic friction.
Many other developments occurred during the 1500s, particularly in the use of improved bearing materials. In 1684, Robert Hooke suggested the combination of steel shafts and bell-metal bushes as preferable to wood shod with iron for wheel bearings. Further developments were associated with the growth of industrialization in the latter part of the eighteenth century. Early developments in the petroleum industry started in Scotland, Canada, and the United States in the 1850s (Parish, 1935; Dowson, 1998).
Though essential laws of viscous flow were postulated by Sir Isaac Newton in 1668; scientific understanding of lubricated bearing operations did not occur until the end of the nineteenth century. Indeed, the beginning of our understanding of the principle of hydrodynamic lubrication was made possible by the experimental studies of Beauchamp Tower (1884) and the theoretical interpretations of Osborne Reynolds (1886) and related work by N.P. Petroff (1883). Since then developments in hydrodynamic bearing theory and practice were extremely rapid in meeting the demand for reliable bearings in new machinery.
Wear is a much younger subject than friction and bearing development, and it was initiated on a largely empirical basis. Scientific studies of wear developed little until the mid-twentieth century. Ragnar Holm made one of the earliest substantial contributions to the study of wear (Holm, 1946).
The industrial revolution (1750-1850 AD) is recognized as a period of rapid and impressive development of the machinery of production. The use of steam power and the subsequent development of the railways in the 1830s led to promotion of manufacturing skills. Since the beginning of the twentieth century, from enormous industrial growth leading to demand for better tribology, knowledge in all areas of tribology has expanded tremendously (Holm, 1946; Bowden and Tabor, 1950, 1964; Bhushan, 1992, 1996; Bhushan and Gupta, 1997).

1.2 INDUSTRIAL SIGNIFICANCE OF TRIBOLOGY
Tribology is crucial to modern machinery which uses sliding and rolling surfaces. Examples of productive friction are brakes, clutches, driving wheels on trains and automobiles, bolts, and nuts. Examples of productive wear are writing with a pencil, machining, polishing, and shaving. Examples of unproductive friction and wear are internal combustion and aircraft engines, gears, cams, bearings, and seals.
According to some estimates, losses resulting from ignorance of tribology amount in the United States to about 6% of its gross national product (or about $200 billion dollars per year in 1966), and approximately one-third of the world's energy resources in present use appear as friction in one form or another. Thus, the importance of friction reduction and wear control cannot be overemphasized for economic reasons and long-term reliability. According to Jost (1966, 1976), the United Kingdom could save approximately 500 million pounds per annum, and the United States could save in excess of 16 billion dollars per annum by better tribological practices. The savings are both substantial and significant, and these savings can be obtained without the deployment of large capital investment.
The purpose of research in tribology is understandably the minimization and elimination of losses resulting from friction and wear at all levels of technology where the rubbing of surfaces is involved. Research in tribology leads to greater plant efficiency, better performance, fewer breakdowns, and significant savings.

1.3 ORIGINS AND SIGNIFICANCE OF MICRO/NANOTRIBOLOGY
At most interfaces of technological relevance, contact occurs at numerous asperities. Consequently, the importance of investigating a single asperity contact in studies of the fundamental tribological and mechanical properties of surfaces has been long recognized. The recent emergence and proliferation of proximal probes, in particular tip-based microscopies (the scanning tunneling microscope and the atomic force microscope) and of computational techniques for simulating tip-surface interactions and interfacial properties, has allowed systematic investigations of interfacial problems with high resolution as well as ways and means for modifying and manipulating nanoscale structures. These advances have led to the development of the new field of microtribology, nanotribology, molecular tribology, or atomic-scale tribology (Bhushan, 1997, 1999; Bhushan et al., 1995). This field is concerned with experimental and theoretical investigations of processes ranging from atomic and molecular scales to microscales, occurring during adhesion, friction, wear, and thin-film lubrication at sliding surfaces.
The differences between the conventional or macrotribology and micro/nanotribology are contrasted in Fig. 1.3.1. In macrotribology, tests are conducted on components with relatively large mass under heavily loaded conditions. In these tests, wear is inevitable and the bulk properties of mating components dominate the tribological performance. In micro/nanotribology, measurements are made on components, at least one of the mating components, with relatively small mass under lightly loaded conditions. In this situation, negligible wear occurs and the surface properties dominate the tribological performance.
The micro/nanotribological studies are needed to develop fundamental understanding of interfacial phenomena on a small scale and to study interfacial phenomena in micro- and nanostructures used in magnetic storage systems, microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) and other industrial applications. The components used in micro- and nanostructures are very light (on the order of few micrograms) and operate under very light loads (on the order of a few micrograms to a few milligrams). As a result, friction and wear (on a nanoscale) of lightly loaded micro/nanocomponents are highly dependent on the surface interactions (few atomic layers). These structures are generally lubricated with molecularly thin films. Micro- and nanotribological techniques are ideal to study the friction and wear processes of micro- and nanostructures. Although micro/nanotribological studies are critical to study micro- and nanostructures, these studies are also valuable in fundamental understanding of interfacial phenomena in macrostructures to provide a bridge between science and engineering.
The scanning tunneling microscope, the atomic force and friction force microscopes and the surface force apparatus are widely used for micro/nanotribological studies (Bhushan, 1997, 1999; Bhushan et al., 1995). To give a historical perspective of the field, the scanning tunneling microscope (STM) developed by Drs Gerd Binnig and Heinrich Rohrer and their colleagues in 1981 at the IBM Zurich Research Laboratory, Forschungslabor, is the first instrument capable of directly obtaining three-dimensional (3D) images of solid surfaces with atomic resolution (Binnig et al., 1982). STMs can only be used to study surfaces which are electrically conductive to some degree. Based on their design of STM, in 1985, Binnig et al. developed an atomic force microscope (AFM) to measure ultrasmall forces (less than 1 mN) present between the AFM tip surface and the sample surface, Binnig et al. (1986, 1987). AFMs can be used for measurement of all engineering surfaces which may be either electrically conducting or insulating. AFM has become a popular surface profiler for topographic measurements on micro- to nanoscale. AFMs modified to measure both normal and friction forces, generally called friction force microscopes (FFMs) or lateral force microscopes (LFMs), are used to measure friction on micro- and nanoscales. AFMs are also used for studies of adhesion, scratching, wear, lubrication, surface temperatures, and for measurements of elastic/plastic mechanical properties (such as indentation hardness and modulus of elasticity). Surface force apparatuses (SFAs), first developed in 1969, are used to study both static and dynamic properties of the molecularly thin liquid films sandwiched between two molecularly smooth surf aces (Tabor and Winterton, 1969; Bhushan, 1999).
Meanwhile, significant progress in understanding the fundamental nature of bonding and interactions in materials, combined with advances in computer-based modeling and simulation methods, have allowed theoretical studies of complex interfacial phenomena with high resolution in space and time (Bhushan, 1999). Such simulations provide insights into atomic-scale energetics, structure, dynamics, thermodynamics, transport and rheological aspects of tribological processes. Furthermore, these theoretical approaches guide the interpretation of experimental data and the design of new experiments, and enable the prediction of new phenomena based on atomistic principles.

1.4 ORGANIZATION OF THE BOOK
Friction, wear, and lubrication behavior of interfaces is greatly dependent upon the surface material, shape of mating surfaces and operating environment. A surface film may change the physical and chemical properties of the first few atomic layers of material through interaction with environment. Structure and properties of solids are discussed in Chapter 2 followed by solid surface characterization in Chapter 3. Chapter 3 includes discussion on nature of surfaces, physico-chemical characteristics of solid surfaces, statistical analysis of surface roughness, and methods of characterization of solid surfaces. Chapter 4 is devoted to the elastic and plastic real area of contacts that occur when two solid surfaces are placed in contact. Statistical and numerical analyses and measurement techniques are presented. Chapter 5 covers various adhesion mechanisms in dry and wet conditions. Various analytical and numerical models to predict liquid mediated adhesion are described. When the two surfaces in contact slide or roll against each other friction is encountered; various friction mechanisms, physical and chemical properties that control friction, and typical friction data of materials are discussed in Chapter 6. Chapter 7 is devoted to the interface temperatures generated from the dissipation of the frictional energy input. Analysis and measurement techniques for interface temperatures and the impact of temperature rise on an interface performance are discussed.
Repeated sliding or rolling results in wear. In Chapter 8, various wear mechanisms, types of particles present in wear debris, and representative data for various materials of engineering interest are presented. Chapter 9 reviews various regimes of lubrication, the theories of hydrostatic, hydrodynamic and elastohydrodynamic lubrication and various designs of bearings. In Chapter 10, mechanisms of boundary lubrication, description of various liquid lubricants and additives and greases are presented. In Chapter 11, various experimental techniques and molecular dynamics computer simulation techniques used for micro/nanotribological studies and state of the art and their applications are described and relevant data are presented. In Chapter 12, design methodology and typical test geometries for friction and wear test methods are described.
In Chapter 13, bulk materials, coatings and surface treatments used for tribological applications are described. Coating deposition and surface treatment techniques are also described. In Chapter 14,descriptions, relevant wear mechanisms and commonly used materials for common tribological components, microcomponents, material processing and industrial applications are presented.

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