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Principles of Anatomy and Physiology: Instructor's Resource Manual

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Extensively illustrated with photographs, line drawings, scanning electron micrographs, color photomicrographs, and specimen photos, this best-selling laboratory manual follows a body systems approach and uses a clear, accessible writing style. The numerous, well-developed exercises require users to make microscopic examinations of cells and tissues, observe chemical reactions, perform dissections, record data, and then analyze the results of their work. Microscopy. Introduction to the Human Body. Cells. Tissues....
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Overview

Extensively illustrated with photographs, line drawings, scanning electron micrographs, color photomicrographs, and specimen photos, this best-selling laboratory manual follows a body systems approach and uses a clear, accessible writing style. The numerous, well-developed exercises require users to make microscopic examinations of cells and tissues, observe chemical reactions, perform dissections, record data, and then analyze the results of their work. Microscopy. Introduction to the Human Body. Cells. Tissues. Integumentary System. Bone Tissue. Bones. Articulations. Muscle Tissue. Skeletal Muscles. Surface Anatomy. Nervous Tissue. Nervous System. General Senses and Sensory and Motor Pathways. Special Senses. Endocrine System. Blood. Heart. Blood Vessels. Cardiovascular Physiology. Lymphatic System. Respiratory System. Digestive System. Urinary System. pH and Acid-Base Balance. Reproductive Systems. Development. Genetics. For anyone needing introductory lab experience in Anatomy and Physiology.
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780471374664
  • Publisher: Wiley, John & Sons, Incorporated
  • Publication date: 8/1/1999
  • Edition number: 9
  • Pages: 432

Read an Excerpt

PREFACE:

Preface

Anatomy and Physiology Laboratory Manual, Sixth Edition, has been written to guide students in the laboratory study of introductory anatomy and physiology. The manual was written to accompany most of the leading anatomy and physiology textbooks.

COMPREHENSIVENESS

This manual examines virtually every structure and function of the human body that is typically studied in an introductory anatomy and physiology course. Because of its detail, the need for supplemental handouts is minimized; the manual is a strong teaching device in itself.

USE OF THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD

Anatomy (the science of structure) and physiology (the science of function) cannot be understood without the practical experience of laboratory work. The exercises in this manual challenge students to understand the way scientists work by asking them to make microscopic examinations and evaluations of cells and tissues, to observe and interpret chemical reactions, to record data, to make gross examinations of organs and systems, to dissect, and to conduct physiological laboratory work and interpret and apply the results of this work.

ILLUSTRATIONS

The manual contains a large number and variety of illustrations. The illustrations of the body systems of the human have been carefully drawn to depict structures that are essential to students' understanding of anatomy and physiology. Numerous photographs, photomicrographs, and scanning electron micrographs are presented to show students how the structures of the body actually look. We feel that this laboratory manual has better and more complete illustrations than any other anatomyand physiology manual.

IMPORTANT FEATURES

Among the key features of this manual are (1) dissection of the white rat, and selected mammalian organs; (2) numerous physiological experiments; (3) emphasis on the study of anatomy through histology; (4) lists of appropriate terms accompanying drawings and photographs to be labeled; (5) inclusion of numerous scanning electron micrographs and specimen photos; (6) phonetic pronunciations and derivations for the vast majority of anatomical and physiological terms; (7) diagrams of commonly used laboratory equipment; (8) laboratory report questions and reports at the end of each exercise that can be filled in, removed, and turned in for grading if the instructor so desires; (9) three appendixes dealing with units of measurement, a periodic table of elements, and eponyms used in the laboratory manual; and (10) emphasis on laboratory safety throughout the manual.

NEW TO SIXTH EDITION

Numerous changes have been made in the sixth edition of this manual in response to suggestions from instructors and students. We have added some new physiology experiments, line drawings, cadaver photographs, photomicrographs, and phonetic pronunciations and derivations. The number of orientation diagrams has also been greatly expanded. Virtually all black-and-white photomicrographs have been replaced with color ones. The principal additions to various exercises are as follows:

  • In Exercise 5, "Integumentary System," there is a new illustration of the skin.
  • In Exercise 7, "Bones," there is a new section on types of ribs, and joint names have been added for the various articulations.
  • In Exercise 8, "Articulations," joints have been reorganized by structure. The section on synovial joints has been expanded. The exercise includes a new sesction on axes of movements at synovial joints, and a new illustration on movements at synovial joints.
  • In Exercise 10, "Skeletal Muscles," there is a new section on synergists, an expanded table on naming skeletal muscles, greatly expanded overviews in all muscle tables, and a new table on intrinsic muscles of the foot.
  • Exercise 11, "Surface Anatomy," has been completely rewritten and expanded, and the black-and-white photos have been replaced with color photos. In addition, several new photos have been added.
  • Exercise 13, "Nervous System," now contains new color photos of the spinal cord and brain, and new illustrations on cerebral white matter and the cerebellum.
  • In Exercise 14, "General Senses and Sensory Motor Pathways," the discussions of generator potentials and cutaneous receptors have been expanded.
  • In Exercise 17, "Blood," there is a new section with an accompanying illustration dealing with hemopoiesis.
  • Several new illustrations have been added to Exercise 18, "The Heart." Also, there are new discussions on the borders and surface projection of the heart. The discussion of the pericardium, chambers of the heart, valves of the heart, and blood vessels of the heart have also been revised.
  • In Exercise 19, "Blood Vessels," descriptions of arteries and veins in the tables have been greatly expanded, several new flow diagrams have been added, and several new illustrations have been added.
  • In Exercise 22, "Respiratory System," new art has also been added for the trachea, along with a new photo of the lungs.
  • In Exercise 23, "Digestive System," the introduction is new, and sections dealing with the pharynx, stomach, small intestines, and large intestines have been expanded. Several new illustrations dealing with histology have also been added.
  • In Exercise 24, "Urinary System," there is a new illustration on the histology of a nephron.

CHANGES IN TERMINOLOGY

In recent years, the use of eponyms for anatomical terms has been minimized or eliminated. Anatomical eponyms are terms named after various individuals. Examples include Fallopian tube (after Gabriello Fallopio) and Eustachian tube (after Bartolommeo Eustachio).

Anatomical eponyms are often vague and nondescriptive and do not necessarily mean that the person whose name is applied contributed anything very original. For these reasons, we have also decided to minimize their use. However, because some still prevail, we have provided eponyms, in parentheses, after the first reference in each chapter to the more acceptable synonym. Thus, you will expect to see terms such as uterine (Fallopian) tube or auditory (Eustachian) tube. See Appendix C.

INSTRUCTOR'S GUIDE

A complementary instructor's guide by the authors to accompany the manual is available from the publisher. This comprehensive guide contains: (1) a listing of materials needed to complete each exercise, (2) suggested audiovisual materials, (3) answers to illustrations and questions within the exercises, and (4) answers to laboratory report questions.

Gerard J. Tortora
Robert J. Amitrano
Science and Health, S229
Bergen Community College
400 Paramus Road
Paramus, NJ 07652

Read More Show Less

Table of Contents

Laboratory Safety.
Selected Laboratory Safety Signs/Labels.
Commonly Used Laboratory Equipment.
Pronunciation Key.
1. Microscopy.
Compound Light Microscopy.

2. Introduction to the Human Body.
Anatomy and Physiology. Levels of Structural Organization. Systems of the Body. Life Processes. Homeostasis. Anatomical Position and Regional Names. External Features of the Body. Directional Terms. Planes of the Body. Body Cavities. Abdominopelvic Regions. Abdominopelvic Quadrants. Dissection of White Rat.

3. Cells.
Cell Parts. Diversity of Cells. Movement of Substances across and through Plasma Membranes. Extracellular Materials. Cell Division.

4. Tissues.
Epithelial Tissue. Connective Tissue. Membranes.

5. Integumentary System.
Skin. Hair. Glands. Nails. Homeostasis of Body Temperature.

6. Bone Tissue.
Functions of Bone. Gross Structure of a Long Bone. Histology of Bone. Chemistry of Bones. Bone Formation: Ossification. Bone Growth. Fractures. Types of Bones. Bone Surface Markings.

7. Bones.
Bones of Adult Skull. Sutures of Skull. Fontanels of Skull. Paranasal Sinuses of Skull. Vertebral Column. Vertebrae. Sternum and Ribs. Pectoral (Shoulder) Girdles. Upper Limbs. Pelvic (Hip) Girdle. Lower Limbs. Articulated Skeleton.

8.Articulations.
Kinds of Joints. Fibrous Joints. Cartilaginous Joints. Synovial Joints. Knee Joint.

9. Muscle Tissue.
Types of Muscle Tissue. Structure of Skeletal Muscle Tissue. Contraction of Skeletal Muscle Tissue. Laboratory Tests on Skeletal Muscle Contraction. Biochemistry of Skeletal Muscle Contraction. Electromyography. Cardiac Muscle Tissue. Smooth (Visceral) Muscle Tissue.

10. Skeletal Muscles.
How Skeletal Muscles Produce Movement. Arrangement of Fascicles. Naming Skeletal Muscles. Connective Tissue Components. Principal Skeletal Muscles. Composite Muscular System.

11. Surface Anatomy.
Head. Neck. Trunk. Upper Limb (Extremity). Lower Limb (Extremity).

12. Nervous Tissue.
Nervous System Divisions. Histology of Nervous Tissue. Histology of Neuroglia. Neuronal Circuits. Reflex Arc. Demonstration of Reflex Arc.

13. Nervous System.
Spinal Cord and Spinal Nerves. Brain. Cranial Nerves. Tests of Cranial Nerve Function. Dissection of Sheep Brain.

14. General Senses and Sensory Motor Pathways.
Characteristics of Sensations. Classification of Receptors. Receptors for General Senses. Tests for General Senses. Somatic Sensory Pathways. Sensory-Motor Integration. Somatic Motor Pathways.

15. Special Senses.
Olfactory Sensations. Gustatory Sensations. Visual Sensations. Auditory Sensations and Equilibrium.

16. Endocrine System.
Endocrine Glands. Pituitary Gland (Hypophysis). Thyroid Gland. Parathyroid Glands. Adrenal (Suprarenal) Glands. Pancreas. Testes. Ovaries. Pineal Gland (Epiphysis Cerebri). Thymus Gland. Other Endocrine Tissues. Physiology of the Endocrine System.

17. Blood.
Components of Blood. Plasma. Erythrocytes. Red Blood Cell Tests. Leukocytes. White Blood Cell Tests. Platelets. Drawings of Blood Cells. Blood Grouping (Typing).

18. Heart.
Pericardium. Heart Wall. Chambers of Heart and Great Vessels of Heart. Valves of Heart. Blood Supply of Heart. Dissection of Sheep Heart.

19. Blood Vessels.
Arteries and Arterioles. Capillaries. Venules and Veins. Circulatory Routes. Blood Vessel Exercise.

20. Cardiovascular Physiology.
Cardiac Conduction System and Electrocardiogram (ECC or EKG). Cardiac Cycle. Cardiac Cycle Experiments. Heart Sounds. Pulse Rate. Blood Pressure (Auscultation Method). Observing Blood Flow.

21. Lymphatic System.
Lymphatic Vessels. Lymphatic Tissue. Lymph Circulation.

22. Respiratory System.
Organs of the Respiratory System. Dissection of Sheep Pluck. Laboratory Tests on Respiration. Laboratory Test Combining Respiratory and Cardiovascular Interactions.

23. Digestive System.
General Organization of Digestive System. Organs of Digestive System. Deglutition. Chemistry of Digestions.

24. Urinary System.
Organs of Urinary System. Dissection of Sheep (or Pig) Kidney. Renal Physiology Experiments. Urine. Urinalysis.

25. pH and Acid-Base Balance.
The Concept of pH. Measuring pH. Acid-Base Balance. Acid-Base Imbalances. Renal Regulation of Hydrogen Ion Concentration.

26. Reproductive Systems.
Organs of Male Reproductive System. Organs of Female Reproductive System. Dissection of Fetus-Containing Pig Uterus.

27. Development.
Spermatogenesis. Oogenesis. Embryonic Period. Fetal Period.

28. Genetics.
Genotype and Phenotype. Punnett Squares. Sex Inheritance. Sex-Linked Inheritance. Mendelian Laws. Multiple Alleles. Genetics Exercises.

Appendix A. Some Important Units of Measurement.
Appendix B. Periodic Table of the Elements.
Appendix C. Eponyms Used in This Laboratory Manual.
Index.
Read More Show Less

Preface

PREFACE:

Preface

Anatomy and Physiology Laboratory Manual, Sixth Edition, has been written to guide students in the laboratory study of introductory anatomy and physiology. The manual was written to accompany most of the leading anatomy and physiology textbooks.

COMPREHENSIVENESS

This manual examines virtually every structure and function of the human body that is typically studied in an introductory anatomy and physiology course. Because of its detail, the need for supplemental handouts is minimized; the manual is a strong teaching device in itself.

USE OF THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD

Anatomy (the science of structure) and physiology (the science of function) cannot be understood without the practical experience of laboratory work. The exercises in this manual challenge students to understand the way scientists work by asking them to make microscopic examinations and evaluations of cells and tissues, to observe and interpret chemical reactions, to record data, to make gross examinations of organs and systems, to dissect, and to conduct physiological laboratory work and interpret and apply the results of this work.

ILLUSTRATIONS

The manual contains a large number and variety of illustrations. The illustrations of the body systems of the human have been carefully drawn to depict structures that are essential to students' understanding of anatomy and physiology. Numerous photographs, photomicrographs, and scanning electron micrographs are presented to show students how the structures of the body actually look. We feel that this laboratory manual has better and more complete illustrations than any otheranatomyand physiology manual.

IMPORTANT FEATURES

Among the key features of this manual are (1) dissection of the white rat, and selected mammalian organs; (2) numerous physiological experiments; (3) emphasis on the study of anatomy through histology; (4) lists of appropriate terms accompanying drawings and photographs to be labeled; (5) inclusion of numerous scanning electron micrographs and specimen photos; (6) phonetic pronunciations and derivations for the vast majority of anatomical and physiological terms; (7) diagrams of commonly used laboratory equipment; (8) laboratory report questions and reports at the end of each exercise that can be filled in, removed, and turned in for grading if the instructor so desires; (9) three appendixes dealing with units of measurement, a periodic table of elements, and eponyms used in the laboratory manual; and (10) emphasis on laboratory safety throughout the manual.

NEW TO SIXTH EDITION

Numerous changes have been made in the sixth edition of this manual in response to suggestions from instructors and students. We have added some new physiology experiments, line drawings, cadaver photographs, photomicrographs, and phonetic pronunciations and derivations. The number of orientation diagrams has also been greatly expanded. Virtually all black-and-white photomicrographs have been replaced with color ones. The principal additions to various exercises are as follows:

  • In Exercise 5, "Integumentary System," there is a new illustration of the skin.
  • In Exercise 7, "Bones," there is a new section on types of ribs, and joint names have been added for the various articulations.
  • In Exercise 8, "Articulations," joints have been reorganized by structure. The section on synovial joints has been expanded. The exercise includes a new sesction on axes of movements at synovial joints, and a new illustration on movements at synovial joints.
  • In Exercise 10, "Skeletal Muscles," there is a new section on synergists, an expanded table on naming skeletal muscles, greatly expanded overviews in all muscle tables, and a new table on intrinsic muscles of the foot.
  • Exercise 11, "Surface Anatomy," has been completely rewritten and expanded, and the black-and-white photos have been replaced with color photos. In addition, several new photos have been added.
  • Exercise 13, "Nervous System," now contains new color photos of the spinal cord and brain, and new illustrations on cerebral white matter and the cerebellum.
  • In Exercise 14, "General Senses and Sensory Motor Pathways," the discussions of generator potentials and cutaneous receptors have been expanded.
  • In Exercise 17, "Blood," there is a new section with an accompanying illustration dealing with hemopoiesis.
  • Several new illustrations have been added to Exercise 18, "The Heart." Also, there are new discussions on the borders and surface projection of the heart. The discussion of the pericardium, chambers of the heart, valves of the heart, and blood vessels of the heart have also been revised.
  • In Exercise 19, "Blood Vessels," descriptions of arteries and veins in the tables have been greatly expanded, several new flow diagrams have been added, and several new illustrations have been added.
  • In Exercise 22, "Respiratory System," new art has also been added for the trachea, along with a new photo of the lungs.
  • In Exercise 23, "Digestive System," the introduction is new, and sections dealing with the pharynx, stomach, small intestines, and large intestines have been expanded. Several new illustrations dealing with histology have also been added.
  • In Exercise 24, "Urinary System," there is a new illustration on the histology of a nephron.

CHANGES IN TERMINOLOGY

In recent years, the use of eponyms for anatomical terms has been minimized or eliminated. Anatomical eponyms are terms named after various individuals. Examples include Fallopian tube (after Gabriello Fallopio) and Eustachian tube (after Bartolommeo Eustachio).

Anatomical eponyms are often vague and nondescriptive and do not necessarily mean that the person whose name is applied contributed anything very original. For these reasons, we have also decided to minimize their use. However, because some still prevail, we have provided eponyms, in parentheses, after the first reference in each chapter to the more acceptable synonym. Thus, you will expect to see terms such as uterine (Fallopian) tube or auditory (Eustachian) tube. See Appendix C.

INSTRUCTOR'S GUIDE

A complementary instructor's guide by the authors to accompany the manual is available from the publisher. This comprehensive guide contains: (1) a listing of materials needed to complete each exercise, (2) suggested audiovisual materials, (3) answers to illustrations and questions within the exercises, and (4) answers to laboratory report questions.

Gerard J. Tortora
Robert J. Amitrano
Science and Health, S229
Bergen Community College
400 Paramus Road
Paramus, NJ 07652

Read More Show Less

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