Principles of Chemistry: The Molecular Scienceby John W. Moore, Conrad L. Stanitski, Peter C. Jurs, Jeffrey Ward
Pub. Date: 01/21/2009
Publisher: Cengage Learning
PRINCIPLES OF CHEMISTRY: THE MOLECULAR SCIENCE offers a rigorous and complete general chemistry textbook in a briefer format. This book offers students all the topics covered in the typical general course and tested on the American Chemical Society exams at the same depth and rigor as the longer books, but at an easier-to-use size and a more agreeable price.
PRINCIPLES OF CHEMISTRY: THE MOLECULAR SCIENCE offers a rigorous and complete general chemistry textbook in a briefer format. This book offers students all the topics covered in the typical general course and tested on the American Chemical Society exams at the same depth and rigor as the longer books, but at an easier-to-use size and a more agreeable price. Problem-Solving Examples, Estimation boxes, visual aids, and study tools appear throughout throughout to ensure that students master difficult material and are well prepared for class.
Table of Contents
1. THE NATURE OF CHEMISTRY. Why Care About Chemistry? Cleaning Drinking Water. How Science is Done. Identifying Matter: Physical Properties. Chemical Change and Chemical Properties. Classifying Matter: Substances and Mixtures. Classifying Matter: Elements and Compounds. Nanoscale Theories and Models. The Atomic Theory. The Chemical Elements. Communicating Chemistry: Symbolism. Modern Chemical Sciences. 2. ATOMS AND ELEMENTS. Atomic Structure and Subatomic Particles. The Nuclear Atom. The Sizes of Atoms and the Units Used to Represent Them. Uncertainty and Significant Figures. Atomic Numbers and Mass Numbers. Isotopes and Atomic Weight. Amounts of Substances: The Mole. Molar Mass and Problem Solving. The Periodic Table. 3. CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS. Molecular Compounds. Naming Binary Inorganic Compounds. Hydrocarbons. Alkanes and Their Isomers. Ions and Ionic Compounds. Naming Ions and Ionic Compounds. Bonding in and Properties of Ionic Compounds. Moles of Compounds. Percent Composition. Determining Empirical and Molecular Formulas. The Biological Periodic Table. 4. QUANTITIES OF REACTANTS AND PRODUCTS. Chemical Equations. Patterns of Chemical Reactions. Balancing Chemical Equations. The Mole and Chemical Reactions: The Macro-Nano Connection. Reactions with One Reactant in Limited Supply. Evaluating the Success of a Synthesis: Percent Yield. Percent Composition and Empirical Formulas. 5. CHEMICAL REACTIONS. Exchange Reactions: Precipitation and Net Ionic Equations. Acids, Bases, and Acid-Base Exchange Reactions. Oxidation-Reduction Reactions. Oxidation Numbers and Redox Reactions. Displacement Reactions, Redox, and the Activity Series. Solution Concentration. Molarity and Reactions in Aqueous Solutions. Aqueous Solution Titrations. 6. ENERGY AND CHEMICAL REACTIONS. The Nature of Energy. Conservation of Energy. Heat Capacity. Energy and Enthalpy. Thermochemical Expressions. Enthalpy Changes for Chemical Reactions. Where Does the Energy Come From? Measuring Enthalpy Changes: Calorimetry. Hess's Law. Standard Molar Enthalpies of Formation. 7. ELECTRON CONFIGURATIONS AND THE PERIODIC TABLE. Electromagnetic Radiation and Matter. Planck's Quantum Theory. The Bohr Model of the Hydrogen Atom. Beyond the Bohr Model: The Quantum Mechanical Model of the Atom. Quantum Numbers, Energy Levels, and Atomic Orbitals. Shapes of Atomic Orbitals. Atom Electron Configurations. Ion Electron Configurations. Periodic Trends: Atomic Radii. Periodic Trends: Ionic Radii. Periodic Trends: Ionization Energies. Periodic Trends: Electron Affinities. Energy Considerations in Ionic Compound Formation. 8. COVALENT BONDING. Covalent Bonding. Single Covalent Bonds and Lewis Structures. Multiple Covalent Bonds. Multiple Covalent Bonds in Hydrocarbons. Bond Properties: Bond Length and Bond Energy. Bond Properties: Bond Polarity and Electronegativity. Formal Charge. Lewis Structures and Resonance. Exceptions to the Octet Rule. Molecular Orbital Theory. 9. MOLECULAR STRUCTURE. Using Molecular Models. Predicting Molecular Shapes: VSEPR. Orbitals Consistent with Molecular Shapes: Hybridization. Hybridization in Molecules with Multiple Bonds. Molecular Polarity. Noncovalent Interactions and Forces Between Molecules. 10. GASES AND THE ATMOSPHERE. The Atmosphere. Gase Pressure. Kinetic-Molecular Theory. The Behavior of Ideal Gases. Quantities of Gases in Chemical Reactions. Gas Density and Molar Masses. Gas Mixtures and Partial Pressures. The Behavior of Real Gases. Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide, the Greenhouse Effect, and Global Warming. 11. LIQUIDS, SOLIDS, AND MATERIALS. The Liquid State. Vapor Pressure. Phase Changes: Solids, Liquids, and Gases. Water: An Important Liquid with Unusual Properties. Types of Solids. Crystalline Solids. Network Solids. Metals, Semiconductors, and Insulators. 12. CHEMICAL KINETICS: RATES OF REACTIONS. Reaction Rate. Effect of Concentration on Reaction Rate. Rate Law and Order of Reaction. A Nanoscale View: Elementary Reactions. Temperature and Reaction Rate: The Arrhenius Equation. Rate Laws for Elementary Reactions. Reaction Mechanisms. Catalysts and Reaction Rate. Enzymes: Biological Catalysts. Catalysts in Industry. 13. CHEMICAL EQUILIBRIUM. Characteristics of Chemical Equilibrium. The Equilibrium Constant. Determining Equilibrium Constants. The Meaning of the Equilibrium Constant. Using Equilibrium Constants. Shifting a Chemical Equilibrium: Le Chatelier's Principle. Equilibrium at the Nanoscale. Controlling Chemical Reactions: The Haber-Bosch Process. 14. THE CHEMISTRY OF SOLUTES AND SOLUTIONS. Solubility and Intermolecular Forces. Enthalpy, Entropy, and Dissolving Solutes. Solubility and Equilibrium. Temperature and Solubility. Pressure and Dissolving Gases in Liquids: Henry's Law. Solution Concentration: Keeping Track of Units. Vapor Pressures, Boiling Points, Freezing Points, and Osmotic Pressures of Solutions. 15. ACIDS AND BASES. The Brønsted-Lowry Concept of Acids and Bases. Carboxylic Acids and Amines. The Autoionization of Water. The pH Scale. Ionization Constants of Acids and Bases. Molecular Structure and Acid Strength. Problem Solving Using Ka and Kb. Acid-Base Reactions of Salts. Lewis Acids and Bases. 16. ADDITIONAL AQUEOUS EQUILIBRIA. Buffer Solutions. Acid-Base Titrations. Solubility Equilibria and the Solubility Product Constant, Ksp. Factors Affecting Solubility. Precipitation: Will It Occur? 17. THERMODYNAMICS: DIRECTIONALITY OF CHEMICAL REACTIONS. Reactant-Favored and Product-Favored Processes. Chemical Reactions and Dispersal of Energy. Measuring Dispersal of Energy: Entropy. Calculating Entropy Changes. Entropy and the Second Law of Thermodynamics. Gibbs Free Energy. Gibbs Free Energy Changes and Equilibrium Constants. Gibbs Free Energy and Maximum Work. Conservation of Gibbs Free Energy. Thermodynamic and Kinetic Stability. 18. ELECTROCHEMISTRY AND ITS APPLICATIONS. Redox Reactions. Using Half-Reactions to Understand Redox Reactions. Electrochemical Cells. Electrochemical Cells and Voltage. Using Standard Reduction Potentials. E° and Gibbs Free Energy. Effect of Concentration on Cell Potential. Common Batteries. Fuel Cells. Electrolysis: Causing Reactant-Favored Reactions to Occur. Counting Electrons. Corrosion: Product-Favored Redox Reactions. 19. NUCLEAR CHEMISTRY. The Nature of Radioactivity. Nuclear Reactions. Stability of Atomic Nuclei. Rates of Disintegration Reactions. Nuclear Fission. Nuclear Fusion. Nuclear Radiation: Effects and Units. APPENDICES. Appendix A. Problem Solving and Mathematical Operations. General Problem-Solving Strategies. Numbers, Units, and Quantities. Precision, Accuracy, and Significant Figures. Electronic Calculators. Exponential or Scientific Notation. Logarithms. Quadratic Equations. Graphing. Appendix B. Units, Equivalences, and Conversion Factors. Units of the International System (SI). Conversion of Units for Physical Quantities. Appendix C. Physical Constants and Sources of Data. Appendix D. Ground-State Electron Configurations of Atoms. Appendix E. Naming Hydrocarbons. Hydrocarbons. Appendix F. Ionization Constants for Weak Acids at 25 °C. Appendix G. Ionization Constants for Weak Bases at 25 °C. Appendix H. Solubility Product Constants for Some Inorganic Compounds at 25 °C. Appendix I. Standard Reduction Potentials in Aqueous Solution at 25 °C. Appendix J. Selected Thermodynamic Values. Answers to Problem-Solving Practice Problems. Answers to Exercises. Answers to Selected Questions for Review and Thought.
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