Principles of Chemistry: The Molecular Science

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Overview

PRINCIPLES OF CHEMISTRY: THE MOLECULAR SCIENCE offers a rigorous and complete general chemistry textbook in a briefer format. This book offers students all the topics covered in the typical general course and tested on the American Chemical Society exams at the same depth and rigor as the longer books, but at an easier-to-use size and a more agreeable price. Problem-Solving Examples, Estimation boxes, visual aids, and study tools appear throughout throughout to ensure that students master difficult material and are well prepared for class.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780495390794
  • Publisher: Cengage Learning
  • Publication date: 1/21/2009
  • Series: Available Titles OWL Series
  • Edition description: New Edition
  • Pages: 848
  • Product dimensions: 8.90 (w) x 10.70 (h) x 1.10 (d)

Meet the Author

John W. Moore received an A.B. magna cum laude from Franklin and Marshall College and a Ph.D. from Northwestern University. He held a National Science Foundation (NSF) postdoctoral fellowship at the University of Copenhagen and taught at Indiana University and Eastern Michigan University before joining the faculty of the University of Wisconsin-Madison in 1989. At the University of Wisconsin, Dr. Moore is W.T. Lippincott Professor of Chemistry and Director of the Institute for Chemical Education. He was Editor of the Journal of Chemical Education (JCE) from 1996 to 2009. Among his many awards are the American Chemical Society (ACS) George C. Pimentel Award in Chemical Education and the James Flack Norris Award for Excellence in Teaching Chemistry. He is a Fellow of the ACS and of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). In 2003 he won the Benjamin Smith Reynolds Award at the University of Wisconsin-Madison in recognition of his excellence in teaching chemistry to engineering students. Dr. Moore is a major developer of online chemistry learning materials having collected and developed both video and tutorial materials available through the NSF-sponsored ChemEd DL.

Conrad L. Stanitski is currently a Visiting Scholar at Franklin and Marshall College and is Distinguished Emeritus Professor of Chemistry at the University of Central Arkansas. He received his B.S. in Science Education from Bloomsburg State College, M.A. in Chemical Education from the University of Northern Iowa, and Ph.D. in Inorganic Chemistry from the University of Connecticut. He has co-authored chemistry textbooks for science majors, allied health science students, non-science majors, and high school chemistry students. Among Dr. Stanitski's many awards are the American Chemical Society (ACS) George C. Pimentel Award in Chemical Education, the CMA CATALYST National Award for Excellence in Chemistry Teaching, the Gustav Ohaus-National Science Teachers Association Award for Creative Innovations in College Science Teaching, the Thomas R. Branch Award for Teaching Excellence and the Samuel Nelson Gray Distinguished Professor Award from Randolph-Macon College, and the 2002 Western Connecticut ACS Section Visiting Scientist Award. He was Chair of the American Chemical Society Division of Chemical Education (2001) and has been an elected Councilor for that division. He is a Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). An instrumental and vocal performer, he also enjoys jogging, tennis, and reading.

Peter C. Jurs is Professor Emeritus of Chemistry at the Pennsylvania State University. Dr. Jurs earned his B.S. in Chemistry from Stanford University and his Ph.D. in Chemistry from the University of Washington. He then joined the faculty of Pennsylvania State University, where he has been Professor of Chemistry since 1978. Dr. Jurs's research interests have focused on the application of computational methods to chemical and biological problems, including the development of models linking molecular structure to chemical or biological properties (drug design). For this work he was awarded the A.C.S. Award for Computers in Chemistry in 1990. Dr. Jurs has been Assistant Head for Undergraduate Education at Penn State, and he works with the Chemical Education Interest Group to enhance and improve the undergraduate program. In 1995, he was awarded the C. I. Noll Award for Outstanding Undergraduate Teaching. Dr. Jurs serves as an elected Councilor for the American Chemical Society Computer Division and he was recently selected as a Fellow of the American Cancer Society.

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Table of Contents

1. THE NATURE OF CHEMISTRY. Why Care About Chemistry? Cleaning Drinking Water. How Science is Done. Identifying Matter: Physical Properties. Chemical Change and Chemical Properties. Classifying Matter: Substances and Mixtures. Classifying Matter: Elements and Compounds. Nanoscale Theories and Models. The Atomic Theory. The Chemical Elements. Communicating Chemistry: Symbolism. Modern Chemical Sciences. 2. ATOMS AND ELEMENTS. Atomic Structure and Subatomic Particles. The Nuclear Atom. The Sizes of Atoms and the Units Used to Represent Them. Uncertainty and Significant Figures. Atomic Numbers and Mass Numbers. Isotopes and Atomic Weight. Amounts of Substances: The Mole. Molar Mass and Problem Solving. The Periodic Table. 3. CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS. Molecular Compounds. Naming Binary Inorganic Compounds. Hydrocarbons. Alkanes and Their Isomers. Ions and Ionic Compounds. Naming Ions and Ionic Compounds. Bonding in and Properties of Ionic Compounds. Moles of Compounds. Percent Composition. Determining Empirical and Molecular Formulas. The Biological Periodic Table. 4. QUANTITIES OF REACTANTS AND PRODUCTS. Chemical Equations. Patterns of Chemical Reactions. Balancing Chemical Equations. The Mole and Chemical Reactions: The Macro-Nano Connection. Reactions with One Reactant in Limited Supply. Evaluating the Success of a Synthesis: Percent Yield. Percent Composition and Empirical Formulas. 5. CHEMICAL REACTIONS. Exchange Reactions: Precipitation and Net Ionic Equations. Acids, Bases, and Acid-Base Exchange Reactions. Oxidation-Reduction Reactions. Oxidation Numbers and Redox Reactions. Displacement Reactions, Redox, and the Activity Series. Solution Concentration. Molarity and Reactions in Aqueous Solutions. Aqueous Solution Titrations. 6. ENERGY AND CHEMICAL REACTIONS. The Nature of Energy. Conservation of Energy. Heat Capacity. Energy and Enthalpy. Thermochemical Expressions. Enthalpy Changes for Chemical Reactions. Where Does the Energy Come From? Measuring Enthalpy Changes: Calorimetry. Hess's Law. Standard Molar Enthalpies of Formation. 7. ELECTRON CONFIGURATIONS AND THE PERIODIC TABLE. Electromagnetic Radiation and Matter. Planck's Quantum Theory. The Bohr Model of the Hydrogen Atom. Beyond the Bohr Model: The Quantum Mechanical Model of the Atom. Quantum Numbers, Energy Levels, and Atomic Orbitals. Shapes of Atomic Orbitals. Atom Electron Configurations. Ion Electron Configurations. Periodic Trends: Atomic Radii. Periodic Trends: Ionic Radii. Periodic Trends: Ionization Energies. Periodic Trends: Electron Affinities. Energy Considerations in Ionic Compound Formation. 8. COVALENT BONDING. Covalent Bonding. Single Covalent Bonds and Lewis Structures. Multiple Covalent Bonds. Multiple Covalent Bonds in Hydrocarbons. Bond Properties: Bond Length and Bond Energy. Bond Properties: Bond Polarity and Electronegativity. Formal Charge. Lewis Structures and Resonance. Exceptions to the Octet Rule. Molecular Orbital Theory. 9. MOLECULAR STRUCTURE. Using Molecular Models. Predicting Molecular Shapes: VSEPR. Orbitals Consistent with Molecular Shapes: Hybridization. Hybridization in Molecules with Multiple Bonds. Molecular Polarity. Noncovalent Interactions and Forces Between Molecules. 10. GASES AND THE ATMOSPHERE. The Atmosphere. Gase Pressure. Kinetic-Molecular Theory. The Behavior of Ideal Gases. Quantities of Gases in Chemical Reactions. Gas Density and Molar Masses. Gas Mixtures and Partial Pressures. The Behavior of Real Gases. Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide, the Greenhouse Effect, and Global Warming. 11. LIQUIDS, SOLIDS, AND MATERIALS. The Liquid State. Vapor Pressure. Phase Changes: Solids, Liquids, and Gases. Water: An Important Liquid with Unusual Properties. Types of Solids. Crystalline Solids. Network Solids. Metals, Semiconductors, and Insulators. 12. CHEMICAL KINETICS: RATES OF REACTIONS. Reaction Rate. Effect of Concentration on Reaction Rate. Rate Law and Order of Reaction. A Nanoscale View: Elementary Reactions. Temperature and Reaction Rate: The Arrhenius Equation. Rate Laws for Elementary Reactions. Reaction Mechanisms. Catalysts and Reaction Rate. Enzymes: Biological Catalysts. Catalysts in Industry. 13. CHEMICAL EQUILIBRIUM. Characteristics of Chemical Equilibrium. The Equilibrium Constant. Determining Equilibrium Constants. The Meaning of the Equilibrium Constant. Using Equilibrium Constants. Shifting a Chemical Equilibrium: Le Chatelier's Principle. Equilibrium at the Nanoscale. Controlling Chemical Reactions: The Haber-Bosch Process. 14. THE CHEMISTRY OF SOLUTES AND SOLUTIONS. Solubility and Intermolecular Forces. Enthalpy, Entropy, and Dissolving Solutes. Solubility and Equilibrium. Temperature and Solubility. Pressure and Dissolving Gases in Liquids: Henry's Law. Solution Concentration: Keeping Track of Units. Vapor Pressures, Boiling Points, Freezing Points, and Osmotic Pressures of Solutions. 15. ACIDS AND BASES. The Brønsted-Lowry Concept of Acids and Bases. Carboxylic Acids and Amines. The Autoionization of Water. The pH Scale. Ionization Constants of Acids and Bases. Molecular Structure and Acid Strength. Problem Solving Using Ka and Kb. Acid-Base Reactions of Salts. Lewis Acids and Bases. 16. ADDITIONAL AQUEOUS EQUILIBRIA. Buffer Solutions. Acid-Base Titrations. Solubility Equilibria and the Solubility Product Constant, Ksp. Factors Affecting Solubility. Precipitation: Will It Occur? 17. THERMODYNAMICS: DIRECTIONALITY OF CHEMICAL REACTIONS. Reactant-Favored and Product-Favored Processes. Chemical Reactions and Dispersal of Energy. Measuring Dispersal of Energy: Entropy. Calculating Entropy Changes. Entropy and the Second Law of Thermodynamics. Gibbs Free Energy. Gibbs Free Energy Changes and Equilibrium Constants. Gibbs Free Energy and Maximum Work. Conservation of Gibbs Free Energy. Thermodynamic and Kinetic Stability. 18. ELECTROCHEMISTRY AND ITS APPLICATIONS. Redox Reactions. Using Half-Reactions to Understand Redox Reactions. Electrochemical Cells. Electrochemical Cells and Voltage. Using Standard Reduction Potentials. E° and Gibbs Free Energy. Effect of Concentration on Cell Potential. Common Batteries. Fuel Cells. Electrolysis: Causing Reactant-Favored Reactions to Occur. Counting Electrons. Corrosion: Product-Favored Redox Reactions. 19. NUCLEAR CHEMISTRY. The Nature of Radioactivity. Nuclear Reactions. Stability of Atomic Nuclei. Rates of Disintegration Reactions. Nuclear Fission. Nuclear Fusion. Nuclear Radiation: Effects and Units. APPENDICES. Appendix A. Problem Solving and Mathematical Operations. General Problem-Solving Strategies. Numbers, Units, and Quantities. Precision, Accuracy, and Significant Figures. Electronic Calculators. Exponential or Scientific Notation. Logarithms. Quadratic Equations. Graphing. Appendix B. Units, Equivalences, and Conversion Factors. Units of the International System (SI). Conversion of Units for Physical Quantities. Appendix C. Physical Constants and Sources of Data. Appendix D. Ground-State Electron Configurations of Atoms. Appendix E. Naming Hydrocarbons. Hydrocarbons. Appendix F. Ionization Constants for Weak Acids at 25 °C. Appendix G. Ionization Constants for Weak Bases at 25 °C. Appendix H. Solubility Product Constants for Some Inorganic Compounds at 25 °C. Appendix I. Standard Reduction Potentials in Aqueous Solution at 25 °C. Appendix J. Selected Thermodynamic Values. Answers to Problem-Solving Practice Problems. Answers to Exercises. Answers to Selected Questions for Review and Thought.

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