Principles Of Combustion / Edition 2

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Principles of Combustion, Second Edition is a revision of a classic book devoted to the fundamentals of chemically reacting flow systems with application to power production, jet and rocket propulsion, fire prevention and safety, pollution control, and material processing industries.

"...includes new theoretical results and measurement techniques of non-intrusive diagnostic methods...expanded to provide more in-depth treatment of sensitivity analysis and methods for identifying controlling chemical mechanisms."

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Editorial Reviews

From the Publisher
“…thoroughly revised and expanded to address major advances in the field in recent years.” (Heat Processing, Vol.3, No.1, 2005)
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780471046899
  • Publisher: Wiley
  • Publication date: 1/1/2005
  • Edition description: New Edition
  • Edition number: 2
  • Pages: 760
  • Product dimensions: 6.44 (w) x 9.21 (h) x 2.00 (d)

Meet the Author

KENNETH K. KUO, PhD, is Distinguished Professor of Mechanical Engineering and Director of the High Pressure Combustion Laboratory in the College of Engineering at The Pennsylvania State University. He established the combustion laboratory at Penn State and is recognized as one of the leading researchers in propulsion-related combustion.

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Table of Contents


Preface to the First Edition.


Importance of Combustion for Various Applications.

Related Constituent Disciplines for Combustion Studies.

General Method of Approach to Solving Combustion Problems.

General Objectives of Combustion Modeling.

Classification of Combustion Problems.

General Structure of a Theoretical Model.

Governing Equations for Combustion Modeling (Conservation &Transport Equations).

Some Common Assumptions Made In Combustion Models.

Several Basic Definitions

1. Review of Chemical Thermodynamics.


1. Brief Statement of Thermodynamic Laws.

2. Equation of State.

3. Conservation of Mass.

4. The First Law of Thermodynamics; Conservation of Energy.

5. The Second Law of Thermodynamics.

5. 1 Equilibrium Thermodynamics.

5. 2 Non-equilibrium Thermodynamics.

6. Criteria for Equilibrium.

7. Conservation of Atomic Species.

8. Various Methods for Reactant-Fraction Specification.

8.1 Mole and Mass Fractions.

8.2 Fuel-Oxidant and Fuel-Air Ratios.

8.3 Equivalence Ratio.

8.4 Mixture Fraction.

9. Standard Enthalpies of Formation.

10. Thermochemical Laws.

11. Relationship Between Bond Energies and Heats ofFormation.

12. Heats of Reaction for Constant-Pressure and Constant-VolumeCombustion.

12.1 Constant-Pressure Combustion.

12.2 Constant-Volume Combustion.

13. Energy Balance Considerations for Flame TemperatureCalculations.

14. Equilibrium Constants.

15. Real-Gas Equations of State and Fugacity Calculation.

16. More Complicated Dissociation in the Combustion ofHydrocarbons.

17. The Clausius-Clapeyron Equation for Phase Equilibrium.

18. Calculation of Equilibrium Compositions with NASA's CEAComputer Program.

18.1 Assumptions and Capabilities.

18.2 Equations Describing Chemical Equilibrium.

18.2.1 Thermodynamic Equations.

18.2.2 Minimization of Gibbs Free Energy.

19. Other Well-Established Chemical Equilibrium Codes.




2. Chemical Kinetics and Reaction Mechanisms.

Additional Symbols.

1. Rates of Reactions and Their Functional Dependence.

1.1 Total Collision Frequency.

1.2 Equation of Arrhenius.

1.3 Apparent Activation Energy.

1.4 Rates of Reaction.

1.5 Methods for Measurement of Gas-Phase Reaction Rates.

1.5.1 Static Methods. Flash Photolysis Resonance Fluorescence Technique. Relative Rate Constant Photolysis Technique. Laser Photolysis/Laser Induced FluorescenceTechnique.

1.5.2 Dynamic Methods for Reactions in Flow Systems.

1.5.3 Several Methods for Measuring Rapid Reaction Rates.

2. One-Step Chemical Reactions of Various Orders.

2. 1 First-Order Reactions.

2.2 Second-Order Reactions.

2.3 Third-Order Reactions.

3. Consecutive Reactions.

4. Competitive Reactions.

5. Opposing Reactions.

5.1 First-Order Reaction Opposed by a First-Order Reaction.

5.2 First-Order Reaction Opposed by a Second-Order Reaction.

5.3 Second-Order Reaction Opposed by a Second-OrderReaction.

6. Chain Reactions.

6.1 Free Radicals.

6.2 Lindemann's Theory for First-Order Reaction.

6.3 Complex Reactions.

6.3.1 Hydrogen-Bromine Reaction.

7. Chain-Branching Explosions.

8. CHEMKIN Analysis and Code Application for Gas-PhaseKinetics.

8.1 Thermodynamic Properties.

8.2 Reaction Rate Expressions.

8.3 Brief Description of Procedures in Using CHEMKIN Code.

9. Surface Reactions.

9.1 Surface Adsorption Processes.

9.1.1 The Langmuir Adsorption Isotherm.

9.1.2 Adsorption with Dissociation.

9.1.3 Competitive Adsorption.

9.2 Surface Reaction Processes.

9.2.1 Reaction Mechanism.

9.2.2 Unimolecular Surface Reactions.

9.2.3 Bimolecular Surface Reactions.

9.2.4 Desorption.

9.3 Kinetic Model of Hydrogen-Oxygen Reaction on PlatinumSurface.

9.3.1 Simple Kinetic Model of H2/O2 Reaction on PlatinumSurface.

9.3.2 Kinetic Rates of H2/O2 reaction on Platinum Surface.

9.4 Experimental Methods to Study Surface Reactions.

9.4.1 Spectroscopic Methods. Auger Electron Spectroscopy.

9.4.2 Temperature Controlled Methods.

9.4.3 Combination of Spectroscopic and Temperature-ControlledMethods.

9.5 Surface Reaction Rate Determination.

9.5.1 Application of LIF Technique in Surface Reaction RateDetermination. The Elementary Steps. Experimental Setup. Experimental Results.

10. Rate Laws for Isothermal Reactions Utilizing DimensionlessParameters.

10.1 Equilibrium Constants.

10.2 Net Rate of Production of Chemical Species.

11. Procedure and Applications of Sensitivity Analysis.

11.1 Introduction to Sensitivity Analysis.

11.2 The Procedure for Local Sensitivity Analysis.

11.2.1 Time-Dependent Zero-Dimensional Problems.

11.2.2 The Procedure for Steady-State One-DimensionalProblems.

11.2.3 The Procedure for Time-Dependent Spatial Problem.

11.3 The Example of Sensitivity Analysis of AliphaticHydrocarbon Combustion.

11.3.1 Local Sensitivity Analysis in One-Dimensional FlameFronts.

11.3.2 Sensitivity Analysis for Zero-Dimensional Problems.

12. Reaction Flow Analysis.

13. Reaction Mechanisms of H2/O2 Systems.

13.1 Background Information about H2/O2 Reaction Systems.

13.2 Explosion Limits of H2/O2 Systems.

14. Gas-Phase Reaction Mechanisms of Aliphatic Hydrocarbon andOxygen System.

14.1 Specific Mechanisms.

14.1.1 Gas-Phase Kinetics of H2 Oxidation.

14.1.2 O3 Decomposition Mechanism.

14.1.3 CO Oxidation Mechanism.

14.1.4 CH2O Reaction.

14.1.5 CH4 Oxidation.

14.1.6 C2H6 (Ethane) Oxidation.

14.1.7 C2H4 (Ethylene) Oxidation.

14.1.8 C2H2 (Acetylene) Oxidation.

14.1.9 CH2CO (Ketene) Oxidation.

14.1.10 CH3OH (Methanol) Reactions.

14.1.11 C2H5OH (Ethanol) Reactions.

14.1.12 CH3CHO (Acetaldehyde) Reaction.

14.2 Discussion of More Complex Cases.

15. Reduction of Highly Complex Chemical Kinetic Mechanism toSimpler Reaction Mechanism.

15.1 Quasi-Steady State Assumption (QSSA) and PartialEquilibrium Assumption.

15.2 Computational Singular Perturbation Methods for StiffEquations.

15.2.1 Stiff Equations.

15.2.2 Chemical Kinetic Systems as Stiff Equations.

15.2.3 Formulation of the Problem.

15.2.4 Procedures for Solving the Chain Reaction Problem.

15.3 Some Observations of the CSP Method.

16. Formation Mechanism of Nitrogen Oxides.

16.1 Thermal NO Mechanism (Zeldovich Mechanism).

16.2 Prompt NO Mechanism (Fenimore Mechanism).

16.3 NO Production from Fuel Bound Nitrogen.

16.3.1 The Oxidation of HCN.

16.3.2 The NO r HCN r N2 Mechanism.

16.3.3 The Oxidation of NH3.

16.4 NO2 Mechanism.

16.5 N2O Mechanism.

16.6 Overall Remarks on NOx Formation.

17. Formation and Control of CO and Particulates.

17.1 Carbon Monoxide.

17.2 Particulate Matters.

17.2.1 Major Types of Particulates.

17.2.2 Harmful Effects.

17.2.3 Particulate Matter Control Methods.



3. Conservation Equations for Multicomponent ReactingSystems.

Additional Symbols.

1. Definitions of Concentrations, Velocities, and MassFluxes.

2. Fick's Law of Diffusion.

3. Theory of Ordinary Diffusion in Gases at Low Density.

4. Continuity Equation and Species Mass ConservationEquations.

5. Conservation of Momentum.

5. 1Momentum Equation in Terms of Stress.

5.1.1 Momentum Equation Derivation By Infinitesimal ParticleApproach.

5.1.2 Momentum Equation Derivation By Infinitesimal ControlVolume Approach.

5.1.3 Finite Control Volume.

5.2 Stress-Strain-Rate Relationship (ConstitutiveRelationship).

5.2.1 Strain Rate.

5.2.2 Stress Tensor.

5. 3 Navier-Stokes Equations.

6. Conservation of Energy.

7. Physical Derivation of the Multicomponent DiffusionEquation.

8. Other Necessary Equations in Multicomponent Systems.

9. Solution of a Multicomponent-Species System.

10. Shvab-Zel'dovich Formulation.

11. Dimensionless Ratios of Transport Coefficients.

12. Boundary Conditions at an Interface.




4. Detonation and Deflagration Waves of PremixedGases.

Additional Symbols.

1. Qualitative Differences between Detonation andDeflagration.

2. The Hugoniot Curve.

3. Properties of the Hugoniot Curve.

3.1Entropy Distribution along the Hugoniot Curve.

3.2 Comparison of the Burned-Gas Velocity Behind a DetonationWave with the Local Speed of Sound.

4. Determination of Chapman-Jouguet Detonation-WaveVelocity.

4.1 Trial-and-Error Method.

4.2 The Newton-Raphson Iteration Method.

4.3Comparison of Calculated Detonation-Wave Velocities withExperimental Data.

5. Detonation-Wave Structure.

5.1ZND One-Dimensional Wave Structure.

5.2Multidimensional Detonation-Wave Structure.

5.3Numerical Simulation of Detonations.

6. The Mechanism of Deflagration-to-Detonation Transition (DDT)in Gaseous Mixtures.

7. Detonability and Chemical Kinetics: Limits ofDetonability.

7.1 Classical Model of Belles.

7.2 Detonability Limits of Confined Fuel Mixtures .

7.2.1 Initial Condition Dependence.

7.2.2 Boundary Condition Dependence.

7.2.3 Single-Head Spin Detonation.

7. 3 Detonability Criteria and Detonation Cell Size.

7. 4 Chemical Kinetics of Detonation in H2-Air-DiluentMixtures.

8. Non-Ideal Detonations.

8.1 Definition of Non-ideal Detonation and Zel'dovich andShchelkin's Detonation Mechanisms in Rough Tubes.

8.2 Theoretical Considerations of Energy and MomentumLosses.

8.3 Critical Pipe Diameter Consideration.

8.4 Effect of Several Physical and Chemical Parameters ondetonability.

8.5 Possible Measures for Reducing Potential of Detonation WaveGeneration.

9. Consideration of Spontaneous Detonation Initiation.

9.1 Functional Form of Distribution of Ignition Delay.

9.2 Experimental Verification of Processes of Non-ExplosiveDetonation Initiation.

9.2.1 Photochemical Initiation of Detonation in Mixtures withNon-Uniform Concentration.

9.2.2 Gasdynamic Jet as a Method of CreatingTemperature-Concentration Non-Uniformity.

9.3 General Observation and Status of Understanding.




5. Premixed Laminar Flames.

Additional Symbols.

1. Introduction and Flame Speed Measurement Methods.

1.1 Bunsen Burner Method.

1.2 Constant-Volume Spherical Bomb Method.

1.3 Soap-Bubble (Constant-Pressure Bomb) Method.

1.4 Particle-Track Method.

1.5 Flat-Flame Burner Method.

1.6Diagnostic Method for Flame Structure Measurements.

1.6.1 Velocity Measurements.

1.6.2 Density Measurements.

1.6.3 Concentration Measurements.

1.6.4 Tempetature Measurements.

2. Classical Laminar Flame Theories.

2.1 Thermal Theory: Mallard and LeChatelier's Development.

2.2 Comprehensive Theory: The Theory of Zel'dovich,Frank-Kamenetsky and Semenov.

2.3 Diffusion Theory: The Theory of Tanford and Pease.

3. Contemporary Method for Solving Laminar Flame Problems.

3.1 Premixed O3/O2 Laminar Flames.

3.2 CHEMKIN Code for Solving Premixed Laminar FlameStructures.

4. Dynamic Analysis of Stretched Laminar Premix Flames.

4.1 Definition of Flame Stretch Factor and Karlovitz Number.

4.2 Balance Equation for Premixed Laminar Flame Area.

4.3 The Use of Expanding Spherical Flames to Determine BurningVelocities and Stretch Effects in Hydrogen/Air Mixtures.

4.4 Laminar Burning Velocities and Markstein Numbers ofHydrocarbon/Air Flames.

4.5 Burning Rates of Ultra-Lean to Moderately-Rich H2/O2/N2Laminar Flames with Pressure Variations.

5. Effect of Chemical and Physical Variables on Flame Speed.

5.1 Chemical Variables.

5.1.1 Effect of Mixture Ratio.

5.1.2 Effect of Fuel Molecular Structure.

5.1.3 Effects of Additives.

5.2 Physical Variables.

5.2.1 Effect of Pressure.

5.2.2 Effect of Initial Temperature.

5.2.3 Effect of Flame Temperature.

5.2.4 Effect of Thermal Diffusivity and Specific Heat.

6. Principle of Stabilization of Combustion Waves in LaminarStreams.

7. Flame Quenching .

8. Flammability Limits of Premixed Laminar Flames.

8.1 Flammability Limits Determined from a Standard GlassTube.

8.2 Effect of Pressure and Temperature on FlammabilityLimit.

8.3 Spalding's Theory of Flammability Limits and FlameQuenching.

8. 4 Flame Structure Near the Flammability Limits of PremixedHydrogen-Oxygen Flames.




6. Gaseous Diffusion Flames and Combustion of a Single LiquidFuel Droplet.

1. Burke and Schumann's Theory of Laminar Diffusion Flames.

1. 1 Basic Assumptions and Solution Method.

1. 2 Flame Shape and Flame Height.

2. Phenomenological Analysis of Fuel Jets.

3. Laminar Diffusion Flame Jets.

3.1 Laminar Jet Mixing.

3.2 Laminar Jet with Chemical Reactions.

3.3 Numerical Solution of Two Dimensional Axisymmetric LaminarDiffusion Flames.

3.4 Effect of Preferential Diffusion of Species and Heat inLaminar Diffusion Flames.

4. Evaporation and Burning of a Single Droplet in a QuiescentAtmosphere .

4.1 Evaporation of a Single Fuel Droplet.

4. 2 Mass Burning Rate of a Single Fuel Droplet.

5. Fuel Droplet in a Convective Stream.

5.1 Correlation Development for Nearly Spherical Droplets inConvective Streams.

5.2 Simulation of Deformed Droplets Dynamics.

5.3 Effect of Internal Circulation on Droplet VaporizationRate.

6. Supercritical Burning of Liquid Droplets in a StagnantEnvironment .

6.1 Thermodynamic and Transport Properties.

6.1.1 Extended Corresponding-State Principle.

6.1.2 Equation of State.

6.1.3 Thermodynamic Properties.

6.1.4 Transport Properties.

6.2 Vapor-Liquid Phase Equilibrium.

6.3 Droplet Vaporization in Quiescent Environments.

6.4 Droplet Combustion in Quiescent Environments.

6.5 Droplet Vaporization in Supercritical ConvectiveEnvironments.

6.6 Droplet Response to Ambient Flow Oscillation.




Appendix A: Evaluation of Thermal and Transport Properties ofGases and Liquids .

Appendix B: Constants and Conversion Factors Often Used inCombustion.

Appendix C: Naming of Hydrocarbons and Properties of HydrocarbonFuels.

Appendix D: Melting, Boiling, and Critical Temperatures ofElements.

Appendix E: Periodic Table and Electronic Configurations ofNeutral Atoms in Ground States.


Author Index.

Subject Index.

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