Principles of Criminal Procedure / Edition 3

Principles of Criminal Procedure / Edition 3

by Russell L. Weaver

ISBN-10: 0314190929

ISBN-13: 9780314190925

Pub. Date: 05/28/2008

Publisher: West Academic Publishing

Thomson West understands that, over time, teaching and learning methods change. Concise Hornbooks have been developed specifically to provide for the needs of today's law student. The series features concise analyses of basic areas of law by prominent legal scholars.

Concise Hornbooks meet the academic standards you have come to expect from Thomson West. They are


Thomson West understands that, over time, teaching and learning methods change. Concise Hornbooks have been developed specifically to provide for the needs of today's law student. The series features concise analyses of basic areas of law by prominent legal scholars.

Concise Hornbooks meet the academic standards you have come to expect from Thomson West. They are lightly footnoted and focus on core principles and concepts a student must master to gain a fundamental understanding of the subject matter. Conveniently sized to fit into a backpack or briefcase, yet expertly written to provide comprehensive coverage of the most crucial issues in a course, the Concise Hornbook is the essential companion to your law school career.

About the Author:
Russell L. Weaver, Professor of Law & Distinguished University Scholar, University of Louisville, Louis D. Brandeis School of Law

About the Author:
Leslie W. Abramson, Professor of Law, University of Louisville, Louis D. Brandeis School of Law

About the Author:
John M. Burkoff, Professor of Law, University of Pittsburgh, School of Law

About the Author:
Catherine Hancock, Professor of Law, Tulane University, School of Law

Product Details

West Academic Publishing
Publication date:
Concise Hornbook Series
Edition description:
New Edition
Product dimensions:
6.20(w) x 9.30(h) x 0.70(d)

Related Subjects

Table of Contents

Sources of Law That Create Legal Rights for Criminal Defendants and Regulate the Procedures of the Criminal Justice System     2
Prosecution Systems     4
Multiple Jurisdictions, Major and Minor Crimes     4
The Gap Between Law and Practice     5
The Roles of Prosecutors and Defense Counsel in Various Stages of a Criminal Prosecution     6
The Pre-Arrest Investigation Stage     6
The Arrest Stage     7
The Booking and Jailing Stage     8
The Post-Arrest Investigation Stage     8
The Decision to Bring a Formal Charge by Filing a Complaint     9
The Defendant's First Appearance in Court     10
The Preliminary Hearing or Grand Jury Stage     11
The Arraignment Stage     12
The Pre-Trial Motions Stage     13
The Trial Stage     14
The Sentencing Stage     14
The Appeal Stage     15
The Post-Appeal Stage of "Post-Conviction" Remedies     15
Incorporation & Retroactivity
Incorporation     18
Fundamental Rights     19
Total Incorporation & Total Incorporation Plus     20
Selective Incorporation     21
"Bag and Baggage"     23
Retroactivity     25
Case-by-Case Analysis     25
Cases Pending & Not Yet Final     27
Rejection of the "Clear Break" Exception     28
"New Rules"     29
Collateral Review     30
Forbidden Punishment Exception     30
Watershed Rules of Criminal Procedure Exception     30
The Retroactivity Inquiry Process     31
Right to Counsel
Scope of the Constitutional Right     33
Appointed Counsel for Indigents     33
Source of the Constitutional Right     33
The Meaning & Consequences of "Indigency"     34
Choice of Appointed Counsel     34
When the Right Attaches     35
"Day in Jail" Rule     35
Retained Counsel     36
Waiver of the Right to Counsel     36
Knowing & Intelligent Waivers     36
Representing Oneself     38
Right to Proceed Pro Se     38
Standby Counsel     39
Ineffective Assistance of Counsel     40
Extrinsic Ineffectiveness     41
Actual Ineffectiveness     43
The Performance Prong     46
The Prejudice Prong     51
Ineffective Assistance Analysis in Federal Habeas Corpus Proceedings     54
When Ineffective Assistance Claims Can Be Brought     56
Conflicts of Interest     56
Constitutional Right     56
Conflicts Raised Prior to or During Trial     57
Conflicts Raised After Trial     59
Waiver     60
The Griffin-Douglas Doctrine     60
Search and Seizure
Search Warrants     64
The Significance of Using a Search Warrant     64
Warrant History     64
The "Warrant Preference"     65
The "Warrant Requirement"     66
Probable Cause     67
Constitutional Requirement     67
Probable Cause Test     67
Informant Information & Probable Cause     68
Informer's Privilege     69
Staleness     69
Anticipatory Warrants     70
Obtaining Warrants     71
Affidavits     71
Challenging Affidavits     71
Review of Probable-Cause Determinations     72
Issuing Magistrates     72
The Particularity Requirement     73
Constitutional Requirement     73
Particularity & Search Premises     74
Particularity & Things to Be Seized     75
Minor or Partial Errors Irrelevant     75
"All Persons" Warrants     76
Execution of Search Warrants     77
Who May Execute?     77
Time Limits     77
Nighttime Searches     78
Knock-and-Announce Doctrine     78
Post-Execution Requirements     82
Seizures Pursuant to Warrant     82
What Can Be Seized?     82
Where Can Seizures Be Made?     83
Intensity of Search     84
Property Damage or Destruction     84
Duration of Search     85
Persons & Their Property on or Near Search Premises     85
Protected Fourth Amendment Interests     87
Warrantless Searches and Seizures     94
Plain View Exception     95
Search Incident to Legal Arrest     97
Booking Searches     103
Automobile Exception     105
Inventory Exception     109
Consent     112
Administrative Inspections     120
Stop and Frisk     126
Other Investigatory Searches and Seizures     131
Investigatory Seizures of Property     158
Exigent Circumstances      161
Police Interrogations & Confessions
Pre-Miranda Doctrines     176
Pre-Miranda Due Process     177
The McNabb-Mallory Rule     181
The Pre-Miranda Sixth Amendment Massiah Right to Counsel     183
The Fifth Amendment and Miranda     186
Miranda's Application     190
Miranda Custody     190
Miranda Interrogation     194
Adequate Miranda Warnings     199
Incomplete or Misleading Warnings     199
Ineffective "Midstream" Warnings     203
Waiver of Miranda Rights     204
Invocation of Miranda Rights     209
Uses of Miranda-Defective Evidence     216
When Defective Evidence Leads Police to Other Evidence     216
Impeachment Based on Defective Statements or Silence During Interrogation     217
Post-Miranda Sixth Amendment Massiah Right to Counsel     218
Massiah Reliance on Counsel and Waiver     219
Massiah Deliberate Elicitation     222
Massiah Warnings and Waivers     225
Massiah Invocations     227
Post-Miranda Due Process     231
The Entrapment Defense     236
Subjective Test v. Objective Test      237
The Modern Subjective Test     238
Due Process and "Outrageous Government Conduct"     239
Identification Procedures
Constitutional Issues With Lineups and Other Identification Processes     242
The Sixth Amendment     244
Due Process Considerations     248
Exclusionary Rule
Suppression of Evidence as an Exclusionary Remedy     252
Constitutional Origins     252
State and Statutory Exclusionary Rules     254
Alternatives to the Exclusionary Rule     254
Public Opinion     255
Criminal Prosecution     256
Disciplinary Proceedings and Review Boards     256
Civil Actions     257
Special Forums     258
Limits on the Exclusionary Rule's Application     259
Private Actors     259
Unconstitutional vs. Illegal Actions     259
Non-Criminal Proceedings: Incremental Deterrence     260
Forfeiture Proceedings     260
Grand Juries     261
Civil Proceedings     261
Different Sovereigns     261
Federal Habeas Corpus     262
Deportation Proceedings     263
Suppression of the Defendant     263
Violations of International Agreements     263
Good-Faith Exception     264
"Knock and Announce" Violations     268
Standing     269
Constitutional Limitation     269
Reasonable Expectation of Privacy     270
Target Standing     271
Automatic Standing     271
Derivative Evidence: The "Fruits" Doctrine     271
Constitutional Test     272
Independent Source     273
Inevitable Discovery     274
Attenuation     275
Harmless Error     277
Non-Constitutional Errors     277
Constitutional Trial Errors     277
Constitutional Structural Defects     279
Federal Habeas Corpus Proceedings     280
Pretrial Release
Introduction     281
Types of Release     283
Bail Statutes     286
Pretrial Detention     288
Prosecutorial Discretion
Generally     291
Selective Prosecution     292
Vindictive Prosecution     293
Preliminary Proceedings
Initial Appearance     294
Gerstein Hearing     295
Preliminary Hearing     296
Functions of the Preliminary Hearing     297
Screening     297
Pretrial Discovery     298
Future Impeachment     298
Perpetuation of Testimony     299
Pretrial Release     299
Plea Bargaining     299
Procedural Issues at the Preliminary Hearing     299
Timing of Preliminary Hearing     299
Waiver of Preliminary Hearing     300
Dispositions Following Preliminary Hearing     301
Grand Juries
Introduction     303
Selection of the Grand Jury     304
Scope of Grand Jury Investigation     305
Grand Jury Secrecy     306
The Grand Jury as a Shield     307
Sufficiency of the Evidence     307
Misconduct Challenges     308
The Grand Jury as a Sword     309
The Subpoena Duces Tecum     311
The Reasonableness Requirement     311
Self-Incrimination by Compliance With Subpoena Duces Tecum     312
The Collective Entity Rule     314
Charging Instrument
Functions of Pleadings in Criminal Cases     316
Indictment v. Information     316
Notice of the Charge     317
Defects on the Face of the Charging Instrument      317
Jurisdictional Defects     320
Jurisdiction of the Sovereign Over the Offense     320
Jurisdiction of the Sovereign Over the Situs of the Offense     320
Jurisdiction Over the Person     321
Waiver of Jurisdiction     321
Venue     321
Jurisdiction and Vicinage Compared     321
Multi-Venue Problems     322
Proof of Venue     322
Amended Pleadings     322
Variances Between Proof and Charge     323
Joinder and Severance
Joinder and Severance of Offenses     325
Joinder and Severance of Offenses Under the Rules of Criminal Procedure     325
Double Jeopardy Implications for the Joinder of Offenses     326
Collateral Estoppel Implications for Joinder of Offenses     329
Joinder and Severance of Defendants     331
Joinder of Defendants Under the Rules     331
Constitutional Implications for the Joinder of Defendants     334
Speedy Trial
Delay in Bringing the Charge     336
Delay in Bringing Defendant to Trial     337
Statutory Prompt Disposition Provisions     340
Discovery and Disclosure
Constitutional Discovery     345
Discovery Under Rules and Statutes      347
Discovery by the Prosecution     350
Regulation of Discovery     352
Guilty Pleas
Plea Alternatives     354
Plea Negotiation     356
Legality and Enforcement of Plea Agreements     360
The Judge's Role in Plea Bargaining and Considering Plea Agreements     361
Withdrawing a Guilty Plea     365
Jury Trials
Right to Jury Trial     368
Aspects of the Jury Trial Right     371
Selecting Prospective Jurors     373
The Fair Cross-Section Requirement     374
Jury Selection Process     375
Exercising Peremptory Challenges     377
Freedom of the Press and Fair Trials
Failing to Control the Press     379
Pretrial Publicity and Defendant's Right to a Fair Trial     381
Change of Venue     381
Due Process and Pretrial Publicity     382
Gagging the Press     385
Press Access to Judicial Proceedings     386
Broadcasting Legal Proceedings     388
Confrontation and Compulsory Process Rights
Identification Procedures     390
Preliminary Hearing     390
Confrontation Rights at Trial     391
Confronting and Cross-Examining Adverse Witnesses      391
Right to Be Present During Criminal Proceedings     391
Out-of-Court Hearsay Statements     392
Joint Trials and the Confrontation Clause     393
Compulsory Process     394
Noncapital Sentencing Alternatives     395
Death as a Punishment     398
The Problem of Fairness     398
The Typical Capital Case     399
Proportionality of Punishment     403
Sentencing Procedures     407
Double Jeopardy
Mistrials and the Possibility of a Retrial     413
Termination of the Case by Dismissal or Acquittal     416
Termination of the Case by Conviction     417
Double Jeopardy Regarding Punishment     418
Review by the Trial Court     421
Direct Appeal in the State Courts     422
Harmless Error and Plain Error     423
The Right to Appeal     424
Appeals of Last Resort     425
Collateral Remedies
Introduction     426
Time Considerations     427
Exhaustion of State Remedies     428
Custody     429
Evidentiary Hearings     430
Violations of Federal Law     431
Abuse of the Writ and Procedural Default     434
Successive Petitions as an Abuse of the Writ     434
Procedural Default     434
Claims of Actual Innocence as "Gateways" to Federal Habeas Corpus Review     436
Table of Cases     439

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