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Principles of Exposure Measurement in Epidemiology: Collecting, Evaluating, and Improving Measures of Disease Risk Factors / Edition 2

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The second edition of this internationally acclaimed title is the ideal handbook for those involved in conducting epidemiological research. The objective of most epidemiological studies is to relate exposure to putative causal agents to the occurrence of a particular disease. The achievement of this objective depends critically on accurate measurement of exposure. This book reviews principles and techniques that can be applied to measuring a wide range of exposures, including demographic, behavioral, medical, genetic, and environmental factors. The book covers questionnaire design, conducting personal interviews, abstracting information from medical records, use of proxy respondents, and ascertaining biological and environmental measurements. It gives a comprehensive account of measurement error and the estimation of its effects, and the design, analysis, and interpretation of validity and reliability studies. Emphasis is given to the ways in which the validity of measurements can be increased. Techniques to maximize participation of subjects in epidemiological studies are discussed, and ethical issues relevant to exposure measurement are outlined.

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Editorial Reviews

From the Publisher
This book fills a gap in the existing literature by highlighting this emerging field and definitely deserves a spot on the bookshelf of any epidemiologist...As exposure assessment constitutes an essential component of epidemiologic research, this book is certainly of great value to epidemiologists...Having taught epidemiologic methods and measurements for many years, I think this book would be very helpful for the training of graduate students, especially at the doctoral level." —Xiaomei Ma, American Journal of Epidemiology
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780198509851
  • Publisher: Oxford University Press
  • Publication date: 5/7/2008
  • Edition description: New Edition
  • Edition number: 2
  • Pages: 384
  • Product dimensions: 9.20 (w) x 6.10 (h) x 0.90 (d)

Meet the Author

Emily White, Professor of Epidemiology and Associate Dean for Research, School of Public Health and Community Medicine, University of Washington; Member, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle. Bruce K Armstrong, Professor of Public Health, The University of Sydney; Director of Research, Sydney Cancer Centre, Sydney, Australia. Rodolfo Saracci, Director of Research in Epidemiology, National Research Council, Pisa, Italy.

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Table of Contents

Preface     v
Exposure measurement     1
Introduction     1
Exposure     3
Measurement and scales of measurement     9
Exposure dose     11
Timing of exposure     17
Items to measure in a study     25
The measurement instrument     29
Summary     30
About this book     32
References     34
Methods of exposure measurement     37
Introduction     37
Classification of exposures     37
Methods overview     39
Choice of method     47
Choosing method of administration of questionnaires: face-to-face, telephone or self-administered     52
Summary     60
References     61
Exposure measurement error and its effects     65
Introduction     65
Continuous exposure measures     67
Categorical exposure measures     83
Effect of measurement error in the presence of covariates     91
Summary     92
References     93
Validity and reliability studies     97
Introduction     97
The interpretation of measuresof reliability     98
Issues in the design of validity and reliability studies     112
Analysis of validity and reliability studies     117
Summary     137
References     138
Reducing measurement error and its effects     141
Introduction     141
Adjustment of study results for the effects of measurement error     142
Use of scores or averages based on multiple measures of exposure     146
Other methods to reduce measurement error     154
Quality control procedures     158
Summary     170
References     171
The design of questionnaires     175
Introduction     175
Choice of items to be covered     176
Types of question     178
Question content     181
Question wording     182
Question order     190
Questionnaire structure     192
Questionnaire format     195
Asking about behaviours that vary over time     199
Aids to recall     200
Pre-testing questionnaires     202
Translating questionnaires     208
Summary     209
References      210
The personal interview     213
Introduction     213
Interviewer error     214
Types and styles of interview     217
The optimal circumstances for an interview     218
The interviewer's task     219
Selection, training, and supervision of interviewers     227
Special aspects of telephone interviewing     233
Summary     235
References     236
Use of records, diaries, and proxy respondents     239
Introduction     239
Use of records     239
Use of diaries     254
Use of proxy respondents     266
References     275
Measurements in the human body or its products     285
Introduction     285
The value and limitations of measurements in the human organism     287
Measurement of xenobiotic compounds     291
Measurement of endobiotic compounds     301
Quality control in biological measurements     308
Banks of biological specimen     315
Summary     318
References     320
Measurements in the environment     325
Introduction     325
The value and limitations of environmental measurements     326
Sampling and measuring present exposures     329
Sampling and measuring past exposures     339
Summary     352
References     353
Response rates and their maximization     357
Introduction     357
Calculating response rates and other participation rates     358
Factors associated with non-response     360
Selection bias     364
Maximization of response rates     367
Summary     391
References     392
Ethical issues     401
Introduction     401
Human rights and epidemiological research     402
Ethical practice in epidemiological research     407
Summary     419
References     420
Index     423
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