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More About This Textbook
Overview
Organised and written as an accessible study guide for student pilots wishing to take commercial ground examinations to obtain ATPL or CPL licenses, Principles of Flight for Pilots also provides a reliable uptodate reference for qualified and experienced personnel wishing to further improve their understanding of the Principles of Flight and related subjects. Providing a unique aerodynamics reference tool, unlike any book previously Principles of Flight for Pilots explains in significant depth all the topics necessary to pass the Principles of Flight examination as required by the EASA syllabus.
Aviation ground instructor Peter J. Swatton, well reputed for his previous works in the field of pilot ground training, presents the subject in seven parts including basic aerodynamics; level flight aerodynamics; stability; manoeuvre aerodynamics; and other aerodynamic considerations. Each chapter includes selfassessed questions, 848 in total spread over eighteen chapters, with solutions provided at the end of the book containing full calculations and explanations.
Editorial Reviews
From the Publisher
"Organised and written as an accessible study guide for student pilots wishing to take commercial ground examinations to obtain ATPL or CPL licenses, Principles of Flight for Pilots also provides a reliable uptodate reference for qualified and experienced personnel wishing to further improve their understanding of the Principles of Flight and related subjects." (Aerowebfr.net, 1 March 2011)Product Details
Related Subjects
Meet the Author
Read an Excerpt
Table of Contents
Preface
Acknowledgements
List of Abbreviations
Weight and Mass
PART 1 THE PRELIMINARIES
1 Basic Principles
The Atmosphere
The Composition of Air
The Measurement of Temperature
Air Density
The International Standard Atmosphere
ISA Deviation
JSA Deviation
Height and Altitude
Pressure Altitude
Density Altitude
The Physical Properties of Air
Fluid Pressure
Static Pressure
Dynamic Pressure
Basic Physics
Newton’s Laws of Motion
Definitions
First Law
Second Law
Third Law
ConstantAcceleration Formulae
The Equation of Impulse
The Basic Gas Laws
Boyles Law
Charles’ Law
Pressure Law
The Ideal Gas Equation
The Conservation Laws
Bernoulli’s Theorem
Viscosity
The Equation of Continuity
Reynolds Number
Critical Reynolds Number (Recrit)
Units of Measurement
SelfAssessment Exercise 1
2 Basic Aerodynamic Definitions
Aerofoil Profile
Aerofoil Attitude
Wing Shape
Wing Loading
Weight and Mass
The Newton
Airspeeds
Airspeed Indicator Reading (ASIR)
Indicated Airspeed (IAS)
Calibrated Airspeed (CAS)
Rectified Airspeed (RAS)
Equivalent Airspeed (EAS)
True Airspeed (TAS)
Mach Number
Speed Summary
The Effect of Altitude on Airspeeds
a. Below the Tropopause
b. Above the Tropopause
SelfAssessment Exercise 2
PART 2 BASIC AERODYNAMICS
3 Basic Control
Aeroplane Axes and Planes of Rotation
The Longitudinal or Roll Axis
The Lateral or Pitch Axis
The Normal or Yaw Axis
The Flight Controls
The Elevators
Pitch Control
Control Surface Area
Control Surface Angular Deflection
The Moment Arm
Angle of Attack
Alternative Pitch Controls
Variable Incidence Tailplane
The Stabilator
The Elevons
The Rudder
Yaw Control
ControlSurface Area
ControlSurface Deflection
The Moment Arm
EngineInduced Yaw
Asymmetric Engine Yawing Moment
Asymmetric Rolling Moment
Minimum Control Speeds
For Takeoff
For Landing
Vmc
Vmcg
The Effect of the Variables on Vmcg and Vmc
Vmcl
Vmcl (1 out)
Vmcl2
The Effect of the Variables on Vmcl
The Ailerons
Roll Control
The Flaperon
Wing Twist
Geometric Twist
Aerodynamic Twist
Twisterons
HighSpeed Twist
LowSpeed Ailerons
HighSpeed Ailerons
Roll Spoilers
SelfAssessment Exercise 3
4 Lift Generation
Turbulent Flow
Streamline Flow
The Boundary Layer
The Laminar Boundary Layer
The Transition Point
The Turbulent Boundary Layer
LeadingEdge Separation
BoundaryLayer Control
Blowing
Suction
Vortex Generators
TwoDimensional Flow
The Stagnation Point
Aerofoil UpperSurface Airflow
Aerofoil LowerSurface Airflow
Lift Production
Symmetrical Aerofoils
Cambered Aerofoils
a. Negative Angles of Attack
b. Small Positive Angles of Attack
c. Large Positive Angles of Attack
The Centre of Pressure (CP)
Pitching Moments
The Aerodynamic Centre
ThreeDimensional Flow
WingTip Vortices
Wake Turbulence
Spanwise Lift Distribution
The Effect of Wing Planform
SelfAssessment Exercise 4
PART 3 LEVELFLIGHT AERODYNAMICS
5 Lift Analysis
The Four Forces
Mass
Lift Analysis
The Factors Affecting Cl
The Effect of Angle of Attack
The Effect of the Wing Shape
The Effect of LeadingEdge Radius
The Effect of Camber
The Effect of Aspect Ratio
The Wing Planform
The Effect of Sweepback
The Effect of AirframeSurface Condition
The Effect of Reynolds Number
The Relationship between Speeds, Angles of Attack and Cl
Aerofoil Profiles
HighLift Aerofoils
GeneralPurpose Aerofoils
HighSpeed Aerofoils
SelfAssessment Exercise 5
6 Lift Augmentation
Wing Loading
Clmax Augmentation
Slats
Automatic Slats
Manual Slats
Slots
Flaps
LeadingEdge Flaps
The Krueger Flap
The Drooped Leading Edge
TrailingEdge Flaps
The Plain TrailingEdge Flap
The Split TrailingEdge Flap
The Slotted TrailingEdge Flap
The Fowler Flap
The Effect of TrailingEdge Flaps
Leading and TrailingEdge Combinations
The Effect of Sweepback on Flap
SelfAssessment Exercise 6
7 Drag
Parasite (Profile) Drag
SurfaceFriction Drag
Surface Area
Coefficient of Viscosity
Rate of Change of Airspeed
Flow Transition
Surface Condition
Speed and Size
Adverse Pressure Gradient
Form (Pressure) Drag
Interference Drag
Induced Drag
The Effect of Speed
The Effect of Mass
The Effect of Planform
The Effect of Sweepback
The Effect of Aspect Ratio
The Effect of Flap
The Effect of the CG Position
Effects Summary
Ground Effect
WingTip Design
Wingspan Loading
The Coefficient of Induced Drag (CDI)
Total Drag
Analysis of the TotalDrag Curve
The Velocity of Minimum Drag (Vimd)
The Velocity of MinimumPower(Vimp)
The Maximum EAS/Drag Ratio (Vi/Dmax) Speed
Speed Stability and Instability
The Effect of the Variables on Total Drag
The Effect of Altitude
The Effect of Mass
The Effect of Flap
The Cl v Cd Polar Diagram
Analysis of the Lift/Drag Ratio
The Effect of Flap
The Effect of Aspect Ratio
The Effect of Mass
Drag Augmentation
Airbrakes
Spoilers
Flight Spoilers
Ground Spoilers
Roll Spoilers
BarnDoor Flaps
Drag Parachutes
SelfAssessment Exercise 7
8 Stalling
The Stall
The Boundary Layer
BoundaryLayer Separation
TrailingEdge Separation
LeadingEdge Separation
The LowSpeed Stall
Stalling Angle
Factors Affecting the LowSpeed Stalling Angle
Slat/Flap Setting
Ice Accretion
Effect on Takeoff and Landing
TakeOff
Landing
Reduced Stalling Angle
Abnormal Stalling Characteristics
Heavy Rain
The Effect of Wing Design on the LowSpeed Stall
Swept Wings
Elliptical Wings
Rectangular Wings
Straight Tapered Wings
SpanwiseFlow Attenuation Devices
The Wing Fence
The Sawtooth Leading Edge
The Notched Leading Edge
Vortex Generators
WingTip Stalling
The Effect of Flap
The Prevention of WingTip Stalling
a. Washout
b. Root Spoiler
c. Changing Camber
d. Slats and Slots
e. Aspect Ratio
Stalling Characteristics
Ideal Stalling Characteristics
SweptWing Stalling Characteristics
Summary of Factors Affecting the Stalling Angle
Stall Warning
Aerodynamic Stall Warning
Mechanical Stall Warning
The Flapper Switch
The Angle of Attack Sensor
Stick Shakers
Stick Pushers
Stalling Speed
Factors Affecting Stalling Speed
Centre of Gravity (CG)
Forward CG
Disadvantage
Advantage
Aft CG
Disadvantage
Advantage
Mass
Altitude
Configuration
Ice Accretion
Wing Planform
Summary of Factor Effects on Stalling Speed
The Speed Boundary
The Effect of a Gust on the Load Factor
Turn Stalling Speed
StallingSpeed Definitions
Vclmax
Vms
Vms0
Vms1
Vs
Vs0
Vs1
Vs1g
Vsr
Vsr0
Vsr1
Other Types of Stall
The Deep Stall
The Accelerated Stall
The PowerOn Stall
The Shock Stall
Stall Recovery
The Lowspeed Stall
The Deep Stall
The Accelerated Stall
The PowerOn Stall
The Shock Stall
The Spin
SelfAssessment Exercise 8
9 Thrust and Power in Level Flight
Thrust
Analysis of the Thrust Curves
Thrust Available
Thrust Required
Maximum Speed (EAS)
The Effect of the Variables on Thrust
Altitude
Mass
Asymmetric Flight
Centre of Gravity
Power
Analysis of the Power Curves
Maximum TAS
Vmp and Vmd
The Effect of the Variables on Power
Altitude
Mass
Summary
SelfAssessment Exercise 9
10 Advanced Control
Wing Torsion and Flexing
Wing Flutter
Torsional Flexural Flutter
Aileron Flutter
Torsional Aileron Flutter
Flexural Aileron Flutter
The Mass Balance
Divergence
Control Secondary Effects
Adverse Yaw
Counteraction Devices
Rudder/Aileron Coupling
Slot/Aileron Coupling
Spoiler/Aileron Coupling
Differential Aileron Deflection
Frise Ailerons
ControlSurface Operation
Aerodynamic Balance Methods
The Hinge Balance
The Horn Balance
The Internal Balance
The Balance Tab
The Antibalance Tab
The Spring Tab
The Servo Tab
Primary ControlSurface Trimming
Variable Trim Tabs
Fixed Trim Tabs
Stabilizer Trim Setting
Powered Controls
PowerAssisted Controls
Fully Powered Controls
Artificial Feel
The Simple System
The ServoAssisted Hydraulic System
FlybyWire
SelfAssessment Exercise 10
PART 4 STABILITY
11 Static Stability
Static Stability
The Effect of the Variables on Static Stability
Directional Static Stability
Yaw and Sideslip
The Directional Restoring Moment
Fin and Rudder Design
The Dorsal Fin
The Ventral Fin
The Moment Arm
Aeroplane Design Features Affecting Directional Static Stability
Fuselage
Wing
Dihedral
Sweepback
Propeller Slipstream
Neutral Directional Static Stability
Lateral Static Stability
Aeroplane Design Features Affecting Lateral Static Stability
Increased Lateral Static Stability
Decreased Lateral Static Stability
Sideslip Angle and Rolling Moment Coefficient
Analysis of Design Feature Effects
Wing Contribution
Dihedral
Anhedral
Sweepback
Wing/Fuselage Interference
Shielding Effect
Wing Location
Fuselage/Fin
Fin Size
Ventral Fin
Handling Considerations
Propeller Slipstream
Crosswind Landings
Flaps
Longitudinal Static Stability
The Centre of Pressure (CP)
The Neutral Point (NP)
Types of Static Neutral Point
The StickFree Static Neutral Point
The StickFixed Static Neutral Point
The Effect of the CG at the NP
The Aerodynamic Centre (AC)
The Centre of Gravity (CG)
The CG Envelope
CG Envelope Limitations
CG Movement
The Effect of CG at the Limits
CG at the Forward Limit
CG at the Aft Limit
The Static Margin (SM)
The Trim Point (TP)
Longitudinal Dihedral
AircraftDesign Variations
The Effect of the Variables on Longitudinal Static Stability
Elevator Deflection
Trim
The Fuselage
Angle of Attack
Configuration
TrailingEdge Flaps
Undercarriage
StickFixed Longitudinal Static Stability
StickPosition Stability
StickFree Longitudinal Static Stability
Stick Force
Certification Standard StickForce Requirements
a. Class ‘A’ Aeroplanes CS 25.173(c)
b. Class ‘B’ Aeroplanes CS 23.173(c)
The Effect of CG Position on Stick Force
Longitudinal Static Manoeuvre Stability
The Manoeuvre Point
Factors Affecting Stick Force
Summary
The Effect of Atmospheric Conditions
Ice Accretion
Heavy Rain
Altitude
The Factors Affecting Static Stability
SelfAssessment Exercise 11
12 Dynamic Stability
Longitudinal Dynamic Stability
The Phugoid
ShortPeriod Oscillation
Factors Affecting Longitudinal Dynamic Stability
Lateral Dynamic Stability
Sideslip
Rolling
Spiral
Dutch Roll
Spiral Instability
Dutch Roll
Asymmetric Thrust
Aerodynamic Damping
Summary
The Factors Affecting Dynamic Stability
a. General
b. Longitudinal
c. Lateral
SelfAssessment Exercise 12
PART 5 MANOEUVRE AERODYNAMICS
13 LevelFlight Manouevres
The Manoeuvre Envelope
The Flight Load Factor
ManoeuvreEnvelope Limitations
The Stalling Speed
The ‘g’ Limitation
The ManoeuvreEnvelope Limiting Parameters
The ManoeuvreEnvelope MaximumSpeed Limitation
Stalling and Design Speed Definitions
Limiting Speeds
The Gust Envelope
The Load Factor
The Gust Load Factor
Buffet
LowSpeed Buffet
HighSpeed Buffet
The Buffet Onset Boundary Chart
Turns
The Load Factor in a Turn
The Turn Radius
Rate of Turn
Turn and Slip Indications
SelfAssessment Exercise 13
14 Climb and Descent Aerodynamics
Climbing Flight
The Forces in a Climb
The Effect of the Variables on the Climb
Altitude
Mass
Flap Setting
Wind Component
Climb Gradient
ClimbGradient Calculations
Method 1
Method 2
Rate of Climb
RateofClimb Calculations
Vx and Vy
Vx
Vy
Aircraft Ceiling
Vy at the Absolute Ceiling
Piston/Propeller Aeroplanes
Jet Aeroplanes
The Effect of the Variables on Vx and Vy
Mass
Flap
Altitude
Temperature
Wind Component
The Effect of ClimbingSpeed Variations
Factors Affecting the Climb
The Glide Descent
The Glide Variables
Gliding for Maximum Range
The Effect of the Variables on a Glide Descent
Speed
Wind Component
Mass
Angle of Attack
Flap
Gliding for Maximum Endurance
Climbing and Descending Turns
SelfAssessment Exercise 14
PART 6 OTHER AERODYNAMIC CONSIDERATIONS
15 HighSpeed Flight
General Introduction
HighSpeed Definitions
HighSpeed Calculations
The Shockwave
Compressibility
Shockwave Formation
AirPressureWave Patterns
Subsonic
Sonic
Supersonic
The Shockwave Deflection Angle
The HighSpeed CP
Critical Mach Number (Mcrit)
The Effect of a Shockwave
Wave Drag
Drag Divergence Mach Number
The Flying Controls
The Effect of the Aerofoil Profile
Thickness/Chord Ratio
Wing Camber
Swept Wings
The Effect of Sweepback
The Advantages of Sweepback
Increased Mcrit
Aerodynamic Effects
The Disadvantages of Sweepback
Remedial Design Features
LowSpeed Ailerons
HighSpeed Ailerons
Area Rule
HighSpeedFlight Characteristics
HighSpeed Buffet
Tuck Under
The Shock Stall
The Buffet Boundary
Coffin Corner
Speed Instability
The Mach Trimmer
Lateral Instability
The Supercritical Wing
Supersonic Airflow
The Convex Corner Mach Wave (Expansion Wave)
The ConcaveCorner Shockwave
SelfAssessment Exercise 15
16 Propellers
Propeller Definitions
Basic Principles
Factors Affecting Propeller Efficiency
Airspeed
FixedPitch Propellers
VariablePitch Propellers
Power Absorption
PropellerBlade Shape
Blade Length
Blade Chord
PropellerBlade Number
Solidity
The Effects of a Propeller on Aeroplane Performance
Torque
Slipstream Effect
Asymmetric Blade
Gyroscopic Effect
Propeller Forces and Moments
Centrifugal Force (CF)
Centrifugal Twisting Moment (CTM)
Aerodynamic Twisting Moment (ATM)
PropellerBlade Positions
The ConstantSpeed Unit (CSU)
Propeller Windmilling
Propeller Feathering
Reverse Pitch
The Effect of a Constant Speed Propeller On a Glide Descent
Engine Failure
SelfAssessment Exercise 16
17 Operational Considerations
RunwaySurface Contamination
Surface Contaminants
Standing Water
Slush
Wet Snow
Dry Snow
Very Dry Snow
Compacted Snow
Ice
Specially Prepared Winter Runway
Mixtures
Contaminant Drag
WaterEquivalent Depth
The Effect of Runway Contamination
Takeoff
Aeroplane Contamination
The Effect of Heavy Rain
The Effect of Propeller Icing
The Effect of Airframe Icing
The Effect of AirframeSurface Damage
The Effect of Turbulence
Windshear
The Effect of Windshear
Energy Loss
Energy Gain
Downdraught
Takeoff
Landing
Countering Windshear
SelfAssessment Exercise 17
PART 7 CONCLUSION
18 Summary
AerofoilProfile Definitions
AerofoilAttitude Definitions
WingShape Definitions
HighSpeed Definitions
Propeller Definitions
V Speeds
PoF Formulae
Drag
Wing Loading/Load Factor
Stalling Speed Calculations
Mass Change
Load Factor
Turn
Design Manoeuvre Speed (Va)
Turn Details
Radius of Turn
Rate of Turn
ClimbCalculations
Descent Calculations
Maximum Glide Range
Mach Angle (_) Calculation
KEY FACTS
Stalling
The Maximum Coefficient of Lift (Clmax)
The Critical Angle
The Stalling Speed
Stability
Static Stability
Dynamic Stability
The Stick Force
The Gust Load Factor
Propellers
Propeller Efficiency
Fixed Pitch Angle of Attack
Propeller Gyroscopic Effect
The Effect of the Variables on Performance
Airframe Surface
Airframe Surface
Altitude
Aspect Ratio
Camber
CG Position
Flap
Sweepback
Dihedral
Mass
SelfAssessment Exercise 18
19 Solutions
SelfAssessment Exercise 1
SelfAssessment Exercise 2
SelfAssessment Exercise 3
SelfAssessment Exercise 4
SelfAssessment Exercise 5
SelfAssessment Exercise 6
SelfAssessment Exercise 7
SelfAssessment Exercise 8
SelfAssessment Exercise 9
SelfAssessment Exercise 10
SelfAssessment Exercise 11
SelfAssessment Exercise 12
SelfAssessment Exercise 13
SelfAssessment Exercise 14
Vx and Vy Mathematical Proof
SelfAssessment Exercise 15
SelfAssessment Exercise 16
SelfAssessment Exercise 17
SelfAssessment Exercise 18 – Turn Calculations
Index