Principles Of Lasers / Edition 4

Principles Of Lasers / Edition 4

by Orazio Svelto, Svelto
     
 

ISBN-10: 0306457482

ISBN-13: 9780306457487

Pub. Date: 09/11/2008

Publisher: Springer-Verlag New York, LLC

This is the thoroughly updated and expanded new edition of the "self-contained introduction to the physics and technology of lasers" which was "strongly recommended" by "Physics Bulletin". The text includes many examples, new tables, end-of-chapter problems with solutions provided, and 250 illustrations. "Principles of Lasers" is suitable for advanced level courses.

Overview

This is the thoroughly updated and expanded new edition of the "self-contained introduction to the physics and technology of lasers" which was "strongly recommended" by "Physics Bulletin". The text includes many examples, new tables, end-of-chapter problems with solutions provided, and 250 illustrations. "Principles of Lasers" is suitable for advanced level courses.

Product Details

ISBN-13:
9780306457487
Publisher:
Springer-Verlag New York, LLC
Publication date:
09/11/2008
Edition description:
REV
Pages:
628
Product dimensions:
1.38(w) x 7.00(h) x 10.00(d)

Table of Contents

List of Examples xix
1. Introductory Concepts
1(16)
1.1. Spontaneous and Stimulated Emission, Absorption
2(2)
1.2. The Laser Idea
4(3)
1.3. Pumping Schemes
7(2)
1.4. Properties of Laser Beams
9(5)
1.4.1. Monochromaticity
9(1)
1.4.2. Coherence
9(1)
1.4.3. Directionality
10(1)
1.4.4. Brightness
11(2)
1.4.5. Short Pulse Duration
13(1)
1.5. Laser Types
14(1)
Problems
14(3)
2. Interaction of Radiation with Atoms and Ions
17(64)
2.1. Introduction
17(1)
2.2. Summary of Blackbody Radiation Theory
17(8)
2.2.1. Modes of a Rectangular Cavity
19(3)
2.2.2. Rayleigh-Jeans and Planck Radiation Formula
22(1)
2.2.3. Planck's Hypothesis and Field Quantization
23(2)
2.3. Spontaneous Emission
25(7)
2.3.1. Semiclassical Approach
26(3)
2.3.2. Quantum Electrodynamics Approach
29(2)
2.3.3. Allowed and Forbidden Transitions
31(1)
2.4. Absorption and Stimulated Emission
32(11)
2.4.1. Absorption and Stimulated Emission Rates
32(4)
2.4.2. Allowed and Forbidden Transitions
36(1)
2.4.3. Transition Cross Section, Absorption, and Gain Coefficient
37(5)
2.4.4. Einstein Thermodynamic Treatment
42(1)
2.5. Line-Broadening Mechanisms
43(7)
2.5.1. Homogeneous Broadening
44(4)
2.5.2. Inhomogeneous Broadening
48(1)
2.5.3. Concluding Remarks
49(1)
2.6. Nonradiative Decay and Energy Transfer
50(8)
2.6.1. Mechanisms of Nonradiative Decay
50(6)
2.6.2. Combined Effects of Radiative and Nonradiative Processes
56(2)
2.7. Degenerate or Strongly Coupled Levels
58(6)
2.7.1. Degenerate Levels
58(2)
2.7.2. Strongly Coupled Levels
60(4)
2.8. Saturation
64(7)
2.8.1. Saturation of Absorption: Homogeneous Line
64(4)
2.8.2. Gain Saturation: Homogeneous Line
68(1)
2.8.3. Inhomogeneously Broadened Line
69(2)
2.9. Fluourescence Decay of an Optically Dense Medium
71(5)
2.9.1. Radiation Trapping
71(1)
2.9.2. Amplified Spontaneous Emission
71(5)
2.10. Concluding Remarks
76(1)
Problems
77(1)
References
78(3)
3. Energy Levels, Radiative, and Nonradiative Transitions in Molecules and Semiconductors
81(48)
3.1. Molecules
81(11)
3.1.1. Energy Levels
81(4)
3.1.2. Level Occupation at Thermal Equilibrium
85(2)
3.1.3. Stimulated Transitions
87(4)
3.1.4. Radiative and Nonradiative Decay
91(1)
3.2. Bulk Semiconductors
92(20)
3.2.1. Electronic States
92(4)
3.2.2. Density of States
96(1)
3.2.3. Level Occupation at Thermal Equilibrium
97(4)
3.2.4. Stimulated Transitions: Selection Rules
101(2)
3.2.5. Absorption and Gain Coefficients
103(6)
3.2.6. Spontaneous Emission and Nonradiative Decay
109(2)
3.2.7. Concluding Remarks
111(1)
3.3. Semiconductor Quantum Wells
112(13)
3.3.1. Electronic States
112(3)
3.3.2. Density of States
115(2)
3.3.3. Level Occupation at Thermal Equilibrium
117(1)
3.3.4. Stimulated Transitions: Selection Rules
118(2)
3.3.5. Absorption and Gain Coefficients
120(3)
3.3.6. Strained Quantum Wells
123(2)
3.4. Quantum Wires and Quantum Dots
125(1)
3.5. Concluding Remarks
126(1)
Problems
127(1)
References
128(1)
4. Ray and Wave Propagation through Optical Media
129(32)
4.1. Introduction
129(1)
4.2. Matrix Formulation of Geometric Optics
129(6)
4.3. Wave Reflection and Transmission at a Dielectric Interface
135(2)
4.4. Multilayer Dielectric Coatings
137(3)
4.5. Fabry-Perot Interferometer
140(5)
4.5.1. Properties of a Fabry-Perot Interferometer
140(4)
4.5.2. Fabry-Perot Interferometer as a Spectrometer
144(1)
4.6. Diffraction Optics in the Paraxial Approximation
145(3)
4.7. Gaussian Beams
148(10)
4.7.1. Lowest Order Mode
148(3)
4.7.2. Free-Space Propagation
151(3)
4.7.3. Gaussian Beams and ABCD Law
154(1)
4.7.4. Higher Order Modes
155(3)
4.8. Conclusions
158(1)
Problems
158(2)
References
160(1)
5. Passive Optical Resonators
161(40)
5.1. Introduction
161(4)
5.1.1. Plane Parallel (Fabry-Perot) Resonator
162(1)
5.1.2. Concentric (Spherical) Resonator
163(1)
5.1.3. Confocal Resonator
163(1)
5.1.4. Generalized Spherical Resonator
163(1)
5.1.5. Ring Resonator
164(1)
5.2. Eigenmodes and Eigenvalues
165(2)
5.3. Photon Lifetime and Cavity Q
167(2)
5.4. Stability Condition
169(4)
5.5. Stable Resonators
173(14)
5.5.1. Resonators with Infinite Aperture
173(1)
5.5.1.1. Eigenmodes
174(4)
5.5.1.2. Eigenvalues
178(2)
5.5.1.3. Standing and Traveling Waves in a Two-Mirror Resonator
180(1)
5.5.2. Effects of a Finite Aperture
181(3)
5.5.3. Dynamically and Mechanically Stable Resonators
184(3)
5.6. Unstable Resonators
187(11)
5.6.1. Geometric Optics Description
188(2)
5.6.2. Wave Optics Description
190(3)
5.6.3. Advantages and Disadvantages of Hard-Edge Unstable Resonators
193(1)
5.6.4. Unstable Resonators with Variable-Reflectivity Mirrors
194(4)
5.7. Concluding Remarks
198(1)
Problems
198(2)
References
200(1)
6. Pumping Processes
201(48)
6.1. Introduction
201(3)
6.2. Optical Pumping by an Incoherent Light Source
204(6)
6.2.1. Pumping Systems
204(2)
6.2.2. Pump Light Absorption
206(2)
6.2.3. Pump Efficiency and Pump Rate
208(2)
6.3. Laser Pumping
210(18)
6.3.1. Laser-Diode Pumps
212(2)
6.3.2. Pump Transfer Systems
214(1)
6.3.2.1. Longitudinal Pumping
214(5)
6.3.2.2. Transverse Pumping
219(2)
6.3.3. Pump Rate and Pump Efficiency
221(2)
6.3.4. Threshold Pump Power for Four-Level and Quasi-Three-Level Lasers
223(3)
6.3.5. Comparison between Diode Pumping and Lamp Pumping
226(2)
6.4. Electrical Pumping
228(16)
6.4.1. Electron Impact Excitation
231(1)
6.4.1.1. Electron Impact Cross Section
232(3)
6.4.2. Thermal and Drift Velocities
235(2)
6.4.3. Electron Energy Distribution
237(3)
6.4.4. Ionization Balance Equation
240(1)
6.4.5. Scaling Laws for Electrical Discharge Lasers
241(1)
6.4.6. Pump Rate and Pump Efficiency
242(2)
6.5. Conclusions
244(1)
Problems
244(3)
References
247(2)
7. Continuous Wave Laser Behavior
249(56)
7.1. Introduction
249(1)
7.2. Rate Equations
249(9)
7.2.1. Four-Level Laser
250(5)
7.2.2. Quasi-Three-Level Laser
255(3)
7.3. Threshold Conditions and Output Power: Four-Level Laser
258(15)
7.3.1. Space-Independent Model
258(7)
7.3.2. Space-Dependent Model
265(8)
7.4. Threshold Condition and Output Power: Quasi-Three-Level Laser
273(4)
7.4.1. Space-Independent Model
273(1)
7.4.2. Space-Dependent Model
274(3)
7.5. Optimum Output Coupling
277(2)
7.6. Laser Tuning
279(2)
7.7. Reasons for Multimode Oscillation
281(3)
7.8. Single-Mode Selection
284(7)
7.8.1. Single-Transverse-Mode Selection
284(1)
7.8.2. Single-Longitudinal-Mode Selection
285(1)
7.8.2.1. Fabry-Perot Etalons as Mode-Selective Elements
285(3)
7.8.2.2. Single-Mode Selection in Unidirectional Ring Resonators
288(3)
7.9. Frequency Pulling and Limit to Monochromaticity
291(2)
7.10. Laser Frequency Fluctuations and Frequency Stabilization
293(4)
7.11. Intensity Noise and Intensity Noise Reduction
297(3)
7.12. Conclusions
300(1)
Problems
301(2)
References
303(2)
8. Transient Laser Behavior
305(60)
8.1. Introduction
305(1)
8.2. Relaxation Oscillations
305(5)
8.3. Dynamic Instabilities and Pulsations in Lasers
310(1)
8.4. Q-Switching
311(18)
8.4.1. Dynamics of the Q-Switching Process
311(2)
8.4.2. Q-Switching Methods
313(1)
8.4.2.1. Electrooptical Q-Switching
313(2)
8.4.2.2. Rotating Prisms
315(1)
8.4.2.3. Acoustooptic Q-Switches
316(1)
8.4.2.4. Saturable Absorber Q-Switch
317(2)
8.4.3. Operating Regimes
319(2)
8.4.4. Theory of Active Q-Switching
321(8)
8.5. Gain Switching
329(1)
8.6. Mode Locking
330(29)
8.6.1. Frequency-Domain Description
331(5)
8.6.2. Time-Domain Picture
336(1)
8.6.3. Mode-Locking Methods
337(1)
8.6.3.1. Active Mode Locking
337(5)
8.6.3.2. Passive Mode Locking
342(5)
8.6.4. Role of Cavity Dispersion in Femtosecond Mode-Locked Lasers
347(1)
8.6.4.1. Phase Velocity, Group Velocity, and Group-Delay Dispersion
347(3)
8.6.4.2. Limitation on Pulse Duration Due to Group-Delay Dispersion
350(1)
8.6.4.3. Dispersion Compensation
351(2)
8.6.4.4. Soliton-Type Mode Locking
353(2)
8.6.5. Mode-Locking Regimes and Mode-Locking System
355(4)
8.7. Cavity Dumping
359(2)
8.8. Concluding Remarks
361(1)
Problems
361(2)
References
363(2)
9. Solid-State, Dye, and Semiconductor Lasers
365(54)
9.1. Introduction
365(1)
9.2. Solid-State Lasers
365(21)
9.2.1. Ruby Laser
367(3)
9.2.2. Neodymium Lasers
370(1)
9.2.2.1. Nd:YAG Laser
370(3)
9.2.2.2. Nd:Glass Laser
373(1)
9.2.2.3. Other Crystalline Hosts
373(1)
9.2.3. Yb:YAG Laser
374(2)
9.2.4. Er: YAG and Yb:Er:Glass Lasers
376(1)
9.2.5. Tm:Ho:YAG Laser
377(1)
9.2.6. Fiber Lasers
378(3)
9.2.7. Alexandrite Laser
381(2)
9.2.8. Titanium Sapphire Laser
383(2)
9.2.9. Cr:LiSAF and Cr:LiCAF Lasers
385(1)
9.3. Dye Lasers
386(8)
9.3.1. Photophysical Properties of Organic Dyes
387(4)
9.3.2. Characteristics of Dye Lasers
391(3)
9.4. Semiconductor Lasers
394(21)
9.4.1. Principle of Semiconductor Laser Operation
394(2)
9.4.2. Homojunction Lasers
396(2)
9.4.3. Double-Heterostructure Lasers
398(4)
9.4.4. Quantum Well Lasers
402(3)
9.4.5. Laser Devices and Performances
405(3)
9.4.6. Distributed Feedback and Distributed Bragg Reflector Lasers
408(3)
9.4.7. Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers
411(2)
9.4.8. Semiconductor Laser Applications
413(2)
9.5. Conclusions
415(1)
Problems
415(2)
References
417(2)
10. Gas, Chemical, Free-Electon, and X-Ray Lasers
419(44)
10.1. Introduction
419(1)
10.2. Gas Lasers
419(29)
10.2.1. Neutral Atom Lasers
420(1)
10.2.1.1. Helium Neon Laser
420(5)
10.2.1.2. Copper Vapor Laser
425(2)
10.2.2. Ion Lasers
427(1)
10.2.2.1. Argon Laser
427(3)
10.2.2.2. He-Cd Laser
430(2)
10.2.3. Molecular Gas Lasers
432(1)
10.2.3.1. CO2 Laser
432(10)
10.2.3.2. CO Laser
442(2)
10.2.3.3. Nitrogen Laser
444(1)
10.2.3.4. Excimer Lasers
445(3)
10.3. Chemical Lasers
448(4)
10.4. Free-Electron Lasers
452(4)
10.5. X-Ray Lasers
456(2)
10.6. Concluding Remarks
458(1)
Problems
459(1)
References
460(3)
11. Properties of Laser Beams
463(30)
11.1. Introduction
463(1)
11.2. Monochromaticity
463(1)
11.3. First-Order Coherence
464(12)
11.3.1. Degree of Spatial and Temporal Coherence
464(4)
11.3.2. Measurement of Spatial and Temporal Coherence
468(3)
11.3.3. Relation between Temporal Coherence and Monochromaticity
471(2)
11.3.4. Nonstationary Beams
473(1)
11.3.5. Spatial and Temporal Coherence of Single-Mode and Multimode Lasers
473(2)
11.3.6. Spatial and Temporal Coherence of a Thermal Light Source
475(1)
11.4. Directionality
476(7)
11.4.1. Beams with Perfect Spatial Coherence
477(2)
11.4.2. Beams with Partial Spatial Coherence
479(1)
11.4.3. The M^2 Factor and the Spot Size Parameter of a Multimode Laser Beam
480(3)
11.5. Laser Speckle
483(3)
11.6. Brightness
486(1)
11.7. Statistical Properties of Laser Light and Thermal Light
487(2)
11.8. Comparison between Laser Light and Thermal Light
489(2)
Problems
491(1)
References
492(1)
12. Laser Beam Transformation: Propagation, Amplification, Frequency Conversion, Pulse Compression, and Pulse Expansion
493(42)
12.1. Introduction
493(1)
12.2. Spatial Transformation: Propagation of a Multimode Laser Beam
494(1)
12.3. Amplitude Transformation: Laser Amplification
495(9)
12.3.1. Examples of Laser Amplifiers: Chirped-Pulse-Amplification
500(4)
12.4. Frequency Conversion: Second-Harmonic Generation and Parametric Oscillation
504(19)
12.4.1. Physical Picture
504(1)
12.4.1.1. Second Harmonic Generation
505(7)
12.4.1.2. Parametric Oscillation
512(2)
12.4.2. Analytical Treatment
514(2)
12.4.2.1. Parametric Oscillation
516(4)
12.4.2.2. Second-Harmonic Generation
520(3)
12.5. Transformation in Time
523(7)
12.5.1. Pulse Compression
524(5)
12.5.2. Pulse Expansion
529(1)
Problems
530(2)
References
532(3)
Appendixes
535(48)
A. Semiclassical Treatment of the Interaction of Radiation and Matter
535(6)
B. Lineshape Calculation for Collision Broadening
541(4)
C. Simplified Treatment of Amplified Spontaneous Emission
545(4)
References
548(1)
D. Calculation of the Radiative Transition Rates of Molecular Transitions
549(4)
E. Space-Dependent Rate Equations
553(10)
E.1. Four-Level Lasers
553(6)
E.2. Quasi-Three-Level Lasers
559(4)
F. Mode-Locking Theory: Homogeneous Line
563(8)
F.1. Active Mode Locking
563(5)
F.2. Passive Mode Locking
568(1)
References
569(2)
G. Propagation of a Laser Pulse through a Dispersive Medium or a Gain Medium
571(6)
Reference
575(2)
H. Higher-Order Coherence
577(4)
I. Physical Constants and Useful Conversion Factors
581(2)
Answers to Selected Problems 583(12)
Index 595

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