Principles of Neural Science, Fifth Edition / Edition 5

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Overview

The field's definitive work from a Nobel Prize-winning author

900 full-color illustrations

Principles of Neural Science, 5e describes our current understanding of how the nerves, brain, and mind function. From molecules to anatomic structures and systems to cognitive function, this comprehensive reference covers all aspects of neuroscience. Widely regarded as the field’s cornerstone reference, the fifth edition is highlighted by more than 900 full-color illustrations. The fifth edition has been completely updated to reflect the tremendous amount of new research and development in neuroscience in the last decade. Lead author Eric Kandel was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 2000.

The book contains predominantly color illustrations, with some black-and-white illustrations.

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Editorial Reviews

Doody's Review Service
Reviewer: Joseph I Sirven, MD (Mayo Clinic Arizona)
Description: This fifth edition of a timeless classic edited by a Nobel Laureate surveys the exploding field of neuroscience. Given the dramatic changes in our understanding of the neurosciences as fueled by novel technology, this authoritative book serves as a primer of our current understanding of the field.
Purpose: The book serves to answer profound questions. How is the nervous system organized? How are the molecular dynamics of interconnected circuits of cells related to internal representations of acts and behaviors and then translated into observable acts?
Audience: It is intended for all individuals who have an interest in neuroscience. This could include graduate students in a laboratory, clinical professionals, and everyone in between. The authors are some of the most important names in the field.
Features: The nine sections cover such areas as cognition, perception, and movement, to name a few. The incredible diagrams and figures that help to tell the visual story of the neurosciences are the best part, making a complex field somewhat easier to understand.
Assessment: This is a classic and, as such, is one of the few must-have books for all graduate students and clinical professionals who deal with the nervous system. No other book comes close to this for an authoritative, comprehensive approach.
Booknews
New edition of a text that emphasizes the examination of behavior at the level of individual nerve cells by addressing questions as to how the brain develops, how nerve cells in the brain communicate with one another, how different patterns of interconnections give rise to different perceptions and motor acts, how communication between neurons is modified by experience, and how that communication is altered by diseases. The 63 chapters discuss the neurology of behavior; cell and molecular biology of the neuron; elementary interactions between neurons (synaptic transmission); the neural basis of cognition; perception; movement; arousal, emotion, and behavior homeostatis; the development of the nervous system; and language, thought, mood, and learning, and memory. Contains many color and b&w illustrations. Edited by Kandell, James H. Schwartz, and Thomas M. Jessell of the Center for Neurobiology and Behavior (College of Physicians & Surgeons of Columbia U.) and The Howard Hughes Medical Institute. Annotation c. Book News, Inc., Portland, OR (booknews.com)

5 Stars! from Doody
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780071390118
  • Publisher: McGraw-Hill Professional Publishing
  • Publication date: 10/26/2012
  • Edition description: Revised and Updated Edition
  • Edition number: 5
  • Pages: 1760
  • Sales rank: 97,140
  • Product dimensions: 8.50 (w) x 11.00 (h) x 2.60 (d)

Meet the Author

McGraw-Hill authors represent the leading experts in their fields and are dedicated to improving the lives, careers, and interests of readers worldwide

McGraw-Hill authors represent the leading experts in their fields and are dedicated to improving the lives, careers, and interests of readers worldwide

McGraw-Hill authors represent the leading experts in their fields and are dedicated to improving the lives, careers, and interests of readers worldwide

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Read an Excerpt

Chapter 1: The Brain and Behavior

The Last Frontier Of The biological sciences-their ultimate challenge-is to understand the biological basis of consciousness and the mental processes by which we perceive, act, learn, and remember. In the last two decades a remarkable unity has emerged within biology The ability to sequence genes and infer the amino acid sequences from the proteins they encode has revealed unanticipated similarities between proteins in the nervous system and those encountered elsewhere in the body. As a result, it has become possible to establish a general plan for the function of cells, a plan that provides a common conceptual framework for all of cell biology, including cellular neurobiology. The next and even more challenging step in this unifying process within biology, which we outline in this book, will be the unification of the study of behaviorthe science of the mind-and neural science, the science of the brain. This last step will allow us to achieve a unified scientific approach to the study of behavior.

Such a comprehensive approach depends on the view that all behavior is the result of brain function. What we commonly call the mind is a set of operations carried out by the brain. The actions of the brain underlie not only relatively simple motor behaviors such as walking or eating, but all the complex cognitive actions that we believe are quintessentially human, such as thinking, speaking, and creating works of art. As a corollary, all the behavioral disorders that characterize psychiatric illness-disorders of affect (feeling) and cognition (thought)-are disturbances of brain function.

The task of neural science is to explain behavior in termsof the activities of the brain. How does the brain marshal its millions of individual nerve cells to produce behavior, and how are these cells influenced by the environment, which includes the actions of other people? The progress of neural science in explaining human behavior is a major theme of this book.

Like all science, neural science must continually confront certain fundamental questions. Are particular mental processes localized to specific regions of the brain, or does the mind represent a collective and emergent property of the whole brain? If specific mental processes can be localized to discrete brain regions, what is the relationship between the anatomy and physiology of one region and its specific function in perception, thought, or movement? Are such relationships more likely to be revealed by examining the region as a whole or by studying its individual nerve cells? In this chapter we consider to what degree mental functions are located in specific regions of the brain and to what degree such local mental processes can be understood in terms of the properties of specific nerve cells and their interconnections.

To answer these questions, we look at how modern neural science approaches one of the most elaborate cognitive behaviors-language. In doing so we necessarily focus on the cerebral cortex, the part of the brain concerned with the most evolved human behaviors. Here we see how the brain is organized into regions or brain compartments, each made up of large groups of neurons, and how highly complex behaviors can be traced to specific regions of the brain and understood in terms of the functioning of groups of neurons. In the next chapter we consider how these neural circuits function at the cellular level, using a simple reflex behavior to examine the way sensory signals are transformed into motor acts.

Two Opposing Views Have Been Advanced on the Relationship Between Brain and Behavior Our current views about nerve cells, the brain, and behavior have emerged over the last century from a convergence of five experimental traditions: anatomy, embryology, physiology, pharmacology, and psychology.

Before the invention of the compound microscope in the eighteenth century, nervous tissue was thought to function like a gland-an idea that goes back to the Greek physician Galen, who proposed that nerves convey fluid secreted by the brain and spinal cord to the body's periphery The microscope revealed the true structure of the cells of nervous tissue. Even so, nervous tissue did not become the subject of a special science until the late 1800s, when the first detailed descriptions of nerve cells were undertaken by Camillo Golgi and Santiago Ram6n y Cajal.

Golgi developed a way of staining neurons with silver salts that revealed their entire structure under the microscope. He could see clearly that neurons had cell bodies and two major types of projections or processes: branching dendrites at one end and a long cable-like axon at the other. Using Golgi's technique, Ram6n y Cajal was able to stain individual cells, thus showing that nervous tissue is not one continuous web but a network of discrete cells. In the course of this work, Ram6n y Cajal developed some of the key concepts and much of the early evidence for the neuron doctrine-the principle that individual neurons are the elementary signaling elements of the nervous system.

Additional experimental support for the neuron doctrine was provided in the 1920s by the American embryologist Ross Harrison, who demonstrated that the two major projections of the nerve cell-the dendrites and the axon-grow out from the cell body and that they do so even in tissue culture in which each neuron is isolated from other neurons. Harrison also confirmed Ram6n y Cajal's suggestion that the tip of the axon gives rise to an expansion called the growth cone, which leads the developing axon to its target (whether to other nerve cells or to muscles).

Physiological investigation of the nervous system began in the late 1700s when the Italian physician and physicist Luigi Galvani discovered that living excitable muscle and nerve cells produce electricity. Modern electrophysiology grew out of work in the nineteenth century by three German physiologists-Emil DuBois-Reymond, Johannes Mtiller, and Hermann von Helmholtz-who were able to show that the electrical activity of one nerve cell affects the activity of an adjacent cell in predictable ways.

Pharmacology made its first impact on our understanding of the nervous system and behavior at the end of the nineteenth century, when Claude Bernard in France, Paul Ehrlich in Germany, and John Langley in England demonstrated that drugs do not interact with cells arbitrarily, but rather bind to specific receptors typically located in the membrane on the cell surface. This discovery became the basis of the all-important study of the chemical basis of communication between nerve cells.

The psychological investigation of behavior dates back to the beginnings of Western science, to classical Greek philosophy. Many issues central to the modern investigation of behavior, particularly in the area of perception, were subsequently reformulated in the seventeenth century first by Ren6 Descartes and then by John Locke, of whom we shall learn more later. In the midnineteenth century Charles Darwin set the stage for the study of animals as models of human actions and behavior by publishing his observations on the continuity of species in evolution. This new approach gave rise to ethology, the study of animal behavior in the natural environment, and later to experimental psychology, the study of human and animal behavior under controlled conditions.

In fact, by as early as the end of the eighteenth century the first attempts had been made to bring together biological and psychological concepts in the study of behavior. Franz Joseph Gall, a German physician and neuroanatomist, proposed three radical new ideas. First, he advocated that all behavior emanated from the brain. Second, he argued that particular regions of the cerebral cortex controlled specific functions. Gall asserted that the cerebral cortex did not act as a single organ but was divided into at least 35 organs (others were added later), each corresponding to a specific mental faculty. Even the most abstract of human behaviors, such as generosity, secretiveness, and religiosity were assigned their spot in the brain. Third, Gall proposed that the center for each mental function grew with use, much as a muscle bulks up with exercise...

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Table of Contents

PART I: Overall Perspective (Kandel, Hudspeth)
1. The Brain and Behavior (Kandel, Hudspeth)
2. Nerve Cells, Neural Circuitry, and Behavior (Kandel, Barres, Hudspeth)
3. Genes and Behavior (Bargmann, Gilliam)

PART II: Cell and Molecular Biology of the Neuron (Siegelbaum, Hudspeth)
4. The Cells of the Nervous System (Schwartz, Barres, Goldman)
5. Ion Channels (Siegelbaum, Koester)
6. Membrane Potential and the Passive Electrical Properties of the Neuron (Siegelbaum, Koester)
7. Propagated Signaling: The Action Potential (Siegelbaum, Koester)

PART III: Overview: Synaptic Transmission (Siegelbaum, Hudspeth)
8. Overview of Synaptic Transmission (Siegelbaum, Kandel)
9Signaling at the Nerve Muscle Synapse: Directly Gated Transmission (Siegelbaum, Kandel)
10. Synaptic Integration in the Central Nervous System (Siegelbaum, Kandel, Yuste)
11. Modulation of Synaptic Transmission: Second Messengers (Clapham, Siegelbaum, Schwartz)
12. Transmitter Release (Siegelbaum, Kandel, Sudhof)
13. Neurotransmitters (Schwartz, Javitch)
14. Diseases of Nerve and the Motor Unit (Brown, Cannon, Rowland)

PART IV: The Neural Basis of Cognition (Hudspeth, Kandel)
15. The Organization of the Central Nervous System (Amaral, Strick)
16. The Functional Organization of Perception and Movement (Amaral)
17. From Nerve Cells to Cognition: The Internal Representations for Space and Action (Kandel)
18. The Organization of Cognition (Olson, Colby)
19. Cognitive Functions of the Premotor System (Rizzolatti, Strick)
20. Functional Imaging of Cognition (Small, Heeger)

PART V: Perception (Hudspeth)
21. Sensory Coding (Gardner, Johnson)
22. The Somatosensory System: Receptors and Central Pathways (Gardner, Johnson)
23. Touch (Gardner, Johnson)
24. Pain (Basbaum, Jessell)
25. The Constructive Nature of Visual Processing (Gilbert)
26. Low-Level Visual Processing: The Retina (Meister, Tessier-Lavigne)
27. Intermediate-Level Visual Processing: Visual Primitives (Gilbert)
28. High-Level Visual Processing: Cognitive Influences (Albright)
29. Visual Processing and Action (Wurtz, Goldberg)
30. The Inner Ear (Hudspeth)
31. The Auditory Central Nervous System (Oertel, Doupe)
32. Smell and Taste: The Chemical Senses (Buck, Bargmann)

PART VI: Movement (Hudspeth)
33. The Organization and Planning of Movement (Wolpert, Pearson, Ghez)
34. The Motor Unit and Muscle Action (Enoka, Pearson)
35. Spinal Reflexes (Pearson, Gordon)
36. Locomotion (Pearson, Gordon)
37. Voluntary Movement: The Primary Motor Cortex (Kalaska, Rizzolatti)
38. Voluntary Movement: The Parietal and Premotor Cortex (Rizzolatti, Kalaska)
39. The Control of Gaze (Goldberg)
40. The Vestibular System (Goldberg, Hudspeth)
41. Posture (MacPherson, Horack)
42. The Cerebellum (Lisberger, Thach)
43. The Basal Ganglia (Wichmann, DeLong)
44. Genetic Mechanisms in Degenerative Diseases of the Nervous System (Zoghbi)

PART VII: The Unconscious and Conscious Processing of Neural Information (Kandel, Siegelbaum, Schwartz)
45. The Sensory, Motor, and Reflex Functions of the Brain Stem (Saper, Lumsden, Richerson)
46. The Modulatory Functions of the Brain Stem (Richerson, Aston-Jones, Saper)
47. The Autonomic Motor System and the Hypothalamus (Horn, Swanson)
48. Emotions and Feelings (LeDoux, Damasio)
49. Homeostasis, Motivation, and Addictive States (Shizgal, Hyman)
50. Seizures and Epilepsy (Westbrook)
51. Sleep and Dreaming (McCormick, Westbrook)

PART VIII: Development and the Emergence of Behavior (Jessell)
52. Patterning the Nervous System (Jessell, Sanes)
53. Differentiation and Survival of Nerve Cells (Jessell, Sanes)
54. The Growth and Guidance of Axons (Sanes, Jessell)
55. Formation and Elimination of Synapses (Sanes, Jessell)
56. Experience and the Refinement of Synaptic Connections (Jessell, Sanes)
57. Repairing the Damaged Brain (Sanes, Jessell)
58. Sexual Differentiation of the Nervous System (Shah, Jessell, Sanes)
59. The Aging Brain (Jessell, Sanes)

PART IX: Language, Thought, Affect, and Learning (Kandel, Schwartz)
60. Language (Kuhl, Damasio)
61. Disorders of Conscious and Unconscious Mental Processes (C. Frith)
62. Disorders of Thought and Volition: Schizophrenia (Hyman, Cohen)
63. Disorders of Mood and Anxiety (Hyman, Cohen)
64. Autism and Other Neurodevelopmental Disorders Affecting Cognition (U. Frith, Happe, Amaral, and Warren)
65. Learning and Memory (Schacter, Wagner)
66. Cellular Mechanisms of Implicit Memory Storage and the Biological Basis of Individuality (Kandel, Siegelbaum)
67. Prefrontal Cortex, Hippocampus, and the Biology of Explicit Memory Storage)

Appendices
A. Review of Basic Circuit Theory (Koester)
B. The Neurological Examination of the Patient (Kriegstein, Brust)
C. Circulation of the Brain (Brust)
D. The Blood-Brain Barrier, Choroid Plexus, and Cerebrospinal Fluid (Laterra, Goldstein)
E. Neural Networks (Seung, Yuste)
F. Theoretical Approaches to Neuroscience: Examples From Single Neurons to Networks (Abbott, Fusi, Miller)

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  • Posted February 7, 2014

    more from this reviewer

    Outstanding

    VERY good textbook. Contains the basics and advanced knowledge necessary to take neuroscience classes. Just expensive :(

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