Principles of Neural Science, Fourth Edition / Edition 4

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Overview

A Doody's Core Title for 2011!

5 STAR DOODY'S REVIEW!

"This is a simply wonderful book that makes accessible in one place all the details of how the neuron and brain work. The writing is clear. The drawings are elegant and educational. The book is a feast for both the eye and mind. The richness, the beauty, and the complexity of neuroscience is all captured in this superb book."—Doody's Review Service

Now in resplendent color, the new edition continues to define the latest in the scientific understanding of the brain, the nervous system, and human behavior. Each chapter is thoroughly revised and includes the impact of molecular biology in the mechanisms underlying developmental processes and in the pathogenesis of disease. Important features to this edition include a new chapter - Genes and Behavior; a complete updating of development of the nervous system; the genetic basis of neurological and psychiatric disease; cognitive neuroscience of perception, planning, action, motivation and memory; ion channel mechanisms; and much more.

The book contains predominantly color illustrations, with some black-and-white illustrations.

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Editorial Reviews

Doody's Review Service
Reviewer: Daniel B. Hier, MD (University of Illinois at Chicago College of Medicine)
Description: This is the fourth edition of a superb textbook of neural science.
Purpose: The authors have created simply the best available introductory text to the neurosciences aimed at both medical students and graduate students with an interest in how the brain and nervous system works.
Audience: Although aimed primarily at medical and graduate students, this book can be read by neurologists, neurosurgeons, psychiatrists, and residents in each of these disciplines.
Features: Although labeled an introduction, this is a very big and very comprehensive book that stretches over more than 1,300 pages and 63 chapters. Beginning with how the neuron works and how neurons are organized into working assemblies, the book proceeds to elegantly tackle cognition, perception, movement, and emotion. Concluding chapters examine development of the nervous system and recapture problems in language, memory, and mood.
Assessment: This is a simply wonderful book that makes accessible in one place all the details of how the neuron and brain work. The writing is clear. The drawings are elegant and educational. The book is a feast for both the eye and mind. The richness, the beauty, and the complexity of neuroscience is all captured in this superb book.
Booknews
New edition of a text that emphasizes the examination of behavior at the level of individual nerve cells by addressing questions as to how the brain develops, how nerve cells in the brain communicate with one another, how different patterns of interconnections give rise to different perceptions and motor acts, how communication between neurons is modified by experience, and how that communication is altered by diseases. The 63 chapters discuss the neurology of behavior; cell and molecular biology of the neuron; elementary interactions between neurons (synaptic transmission); the neural basis of cognition; perception; movement; arousal, emotion, and behavior homeostatis; the development of the nervous system; and language, thought, mood, and learning, and memory. Contains many color and b&w illustrations. Edited by Kandell, James H. Schwartz, and Thomas M. Jessell of the Center for Neurobiology and Behavior (College of Physicians & Surgeons of Columbia U.) and The Howard Hughes Medical Institute. Annotation c. Book News, Inc., Portland, OR (booknews.com)

5 Stars! from Doody
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780838577011
  • Publisher: McGraw-Hill Medical Publishing Division
  • Publication date: 1/10/2000
  • Edition description: REV
  • Edition number: 4
  • Pages: 1414
  • Product dimensions: 8.60 (w) x 11.20 (h) x 1.98 (d)

Meet the Author

McGraw-Hill authors represent the leading experts in their fields and are dedicated to improving the lives, careers, and interests of readers worldwide

McGraw-Hill authors represent the leading experts in their fields and are dedicated to improving the lives, careers, and interests of readers worldwide

McGraw-Hill authors represent the leading experts in their fields and are dedicated to improving the lives, careers, and interests of readers worldwide

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Read an Excerpt

Chapter 1: The Brain and Behavior

The Last Frontier Of The biological sciences-their ultimate challenge-is to understand the biological basis of consciousness and the mental processes by which we perceive, act, learn, and remember. In the last two decades a remarkable unity has emerged within biology The ability to sequence genes and infer the amino acid sequences from the proteins they encode has revealed unanticipated similarities between proteins in the nervous system and those encountered elsewhere in the body. As a result, it has become possible to establish a general plan for the function of cells, a plan that provides a common conceptual framework for all of cell biology, including cellular neurobiology. The next and even more challenging step in this unifying process within biology, which we outline in this book, will be the unification of the study of behaviorthe science of the mind-and neural science, the science of the brain. This last step will allow us to achieve a unified scientific approach to the study of behavior.

Such a comprehensive approach depends on the view that all behavior is the result of brain function. What we commonly call the mind is a set of operations carried out by the brain. The actions of the brain underlie not only relatively simple motor behaviors such as walking or eating, but all the complex cognitive actions that we believe are quintessentially human, such as thinking, speaking, and creating works of art. As a corollary, all the behavioral disorders that characterize psychiatric illness-disorders of affect (feeling) and cognition (thought)-are disturbances of brain function.

The task of neural science is to explain behavior in termsof the activities of the brain. How does the brain marshal its millions of individual nerve cells to produce behavior, and how are these cells influenced by the environment, which includes the actions of other people? The progress of neural science in explaining human behavior is a major theme of this book.

Like all science, neural science must continually confront certain fundamental questions. Are particular mental processes localized to specific regions of the brain, or does the mind represent a collective and emergent property of the whole brain? If specific mental processes can be localized to discrete brain regions, what is the relationship between the anatomy and physiology of one region and its specific function in perception, thought, or movement? Are such relationships more likely to be revealed by examining the region as a whole or by studying its individual nerve cells? In this chapter we consider to what degree mental functions are located in specific regions of the brain and to what degree such local mental processes can be understood in terms of the properties of specific nerve cells and their interconnections.

To answer these questions, we look at how modern neural science approaches one of the most elaborate cognitive behaviors-language. In doing so we necessarily focus on the cerebral cortex, the part of the brain concerned with the most evolved human behaviors. Here we see how the brain is organized into regions or brain compartments, each made up of large groups of neurons, and how highly complex behaviors can be traced to specific regions of the brain and understood in terms of the functioning of groups of neurons. In the next chapter we consider how these neural circuits function at the cellular level, using a simple reflex behavior to examine the way sensory signals are transformed into motor acts.

Two Opposing Views Have Been Advanced on the Relationship Between Brain and Behavior Our current views about nerve cells, the brain, and behavior have emerged over the last century from a convergence of five experimental traditions: anatomy, embryology, physiology, pharmacology, and psychology.

Before the invention of the compound microscope in the eighteenth century, nervous tissue was thought to function like a gland-an idea that goes back to the Greek physician Galen, who proposed that nerves convey fluid secreted by the brain and spinal cord to the body's periphery The microscope revealed the true structure of the cells of nervous tissue. Even so, nervous tissue did not become the subject of a special science until the late 1800s, when the first detailed descriptions of nerve cells were undertaken by Camillo Golgi and Santiago Ram6n y Cajal.

Golgi developed a way of staining neurons with silver salts that revealed their entire structure under the microscope. He could see clearly that neurons had cell bodies and two major types of projections or processes: branching dendrites at one end and a long cable-like axon at the other. Using Golgi's technique, Ram6n y Cajal was able to stain individual cells, thus showing that nervous tissue is not one continuous web but a network of discrete cells. In the course of this work, Ram6n y Cajal developed some of the key concepts and much of the early evidence for the neuron doctrine-the principle that individual neurons are the elementary signaling elements of the nervous system.

Additional experimental support for the neuron doctrine was provided in the 1920s by the American embryologist Ross Harrison, who demonstrated that the two major projections of the nerve cell-the dendrites and the axon-grow out from the cell body and that they do so even in tissue culture in which each neuron is isolated from other neurons. Harrison also confirmed Ram6n y Cajal's suggestion that the tip of the axon gives rise to an expansion called the growth cone, which leads the developing axon to its target (whether to other nerve cells or to muscles).

Physiological investigation of the nervous system began in the late 1700s when the Italian physician and physicist Luigi Galvani discovered that living excitable muscle and nerve cells produce electricity. Modern electrophysiology grew out of work in the nineteenth century by three German physiologists-Emil DuBois-Reymond, Johannes Mtiller, and Hermann von Helmholtz-who were able to show that the electrical activity of one nerve cell affects the activity of an adjacent cell in predictable ways.

Pharmacology made its first impact on our understanding of the nervous system and behavior at the end of the nineteenth century, when Claude Bernard in France, Paul Ehrlich in Germany, and John Langley in England demonstrated that drugs do not interact with cells arbitrarily, but rather bind to specific receptors typically located in the membrane on the cell surface. This discovery became the basis of the all-important study of the chemical basis of communication between nerve cells.

The psychological investigation of behavior dates back to the beginnings of Western science, to classical Greek philosophy. Many issues central to the modern investigation of behavior, particularly in the area of perception, were subsequently reformulated in the seventeenth century first by Ren6 Descartes and then by John Locke, of whom we shall learn more later. In the midnineteenth century Charles Darwin set the stage for the study of animals as models of human actions and behavior by publishing his observations on the continuity of species in evolution. This new approach gave rise to ethology, the study of animal behavior in the natural environment, and later to experimental psychology, the study of human and animal behavior under controlled conditions.

In fact, by as early as the end of the eighteenth century the first attempts had been made to bring together biological and psychological concepts in the study of behavior. Franz Joseph Gall, a German physician and neuroanatomist, proposed three radical new ideas. First, he advocated that all behavior emanated from the brain. Second, he argued that particular regions of the cerebral cortex controlled specific functions. Gall asserted that the cerebral cortex did not act as a single organ but was divided into at least 35 organs (others were added later), each corresponding to a specific mental faculty. Even the most abstract of human behaviors, such as generosity, secretiveness, and religiosity were assigned their spot in the brain. Third, Gall proposed that the center for each mental function grew with use, much as a muscle bulks up with exercise...

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Table of Contents

Contents ix
Preface xxxv
Acknowledgments xxxvii
Contributors xxxix
Part I The Neurobiology of Behavior
1 The Brain and Behavior 5
2 Nerve Cells and Behavior 19
3 Genes and Behavior 36
Part II Cell and Molecular Biology of the Neuron
4 The Cytology of Neurons 67
5 Synthesis and Trafficking of Neuronal Protein 88
6 Ion Channels 105
7 Membrane Potential 125
8 Local Signaling: Passive Electrical Properties of the Neuron 140
9 Propagated Signaling: The Action Potential 150
Part III Elementary Interactions Between Neurons: Synaptic Transmission
10 Overview of Synaptic Transmission 175
11 Signaling at the Nerve-Muscle Synapse: Directly Gated Transmission 187
12 Synaptic Integration 207
13 Modulation of Synaptic Transmission: Second Messengers 229
14 Transmitter Release 253
15 Neurotransmitters 280
16 Diseases of Chemical Transmission at the Nerve-Muscle Synapse: Myasthenia Gravis 298
Part IV The Neural Basis of Cognition
17 The Anatomical Organization of the Central Nervous System 317
18 The Functional Organization of Perception and Movement 337
19 Integration of Sensory and Motor Function: The Association Areas of the Cerebral Cortex and the Cognitive Capabilities of the Brain 349
20 From Nerve Cells to Cognition: The Internal Cellular Representation Required for Perception and Action 381
Part V Perception
21 Coding of Sensory Information 411
22 The Bodily Senses 430
23 Touch 451
24 The Perception of Pain 472
25 Constructing the Visual Image 492
26 Visual Processing by the Retina 507
27 Central Visual Pathways 523
28 Perception of Motion, Depth, and Form 548
29 Color Vision 572
30 Hearing 590
31 Sensory Transduction in the Ear 614
32 Smell and Taste: The Chemical Senses 625
Part VI Movement
33 The Organization of Movement 653
34 The Motor Unit and Muscle Action 674
35 Diseases of the Motor Unit 695
36 Spinal Reflexes 713
37 Locomotion 737
38 Voluntary Movement 756
39 The Control of Gaze 782
40 The Vestibular System 801
41 Posture 816
42 The Cerebellum 832
43 The Basal Ganglia 853
Part VII Arousal, Emotion, and Behavior Homeostasis
44 Brain Stem, Reflexive Behavior, and the Cranial Nerves 873
45 Brain Stem Modulation of Sensation, Movement, and Consciousness 889
46 Seizures and Epilepsy 910
47 Sleep and Dreaming 936
48 Disorders of Sleep and Wakefulness 948
49 The Autonomic Nervous System and the Hypothalamus 960
50 Emotional States and Feelings 982
51 Motivational and Addictive States 998
Part VIII The Development of the Nervous System
52 The Induction and Patterning of the Nervous System 1019
53 The Generation and Survival of Nerve Cells 1041
54 The Guidance of Axons to Their Targets 1063
55 The Formation and Regeneration of Synapses 1087
56 Sensory Experience and the Fine-Tuning of Synaptic Connections 1115
57 Sexual Differentiation of the Nervous System 1131
58 Aging of the Brain and Dementia of the Alzheimer Type 1149
Part IX Language, Thought, Mood, and Learning, and Memory
59 Language and the Aphasias 1169
60 Disorders of Thought and Volition: Schizophrenia 1188
61 Disorders of Mood: Depression, Mania, and Anxiety Disorders 1209
62 Learning and Memory 1227
63 Cellular Mechanisms of Learning and the Biological Basis of Individuality 1247
Appendices
A Current Flow in Neurons 1280
B Ventricular Organization of Cerebrospinal Fluid: Blood-Brain Barrier, Brain Edema, and Hydrocephalus 1288
C Circulation of the Brain 1302
D Consciousness and the Neurobiology of the Twenty-First Century 1317
Index 1321
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Customer Reviews

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Sort by: Showing all of 3 Customer Reviews
  • Anonymous

    Posted November 29, 2007

    great book

    This is a great book by any standard. A massive amount of information in the vast field of neuroscience is covered in detail and synthesized in a coherent fashion. In addition to Eric Kandel's pioneering laboratory research, this book is one of his great contributions to neuroscience, and of course many other scientists contributed to it, including James Schwartz and Thomas Jessell. It's as good as the best textbooks I've read, such as Alberts' Molecular Biology of the Cell. It covers up to date research, in addition to the history of the field. Topics range from the molecular workings of the neuron all the way up to behavior. It's not at all dumbed down, so someone seeking a 'CliffsNotes' version of the field should look elsewhere. I suppose, however, if someone just wants a summary of the field, he can simply read the subheadlines in each chapter. The book is lengthy due to its detail, but the intelligent general reader should readily understand nearly all of it. And in spite of its length it actually is concise in covering this broad range of subject matter.

    1 out of 1 people found this review helpful.

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  • Anonymous

    Posted March 22, 2009

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    Posted December 22, 2008

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