Printed Circuit Board Designer's Reference; Basics / Edition 1

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Overview

  • PCB design instruction and reference manual, all in one book!
  • In-depth explanation of the processes and tools used in modern PCB design
  • Standards, formulas, definitions, and procedures, plus software to tie it all together
Buy it to learn, but keep it as a valued reference tool!

Printed circuit boards (PCBs) literally form the backbone of electronic devices. The electronics industry continues its spread into every aspect of modern life, yet surprisingly little written material exists about PCB standards and design. At the same time, the industry is beginning to feel the effects of a lack of new designers entering the field! To address this situation, PCB design authority Christopher T. Robertson wrote Printed Circuit Board Designer's Reference: Basics.

This book teaches the essentials of PCB design—the same standards and techniques used in the field, but collected in one place. You'll learn most of the key design techniques in use today, and be in the perfect position to learn the more advanced methods when you're ready. On the job, Printed Circuit Board Designer's Reference: Basics will continue to serve as an indispensable reference source filled with tables, charts, and task checklists you'll definitely want to keep on hand. Rounding out the book is a valuable software package DR Resource (Designer's Reference Resource) a multifunction calculator that manages the day-to-day activities of the PCB designer, performs project management functions, and keeps vital documentation and standards data right at your fingertips. Inside you'll find:

  • Thorough coverage of PCB design tools and techniques
  • Tools for everyday calculations, useful tables, quick reference charts, and a full checklist covering the entire design process
  • Clear explanations of where values come from, how to use and adjust them, and much more

This book was written for new designers looking for a solid foundation in PCB design, although designers with more experience will find the reference material, software, and explanations of the values that manufacturers use invaluable as well.

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Product Details

Meet the Author

CHRISTOPHER T. ROBERTSON has worked nearly a decade in the PCB industry. His background includes developing standards and procedures for PCB design, creating a training course for new designers, and writing a regular column for a PCB trade magazine. Robertson has also worked in PCB manufacturing, testing, maintenance, assembly, and software beta testing. A member of the IPC Council, he has spent the past few years providing technical assistance and developing and defining the organization's technology conventions.

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Read an Excerpt

Preface

Printed Circuit Board Designer's Reference was written to provide a guideline of the entire PCB design/creation process, with reference material, software, forms, and other tools.

There are few books for the basic designer, and fabricators have limited published standards. A difficult decision about writing this book was publishing new, unreleased information that has few studies associated with it or little documentation supporting the values. History has shown that common practice and experience can suffice for undocumented information. Many designers and leaders in the industry feel that information shouldn't be provided without documentation. Most standards have not come from reading literature but from experience, common knowledge, and discussions.

PCB design is based on an ever-changing technology that requires constant updating and documentation. The values noted in this book are not supported by the Institute for Interconnecting and Packaging Electronic Circuits (IPC). These values are an average of fabricator's requirements and design requirements and are a cross section of personal values and those of hundreds of other designers. These values may change based on requirements, applications, changes in technology, and personal/company standards.

The values in the Manufacturing Technologies table (Table 2.1, pp. 18-19) are based on average values of manufacturers across the United States. They aid in choosing the manufacturer based on the design requirements and designing according to the manufacturer's capabilities. They are only a set of rules to guide the designer in choosing a manufacturer based on the design requirements and manufacturing capabilities.

Scope

There are countless styles, materials, types, and details to PCB design, but only the basics are covered in this book. An advanced version of this book would cover additional subjects such as bend/flex, controlled impedance, and exotic and special materials. This book deals with 50 to 75% of the designs done in this country.

Industry attention focuses on new and emerging technologies and techniques and ignores the basics of design.

Only the generic process and normal designs are covered in this book. Venturing into advanced board design requires a strong grasp of the basics of PCB design, which is the intent of this book.

One of the attempts of this book is to point out the weakness of the industry and the lack of complete software for the basic design. Daily tasks for most design issues are still not supported by many software packages; therefore, a supplemental software package accompanies this book that deals with the everyday tasks. A goal of this book is the education of software developers and the integration of these tables and calculators into PCB design software.

What a Designer Should Know

A beginning designer needs only the knowledge of components and PCBs. This will allow the designer to design basic boards. To progress further, working knowledge of a computer-aided design (CAD) system and the essentials of electronics and electrical theory are necessary. These will allow you to have an understanding of "why a trace width must be this large" or "why the clearance must be so large."

To master PCB design, an understanding of RF and EMF is important.

There are many designers who do high-speed, high-frequency designs and who have no more than a high school education, and there are designers who have college degrees in engineering and who design simple boards. Many of the boards designed in the United States are low-frequency, simple boards and do not require advanced degrees to design.

One industry dilemma is the increase in design needs and a decline in the number of young/new designers. This decline is caused by increasingly complex software and more complex boards in the face of salaries that have not kept pace.

A second dilemma is the lack of standardization in the manufacturing industry. This causes confusion and disagreement among designers and difficulty in documentation.

A final dilemma is a lack of comprehensive PCB programs that account for real-life issues and the lack of understanding by the software designers of PCB requirements, such as calculations necessary on a daily basis:

  • Instant trace width calculations, by layer, from current requirements
  • Instant spacing calculations, by layer, from voltage requirements
  • Impedance calculations by layer
  • Layer calculations and documentations using real material values
  • Database of available materials (derived from manufacturers)
How this Book Is Organized

An attempt was made to provide clear information concerning values, where they came from, and how to adjust them. Therefore, this book features the following:

  • Easy-to-use tools for everyday calculations
  • Easy-to-understand tables
  • Quick reference charts
  • A full checklist, beginning with the development and ending with final inspection
  • Definitions, explanations, and graphics to clearly explain the numbers, values, and results

As technology grows, standards and values will change; thus it is permissible to mark this book with newer relative values. The software is designed to grow with the technology and to provide the designer with a life-long design tool.

CD-ROM

At the rear of this book is a companion CD that contains many useful documents and program for the beginning user, including the aforementioned Designer's Checklist and the Designer's Reference Resource.

In addition, the software contains:

  • Borders in ANSI and metric formats
  • Drafting details
  • Drill charts
  • Sample fabrication notes
  • Example lay-up (stack-up) graphics
  • Title blocks in ANSI and metric formats
  • Other supporting viewers and programs
Web Site

Additional information and examples are provided in the support Web site for this book.

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Table of Contents

Preface.

Designer's Checklist.

1. Introduction to a Printed Circuit Board.

What Is a PCB? What a PCB Is Made Of. A Thumbnail Sketch of the Design Process. Summary.

2. Design for Manufacturing.

About Fabrication Notes. Technologies. Defining Fabrication Limits. The Fabrication Drawing. The Fabrication Process and Fabrication Notes. Summary.

3. Design for Assembly.

Soldering a Thru-Hole Component. Quality Solder Joints. Determining the Annular Ring for Assembly. Component Spacing. Component Placement. Manual Assembly vs. Auto Assembly. Single-Sided Assembly vs. Double-Sided Assembly. Manual Assembly. Auto Assembly. Summary.

4. Schematics and the Netlist.

Schematic Entry. Understanding Electricity. Software Terminology. Understanding Components. Schematic Standards. Schematic Design Checklist. Schematic Styles. Sheets and Strategies. Connectors and Sheet Connectors. Summary.

5. Designing a PCB.

Initial Design Determination. Getting Started Using Tools of the Trade. Utilities and Accessories. Documenting Standards and Materials. Gathering and Defining Preliminary Information. Defining Constraints and Requirements. Determining the Material Type to Use. Designing the Board. Specifying the Manufacturing Do's and Don'ts. Templates. Summary.

6. Libraries, Components, and Data Sheets.

Understanding Components. Component Consistency. Component Symbol Types. Library Naming Convention. Manufacturer-Generic vs. Manufacturer-Specific Components. Deciphering a Data Sheet and Manufacturer's Standards—SMD. Drawing the Components. Multiple Aspects of the Same Component. Summary.

7. Board Completion and Inspection.

Why Inspect? Summary.

8. Drawing an Assembly.

Creating an Assembly Drawing. Determining the Type of Assembly Drawing Required. Assembly Views. Assembly Drawing Final Note. Summary.

Appendix—Examples.

PCB Manufacturing Terms.

PCB Manufacturing Acronyms.

Electronic Terms.

Electronic Acronyms.

PCB Design Acronyms.

Index.

Read More Show Less

Preface

Preface

Printed Circuit Board Designer's Reference was written to provide a guideline of the entire PCB design/creation process, with reference material, software, forms, and other tools.

There are few books for the basic designer, and fabricators have limited published standards. A difficult decision about writing this book was publishing new, unreleased information that has few studies associated with it or little documentation supporting the values. History has shown that common practice and experience can suffice for undocumented information. Many designers and leaders in the industry feel that information shouldn't be provided without documentation. Most standards have not come from reading literature but from experience, common knowledge, and discussions.

PCB design is based on an ever-changing technology that requires constant updating and documentation. The values noted in this book are not supported by the Institute for Interconnecting and Packaging Electronic Circuits (IPC). These values are an average of fabricator's requirements and design requirements and are a cross section of personal values and those of hundreds of other designers. These values may change based on requirements, applications, changes in technology, and personal/company standards.

The values in the Manufacturing Technologies table (Table 2.1, pp. 18-19) are based on average values of manufacturers across the United States. They aid in choosing the manufacturer based on the design requirements and designing according to the manufacturer's capabilities. They are only a set of rules to guide the designer in choosing a manufacturer based on the design requirements and manufacturing capabilities.

Scope

There are countless styles, materials, types, and details to PCB design, but only the basics are covered in this book. An advanced version of this book would cover additional subjects such as bend/flex, controlled impedance, and exotic and special materials. This book deals with 50 to 75% of the designs done in this country.

Industry attention focuses on new and emerging technologies and techniques and ignores the basics of design.

Only the generic process and normal designs are covered in this book. Venturing into advanced board design requires a strong grasp of the basics of PCB design, which is the intent of this book.

One of the attempts of this book is to point out the weakness of the industry and the lack of complete software for the basic design. Daily tasks for most design issues are still not supported by many software packages; therefore, a supplemental software package accompanies this book that deals with the everyday tasks. A goal of this book is the education of software developers and the integration of these tables and calculators into PCB design software.

What a Designer Should Know

A beginning designer needs only the knowledge of components and PCBs. This will allow the designer to design basic boards. To progress further, working knowledge of a computer-aided design (CAD) system and the essentials of electronics and electrical theory are necessary. These will allow you to have an understanding of "why a trace width must be this large" or "why the clearance must be so large."

To master PCB design, an understanding of RF and EMF is important.

There are many designers who do high-speed, high-frequency designs and who have no more than a high school education, and there are designers who have college degrees in engineering and who design simple boards. Many of the boards designed in the United States are low-frequency, simple boards and do not require advanced degrees to design.

One industry dilemma is the increase in design needs and a decline in the number of young/new designers. This decline is caused by increasingly complex software and more complex boards in the face of salaries that have not kept pace.

A second dilemma is the lack of standardization in the manufacturing industry. This causes confusion and disagreement among designers and difficulty in documentation.

A final dilemma is a lack of comprehensive PCB programs that account for real-life issues and the lack of understanding by the software designers of PCB requirements, such as calculations necessary on a daily basis:

  • Instant trace width calculations, by layer, from current requirements
  • Instant spacing calculations, by layer, from voltage requirements
  • Impedance calculations by layer
  • Layer calculations and documentations using real material values
  • Database of available materials (derived from manufacturers)

How this Book Is Organized

An attempt was made to provide clear information concerning values, where they came from, and how to adjust them. Therefore, this book features the following:

  • Easy-to-use tools for everyday calculations
  • Easy-to-understand tables
  • Quick reference charts
  • A full checklist, beginning with the development and ending with final inspection
  • Definitions, explanations, and graphics to clearly explain the numbers, values, and results

As technology grows, standards and values will change; thus it is permissible to mark this book with newer relative values. The software is designed to grow with the technology and to provide the designer with a life-long design tool.

CD-ROM

At the rear of this book is a companion CD that contains many useful documents and program for the beginning user, including the aforementioned Designer's Checklist and the Designer's Reference Resource.

In addition, the software contains:

  • Borders in ANSI and metric formats
  • Drafting details
  • Drill charts
  • Sample fabrication notes
  • Example lay-up (stack-up) graphics
  • Title blocks in ANSI and metric formats
  • Other supporting viewers and programs

Web Site

Additional information and examples are provided in the support Web site for this book.

Read More Show Less

Introduction

Preface

Printed Circuit Board Designer's Reference was written to provide a guideline of the entire PCB design/creation process, with reference material, software, forms, and other tools.

There are few books for the basic designer, and fabricators have limited published standards. A difficult decision about writing this book was publishing new, unreleased information that has few studies associated with it or little documentation supporting the values. History has shown that common practice and experience can suffice for undocumented information. Many designers and leaders in the industry feel that information shouldn't be provided without documentation. Most standards have not come from reading literature but from experience, common knowledge, and discussions.

PCB design is based on an ever-changing technology that requires constant updating and documentation. The values noted in this book are not supported by the Institute for Interconnecting and Packaging Electronic Circuits (IPC). These values are an average of fabricator's requirements and design requirements and are a cross section of personal values and those of hundreds of other designers. These values may change based on requirements, applications, changes in technology, and personal/company standards.

The values in the Manufacturing Technologies table (Table 2.1, pp. 18-19) are based on average values of manufacturers across the United States. They aid in choosing the manufacturer based on the design requirements and designing according to the manufacturer's capabilities. They are only a set of rules to guide the designer in choosing a manufacturer based on the design requirementsand manufacturing capabilities.

Scope

There are countless styles, materials, types, and details to PCB design, but only the basics are covered in this book. An advanced version of this book would cover additional subjects such as bend/flex, controlled impedance, and exotic and special materials. This book deals with 50 to 75% of the designs done in this country.

Industry attention focuses on new and emerging technologies and techniques and ignores the basics of design.

Only the generic process and normal designs are covered in this book. Venturing into advanced board design requires a strong grasp of the basics of PCB design, which is the intent of this book.

One of the attempts of this book is to point out the weakness of the industry and the lack of complete software for the basic design. Daily tasks for most design issues are still not supported by many software packages; therefore, a supplemental software package accompanies this book that deals with the everyday tasks. A goal of this book is the education of software developers and the integration of these tables and calculators into PCB design software.

What a Designer Should Know

A beginning designer needs only the knowledge of components and PCBs. This will allow the designer to design basic boards. To progress further, working knowledge of a computer-aided design (CAD) system and the essentials of electronics and electrical theory are necessary. These will allow you to have an understanding of "why a trace width must be this large" or "why the clearance must be so large."

To master PCB design, an understanding of RF and EMF is important.

There are many designers who do high-speed, high-frequency designs and who have no more than a high school education, and there are designers who have college degrees in engineering and who design simple boards. Many of the boards designed in the United States are low-frequency, simple boards and do not require advanced degrees to design.

One industry dilemma is the increase in design needs and a decline in the number of young/new designers. This decline is caused by increasingly complex software and more complex boards in the face of salaries that have not kept pace.

A second dilemma is the lack of standardization in the manufacturing industry. This causes confusion and disagreement among designers and difficulty in documentation.

A final dilemma is a lack of comprehensive PCB programs that account for real-life issues and the lack of understanding by the software designers of PCB requirements, such as calculations necessary on a daily basis:

  • Instant trace width calculations, by layer, from current requirements
  • Instant spacing calculations, by layer, from voltage requirements
  • Impedance calculations by layer
  • Layer calculations and documentations using real material values
  • Database of available materials (derived from manufacturers)

How this Book Is Organized

An attempt was made to provide clear information concerning values, where they came from, and how to adjust them. Therefore, this book features the following:

  • Easy-to-use tools for everyday calculations
  • Easy-to-understand tables
  • Quick reference charts
  • A full checklist, beginning with the development and ending with fin inspection
  • Definitions, explanations, and graphics to clearly explain the numbers, values, and results

As technology grows, standards and values will change; thus it is permissible to mark this book with newer relative values. The software is designed to grow with the technology and to provide the designer with a life-long design tool.

CD-ROM

At the rear of this book is a companion CD that contains many useful documents and program for the beginning user, including the aforementioned Designer's Checklist and the Designer's Reference Resource.

In addition, the software contains:

  • Borders in ANSI and metric formats
  • Drafting details
  • Drill charts
  • Sample fabrication notes
  • Example lay-up (stack-up) graphics
  • Title blocks in ANSI and metric formats
  • Other supporting viewers and programs

Web Site

Additional information and examples are provided in the support Web site for this book.

Read More Show Less

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