Prisoners of Hate: The Cognitive Basis of Anger, Hostility, and Violence [NOOK Book]

Overview

World-renowned psychiatrist Dr.Aaron T. Beck, widely hailed as the father of cognitive therapy, presents a revolutionary and eye-opening look at destructive behavoir in Prisoners of Hate.  He applied his established principles on the relationships bewteen thinking processes and the emotional and behavoiral  expressions to the dark side of humanity.  In fascinating detail, he demonstrates that basic components of destructive behavoir-domestic abuse, bigotry, genocide, and war-share common patterns ...

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Prisoners of Hate: The Cognitive Basis of Anger, Hostility, and Violence

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Overview

World-renowned psychiatrist Dr.Aaron T. Beck, widely hailed as the father of cognitive therapy, presents a revolutionary and eye-opening look at destructive behavoir in Prisoners of Hate.  He applied his established principles on the relationships bewteen thinking processes and the emotional and behavoiral  expressions to the dark side of humanity.  In fascinating detail, he demonstrates that basic components of destructive behavoir-domestic abuse, bigotry, genocide, and war-share common patterns with everyday frustrations in our lives.  A book that will radically alter our thinking on violence in all its forms, Prisoners of Hate, provides a solid framework for remedying these crucial problems.

 

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Editorial Reviews

Library Journal
Noted as the founder of cognitive psychotherapy, Beck (emeritus, Pennsylvania State Univ.) here applies his work to greater social problems, from domestic violence to bigotry, crime, and war. Focusing on involuntary and usually unnoticed thought patterns, Beck's therapy emphasizes relearning. He wants patients--and, now, everyone from gang members to world leaders--to examine their cognitions rationally with a view to decreasing hostility. Beck's approach is so sweeping that economic, geographic, and racial issues all can be subsumed under it, and he makes a strong case. However, he oversimplifies when he argues that anger, hate, and hostility are the same whether the conflict is between spouses or nations. Unfortunately, he gives short shrift to the constructive aspects of anger and chooses to ignore the psychology of nonviolence, though his approach is consistent with Gandhi's and King's. Still, Beck's broad scope; valuable summaries on prejudice, altruism, and political psychology; and optimistic, humane, and rational treatment of a vital subject recommend this for lay and professional readers.--E. James Lieberman, George Washington Univ. Sch. of Medicine, Washington, D.C. Copyright 1999 Cahners Business Information.
Kirkus Reviews
A reflective consideration of the dysfunctional thinking that results in acts ranging from verbal abuse on the personal level to mass murder on the societal level, as well as suggestions for remedying these problems. Known as the father of cognitive therapy, Beck, professor emeritus of psychology at the Univ. of Penn. School of Medicine, finds parallels between violent reactions of troubled individuals to presumed wrongs, bombings by extremist militant groups, and acts of genocide perpetrated by states. In his psychotherapeutic work with patients, he observed a pattern of thinking that he describes as "hostile framing," that is, perceiving the person one is in conflict with as dangerous and evil and the self as right and good. Such thinking locks the mind in a "prison of hate" in which a false image is mistaken for the real person. Beck calls such cognitive distortion "primal thinking" because it occurs in the earliest stage of information processing and also in the early developmental stage of children. When primal thinking pigeonholes adversaries as evil, even subhuman, creatures who deserve to be punished, the moral code against killing is weakened. Beck demonstrates how such cognitive errors have led to wife-beating, group rape, the Salem witch trials, the Oklahoma City bombing, the Holocaust, and genocide in Cambodia, Turkey, and the Soviet Union. The cognitive distortions that led to WWI get special attention. There is hope, however, says Beck, who argues that war is not inevitable and asserts that humans have an innate capacity for altruistic behavior to override hostile tendencies and for rational thinking to correct cognitive distortions. He argues that an understanding ofindividual psychology can provide the tools for developing corrective political and social programs, and he describes how these might operate in preventing child and spousal abuse, juvenile delinquency, and ethnopolitical violence. A provocative and most timely report in this era of ethnic cleansing abroad and high school shootings at home.
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780062046000
  • Publisher: HarperCollins Publishers
  • Publication date: 9/14/2010
  • Sold by: HARPERCOLLINS
  • Format: eBook
  • Pages: 368
  • Sales rank: 515,831
  • File size: 3 MB

Meet the Author


Aaron T. Beck, M.D., is University Professor Emeritus at the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine and president of the Beck Institute for Cognitive Therapy and Research. Dr. Beck is the author of thirteen books. He lives with his wife, Judge Phyllis Beck, in Wynnewood, Pennsylvania, and has four children and eight grandchildren.
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Read an Excerpt

Chapter 1

The Prison of Hate

How Egoism and Ideology Hijack the Mind

It is a magnificent feeling to recognize the unity of a complex of phenomena that to direct observation appear to be separate things.

Albert Einstein (April 1901)

 

 

The violence of humans against humans appalls us but continues to take its toll today. The dazzling technological advances of our era are paralleled by a reversion to the savagery of the Dark Ages: unimaginable horrors of war and wanton annihilation of ethnic, religious, and political groups. We have succeeded in conquering many deadly diseases, yet we have witnessed the horrors of thousands of murdered people floating down the rivers of Rwanda, innocent civilians driven from their homes and massacred in Kosovo, and blood flowing in the killing fields of Cambodia. Wherever we look, east or west, north or south, we see persecution, violence, and genocide.

In less dramatic ways, crime and violence reign in our countries and cities. There seem to be no limits to the personal misery people inflict on one another. Close, even intimate, relationships crumble under the impact of uncontrolled anger. Child abuse and spouse abuse pose a challenge to legal as well as mental health authorities. Prejudice, discrimination, and racism continue to divide our pluralistic society

The scientific advances of the age are mocked by the stasis in our ability to understand and solve these interpersonal and societal problems. What can be done to prevent the misery inflicted on the abusedchild, the battered wife? How can we reduce the medical complications of hostility, including soaring blood pressure, heart attacks, and strokes? What guidelines can be developed to address the broader manifestations of hostility that tear apart the fabric of civilization? What can the policy makers and social engineers-- and the average citizens--do? Sociologists, psychologists, and political scientists have made concerted efforts to analyze the social and economic factors leading to crime, violence, and war. Yet the problems remain.

 

A Personal Experiance

Sometimes a relatively isolated experience can expose the inner structure of a phenomenon. I received a clear insight into the nature of hostility many years ago when I was its target. I had received the usual laudatory introduction at a book-signing event in a large bookstore and had just completed a few introductory remarks to an audience of colleagues and other scholars. Suddenly, a middle-aged man, whom I shall call Rob, approached me in a confrontational manner. I recalled later that he seemed "different"--stiff, tense, his eyes glaring. We had the following interchange:

Rob (sarcastic tone): Congratulations! You certainly drew a large crowd.

ATB: Thanks. I enjoy getting together with my friends.

Rob: I suppose you enjoy being the center of attention.

ATB: Well, it helps to sell books.

Rob (angry tone): I guess you think you're better than me.

ATB: No. I'm just another person.

Rob: You know what I think of you? You're just a phony.

ATB: I hope not.

At this point it was clear that Rob's hostility was rising, that he was getting out of control. Several of my friends moved in and, after a brief scuffle, led him out of the store.

Although this scene might be dismissed as simply the irrational behavior of a disturbed person, I believe it shows, in bold relief, several facets of hostility. The exaggerations in the thinking and behavior of clinical patients often delineate the nature of adaptive as well as excessive human reactions. As I reflect on the incident now, I can note a number of features that illustrate some universal mechanisms involved in the triggering and expression of hostility.

First, why did Rob take my performance as a personal affront, as though I were in some way injuring him? What struck me--and was obvious to the other observers with a background in psychology--was the egocentricity of his reaction: he interpreted the recognition I received as having diminished him in some way. Such a reaction, although extreme, probably is not as puzzling as it may seem. Others in the audience may have been thinking about their own professional status--whether they deserved recognition--and may have experienced regret or envy. Rob, however, was totally absorbed in how my position reflected on him; he personalized the experience as though he and I were adversaries, competing for the same prize.

Rob's exaggerated self-focus set the stage for his anger and his desire to attack me. He was impelled to make an invidious comparison between the two of us, and in accord with his egocentric perspective, he presumed that others would consider him less important than I, perhaps less worthy. Also, he felt left out, because he was receiving none of the attention and friendship that were being given to me.

The sense of social isolation, of being disregarded by the rest of the group, undoubtedly hurt him, a reaction commonly reported by patients in like situations. But why didn't he simply experience disappointment or regret? Why the anger and hatred? After all, I was not doing anything to him. Yet he perceived an injustice in the proceedings: I was no more deserving of recognition than he was. Therefore, since he was wronged, he was entitled to feel angry. But he carried this further. His statement, "You think you're better than me," shows the degree to which he personalized our interaction. He imagined what my view of him would be, and then projected it into my mind, as if he knew what I was thinking (something I call the projected image). In essence Rob was using (actually overusing) a frequent and mostly adaptive device: mind-reading.

Reading other people's minds, to some extent, is a crucial adaptive mechanism. Unless we can judge other people's attitudes and intentions toward us with some degree of accuracy, we are continuously vulnerable, stumbling blindly through life. Some authors have noted a deficiency in this capability in autistic children, who are oblivious to other people's thinking and feeling. In contrast, Rob's interpersonal sensitivity and mind-reading were. . .

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Table of Contents

Acknowledgments
Introduction
1 The Prison of Hate: How Egosism and Ideology Hijack the Mind 3
2 The Eye ("I") of the Storm: The Egocentric Bias 25
3 From Hurt to Hate: The Vulnerable Self-image 40
4 Let Me Count the Ways You've Wronged Me 55
5 Primal Thinking: Cognitive Errors and Distortions 71
6 Formula for Anger: Rights, Wrongs, and Retaliation 87
7 Intimate Enemies: The Transformation of Love and Hate 105
8 Individual Violence: The Psychology of the Offender 125
9 Collective Illusions: Group Prejudice and Violence 143
10 Persecution and Genocide: Creating Monsters and Demons 170
11 Images and Misperceptions in War: The Deadly Construction of the ENEMY 197
12 The Brighter Side of Human Nature: Attachment, Altruism, and Cooperation 227
13 Cognitive Therapy for Individuals and Groups 249
14 Perspectives and Prospects: Applying Cognitive Approaches to the Problems of Society 269
Notes 289
Bibliography 325
Index 345
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