Private Security and Public Safety: A Community-Based Approach / Edition 1

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Overview

Private Security and Public Safety: A Community-Based Approach is the future of prevention and protection. Few things grow as constantly and predictably as criers in American society. The level of crime and its corresponding rising costs negatively impact a great number of aspects of daily living. Private Security and Public Safety: A Community-Based Approach offers many solutions to these specific concerns and presents how the private security industry can intervene and save distressed communities. Private Security and Public Safety: A Community-Based Approach looks at the roots of public safety in the private and public sector and lays the foundation for private security in the future.

Highlights include:

  • A philosophical and functional review of the security industry: including the contrast between the public and private ideology of public safety.
  • A discussion of the trends and reemergence of the private model in the 21st century.
  • Discussions on the role and function of the Community Protection Officer – that private counterpart to the police beat patrol.
  • A strong argument ensuring private security is able to aggressively alter neighborhoods to make them less user-friendly far the criminal.
  • Suggestions for effective collaboration of public and private entities struggling to control crime in a neighborhood setting.
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780131123748
  • Publisher: Prentice Hall
  • Publication date: 7/9/2004
  • Edition description: New Edition
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 360
  • Product dimensions: 6.90 (w) x 9.00 (h) x 0.80 (d)

Meet the Author

Charles P. Nemeth, Professor of Professional Studies and Director of Graduate Criminal Justice/ Legal Studies for California University of Pennsylvania, has spent the vast majority of his professional life in the study and practice of law and justice. A recognized expert on ethics and the legal system, appellate legal practice and private-sector justice, he also is a prolific writer, having published numerous texts and articles on law and justice throughout his impressive career. His most recent work includes three titles: Criminal Law (Prentice Hall, 2003), Law & Evidence: A Primer for Criminal Justice, Criminology, Law, and Legal Studies (Prentice Hall, 2001) and Aquinas in the Courtroom (Greenwood and Praeger Publishing, 2001). Dr. Nemeth is a recognized scholar in the world of private security. His Private Security and the Law, third edition (Butterworth/Elsevier 2005) is regarded as a treatise on the subject. In addition, his Private Security and Investigative Process (Butterworth/Elsevier 1999) is deemed required reading for security practitioners.

An educator for more than 30 years, Nemeth's distinctive career in criminal justice is founded on an exemplary education, including a Master of Laws from George Washington University, a Juris Doctor from the University of Baltimore, and a Master of Arts and Ph.D. from Duquesne University. In addition, he was awarded a M.S. from Niagara University and received an undergraduate degree from the University of Delaware. He holds memberships in the New York, North Carolina, and Pennsylvania Bars.

At California University, Dr. Nemeth directs the University's graduate program in Criminal justice, implemented a new Master's degree in Legal Studies and is developing additional academic programs at CAL-Pittsburgh as Director of Program Development. His previous academic appointments include Niagara University (1977-1980), the University of Baltimore (1980-1981), Glassboro State College (1981-1986), Waynesburg College (1988-1998), and the State University of New York at Brockport (1998-2003).

He is a much sought-after legal consultant for security companies and a recognized scholar on issues involving law and morality.

K.C. Poulin is President and Chief Executive Officer of Critical Intervention Services (CIS) and has over 20 years experience in the fields of law enforcement, security management, and executive protection. Mr. Poulin specializes in the fields of crime in urban communities, critical incident management, terrorism counteraction, juvenile violence and prevention, executive protection, and workplace violence.

He and his team of practitioners developed the premises for this book through the everyday activities and efforts of Critical Intervention Services. The concept called Community and Character Based Protection Initiative (CCBPI) was created by Mr. Poulin and has received worldwide recognition for its effective results in turning around high-crime communities.

Mr. Poulin has received certifications as a Certified Protection Specialist (CPS) through Executive Security International and Certified Protection Officer Instructor (CPOI) through the International Foundation for Protection Officers and is certified in Homeland Security, Level-III by the American Board for Certification in Homeland Security.

Mr. Poulin often testifies as an expert witness in liability cases that require his expertise in terms of inadequate security and premise liability for the limitation of protective operations. He has lectured on a number of occasions to the Florida Chapter of the FBI National Academy Associates and other industry organizations and also serves as a frequent consultant for the news media and has appeared as a subject expert in over 300 television and radio news interviews.

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Read an Excerpt

Few things grow as constantly and predictably as crime in American society. Much to the dismay of a beleaguered culture, the levels of crime and its corresponding rising costs, negatively impact a great number of aspects of daily living. This is a text that suggests a bold and alternative perspective—an increased role for private security in the maintenance of order.

In a general sense the text lays out:

  • A thorough and concise review of the security industry from both a philosophical and functional approach, including the contrast between the public and private ideology of public safety.
  • Discussion of the trends, the ebb and flow of private law enforcement, with a particular emphasis on the reemergence of the private model in the 21st century.
  • Specific suggestions on how the private security industry can intervene and essentially save communities in distress.
  • Comprehensive analysis of the role of private sector operatives in community-based integration along with a review of the integration formula and processes only the private sector is capable of.
  • Considerable elaboration of the role and function of the Community Protection Officer—that private counterpart to the beat patrol—in the cure of community pathology.
  • The specifics of various tactics that security firms can use to win that psychological edge from first contact protocols, shock tactics of various levels of intensity, and other simple steps which announce to the world how crime and criminals have lost their edge in the community.
  • A discussion of environmental considerations in the reclamation of crime ridden areas and how private security is better positioned to see the community in both social and environmental terms and to aggressively alter the landscape to make it less user friendly for the malefactor.
  • Suggestions for effective collaboration of public and private entities in the struggle to control crime in a neighborhood setting.

The roots and foundation of private sector justice are fully analyzed in Chapter 1. It makes little sense to advance new theories of policing without a look to how policing in both the private and public sector has unfolded. Indeed our history is too often forgotten in public police circles where the only game in town sometimes excludes the private model. History instructs otherwise with private citizens towing the line in crime and criminality for most measurable time. Clearly the concepts of a posse, a watch and ward, and the idea of feudal protections, rest in the private domain. Even early police fathers arose from the private movement whether Peel, Pinkerton, or Fielding. Hence a strong and vigorous look at the history of private sector justice is worth the investment.

Chapter 2 more specifically reviews the security industry from both a philosophical and functional approach. The trends, the ebb and flow of private law enforcement, are pointed out with particular emphasis on the reemergence of the private model in the 21st century. The concept of privatization is visited keenly. In addition, the chapter lays out the general contributions the industry makes to the law enforcement function and the many tasks it undertakes, from college and university policing to retail and corporate protection. The contrast between the public and private ideology of public safety is also provided.

Chapter 3 debates and critiques the idea of community policing and how public police have bought the approach in efforts to stabilize their relationships with distressed communities. The community policing programs so often witnessed in the public sector are well intentioned attempts to recapture the hearts and minds of those living in crime ridden communities. A major thesis of this chapter is that public police may lack the ideological framework to deliver this form of service and that the private sector counterpart may be better suited to the challenge of restoration in high crime communities. A debate is offered on whether or not community policing practices have failed or succeeded.

Chapter 4 delivers specifics on how the private security industry can intervene and essentially save communities in distress. It is the high crime community so dire in economic, social and other pathological condition where a new approach may be necessary. The public police are rightfully preoccupied with the reactive role of arrest and detention and have scant time to mend the fences in the community setting. Particular suggestions on how to measure the health and condition of a designated community through threat assessment and community profiles are discussed and analyzed. Here again, the private sector appears most capable of effecting change in seemingly unchangeable communities.

Chapter 5 lays out the role of private sector operatives in community based integration and delves comprehensively into the integration formula and processes only the private sector is capable of. The coverage includes a detailed look at the Community-Based Integration Program (CBIP) which allows the private security firm to not only erect a system that repairs, reclaims and restores the community stability but also indicates the types of training and police tactics necessary to effectively win the war on crime in the distressed community. Considerable elaboration of the role and function of the Community Protection Officer—that private counterpart to the beat patrol—in the cure of community pathology is made available.

Chapter 6 outlines the crucial role that communication plays in the delivery of security and public safety services in the community-based law enforcement. Change comes about due to professional tactics assuredly, but even more compellingly, the ability to persuade and change the mindset and outlook of the residents who live in the turmoil of crime. How the private security officers conducts him- or herself, how welcome the officers become in the target community, and how well the private sector justice professionals interact in the marketplace will correlate to the level of success in the community.

Another major contribution of the private security industry will be its ability to alter and metamorphize the landscape in which they carry out their duties. So much of crime and its consequence depend on fear and intimidation. Chapter 7 delineates psychological tactics that take back the streets and restore the appropriate social equilibrium for community tranquility. The unit also specifies various tactics that security firms can use to win that psychological edge from first contact protocols, shock tactics of various levels of intensity, and other simple steps which announce to the world how crime and criminals have lost their edge in the community. Private sector companies are ably placed to change the environment by these psychological tactics.

Environmental considerations in the reclamation of crime ridden areas are the main subject matter of Chapter 8. That a correlation exists between a corrupted environment and the level of criminal activity is now indisputable. Private sector firms and operatives are well placed to deal with community in an environmental sense and to offer recommendations on how the change and modification of the environment will alter the lives of crime. Environmental considerations can be as small as garbage and other eyesores to a lack of lighting and street security and to a host of other issues that announce a collapsing quality of life. Private security is better positioned to see the community in both social and environmental terms and to aggressively alter the landscape to make it less user friendly for the malefactor. Not just imagery and setting but physical security, environmental design and technology in the minimization of crime will be weighed and evaluated.

Chapter 9 ends with the full recognition that the crime problem in the American community can no longer be exclusively dealt with by the public sector. That same recognition leads to an understanding that the private security industry will play a significant role in the elimination and control of crime but probably over the next century will be the most significant player in the delivery of public safety for the American way of life. Simply put, the future belongs to privatization and communities will live or die on the fundamental relationship it builds with its protectors. Given the antagonism so rampant in the public model, the private solution generates resolution by other means and allows the public police system to react while the private model integrates its very essence into the fiber of the American community.

Here is where the future resides: in a system rooted in private prevention and protection. Aligned with the public police model, communities will live or die on the fundamental relationship it builds with its protectors. Given the antagonism so rampant in the public model, the private solution generates resolution by other means and allows the public police system to react while the private model integrates its very essence into the fiber of the American community.

Read More Show Less

Table of Contents

(NOTE: Each chapter concludes with a Conclusion.)

Preface.

Acknowledgments.

About the Authors.

1. History and the Private/Public Distinction.

I. The Setting.

II. The Historical Underpinnings of Private Security and Public Police.

A. The Classical Idea of Public Safety. B. Feudalism and the Protection of Person and Property. C. The Watch and Ward. D. Urbanization and the Changing Security Perspective.

III. The American Experiment with Policing and Public Safety.

A. The Influence of Allan Pinkerton. B. Western Expansionism and the Culture of Public Safety. C. The Influence of J. Edgar Hoover.

IV. The American Paradigm of Public Safety: History and Change.

2. Privatization, the Private Sector, and the Public Safety Paradigm.

I. The Security Industry: Growth and Privatization.

II. Functions of the Security Industry.

A. Unarmed Officers. B. Alarm Companies. C. Private Investigators. D. Campus Law Enforcement and Educational Institutions. E. Retail/Industrial.

3. Community and Policing: Public and Private Perspectives.

I. Introduction.

II. The Promise of Community-Based Policing.

III. Community-Based Policing and the Culture of Public Law Enforcement.

A. Public Police Professionalism and the Resistance to Community Policing. B. The Efficacy of Professional Public Policing. C. The Incompatibility of Public Police and Community-Based Policing Initiatives.

IV. The Compatibility of the Private Sector in Community Protection: The New Paradigm.

4. Private Sector Community Profile and Threat Assessment.

I. General Perceptions of Community Life.

A. Community Structure: Organized/Disorganized Environments. B. The High-Crime Community: Challenges and Opportunity for Change.

II. The Community Profile.

A. State of Public Police/Community Relations. B. Level of Juvenile Delinquency and Gang Activity. C. Business Climate and Economic Conditions. D. Private Security Professional Perceptions.

III. Threat Assessment.

A. Preincident Indicators: A Tool for Threat Assessment.

5. Private Sector Officers in the Community: Community-Based Integration Tactics.

I. Introduction.

II. Community-Based Integration Programs (CBIP).

A. Integration versus Observation. B. Personnel and the CBIP. C. Training for Community Integration. D. Fundamental Skills in the Community Protection Officer.

III. A System's Approach to Community Integration.

A. Reclamation of the Community Environment. B. Networking. C. Anchoring.

IV. Program Evaluation: The State of the Community.

6. Private Sector Community-Based Communication Tactics.

I. Communication Policy and Tactics for Private Sector Officers.

A. Notice and Purpose. B. Officer Demeanor and Attitude. C. Avoidance of Responsibility. D. Arrogance and Interaction. E. Failure to Listen.

II. Public Police and Private Security Communication.

III. Private Sector Communication and the Media.

7. Private Sector Community-Based Psychological Tactics.

I. Introduction.

II. Shock Tactics in Community-Based Methodologies.

A. First-Contact Protocols.

III. High-Shock Strategies in High-Crime Communities.

IV. Low-Intensity Shock Strategies.

V. Psychological Operations (PsyOps) as Shock Tactics.

A. Visual Imagery. B. Letters, Surveys, and Communiquis. C. Visual Intimidation. D. Strategic Deception. E. Media Coverage as Psychological Warfare. F. Night Vision Tactics. G. Pay Telephones. H. Rewards.

8. Private Sector Community-Based Physical Factors.

I. Physical Security and Environment.

A. Crime and Environmental Design. B. The Mall as an Environment.

II. Physical Security and Risk.

A. Image and the Risk Plan. B. Technology and the Physical Environment. C. Schools as Experiments in Physical Security.

9. The Future of Public Safety: Preparing for the Challenges.

I. Advantages of the Private Sector in Community-Based Efforts.

II. A Case of Art over Science in the Delivery of Protective Services.

III. The Rise of Public/Private Partnerships in the Justice Model.

IV. The Rise of Regulations, Standards, and Accreditation.

V. The Private Sector Solution.

Appendix: Environmental Threat Assessment & Residential Property Security Survey.

Index.

Read More Show Less

Preface

Few things grow as constantly and predictably as crime in American society. Much to the dismay of a beleaguered culture, the levels of crime and its corresponding rising costs, negatively impact a great number of aspects of daily living. This is a text that suggests a bold and alternative perspective—an increased role for private security in the maintenance of order.

In a general sense the text lays out:

  • A thorough and concise review of the security industry from both a philosophical and functional approach, including the contrast between the public and private ideology of public safety.
  • Discussion of the trends, the ebb and flow of private law enforcement, with a particular emphasis on the reemergence of the private model in the 21st century.
  • Specific suggestions on how the private security industry can intervene and essentially save communities in distress.
  • Comprehensive analysis of the role of private sector operatives in community-based integration along with a review of the integration formula and processes only the private sector is capable of.
  • Considerable elaboration of the role and function of the Community Protection Officer—that private counterpart to the beat patrol—in the cure of community pathology.
  • The specifics of various tactics that security firms can use to win that psychological edge from first contact protocols, shock tactics of various levels of intensity, and other simple steps which announce to the world how crime and criminals have lost their edge in the community.
  • A discussion of environmental considerations in the reclamation of crime ridden areas and how private security is better positioned to see the community in both social and environmental terms and to aggressively alter the landscape to make it less user friendly for the malefactor.
  • Suggestions for effective collaboration of public and private entities in the struggle to control crime in a neighborhood setting.

The roots and foundation of private sector justice are fully analyzed in Chapter 1. It makes little sense to advance new theories of policing without a look to how policing in both the private and public sector has unfolded. Indeed our history is too often forgotten in public police circles where the only game in town sometimes excludes the private model. History instructs otherwise with private citizens towing the line in crime and criminality for most measurable time. Clearly the concepts of a posse, a watch and ward, and the idea of feudal protections, rest in the private domain. Even early police fathers arose from the private movement whether Peel, Pinkerton, or Fielding. Hence a strong and vigorous look at the history of private sector justice is worth the investment.

Chapter 2 more specifically reviews the security industry from both a philosophical and functional approach. The trends, the ebb and flow of private law enforcement, are pointed out with particular emphasis on the reemergence of the private model in the 21st century. The concept of privatization is visited keenly. In addition, the chapter lays out the general contributions the industry makes to the law enforcement function and the many tasks it undertakes, from college and university policing to retail and corporate protection. The contrast between the public and private ideology of public safety is also provided.

Chapter 3 debates and critiques the idea of community policing and how public police have bought the approach in efforts to stabilize their relationships with distressed communities. The community policing programs so often witnessed in the public sector are well intentioned attempts to recapture the hearts and minds of those living in crime ridden communities. A major thesis of this chapter is that public police may lack the ideological framework to deliver this form of service and that the private sector counterpart may be better suited to the challenge of restoration in high crime communities. A debate is offered on whether or not community policing practices have failed or succeeded.

Chapter 4 delivers specifics on how the private security industry can intervene and essentially save communities in distress. It is the high crime community so dire in economic, social and other pathological condition where a new approach may be necessary. The public police are rightfully preoccupied with the reactive role of arrest and detention and have scant time to mend the fences in the community setting. Particular suggestions on how to measure the health and condition of a designated community through threat assessment and community profiles are discussed and analyzed. Here again, the private sector appears most capable of effecting change in seemingly unchangeable communities.

Chapter 5 lays out the role of private sector operatives in community based integration and delves comprehensively into the integration formula and processes only the private sector is capable of. The coverage includes a detailed look at the Community-Based Integration Program (CBIP) which allows the private security firm to not only erect a system that repairs, reclaims and restores the community stability but also indicates the types of training and police tactics necessary to effectively win the war on crime in the distressed community. Considerable elaboration of the role and function of the Community Protection Officer—that private counterpart to the beat patrol—in the cure of community pathology is made available.

Chapter 6 outlines the crucial role that communication plays in the delivery of security and public safety services in the community-based law enforcement. Change comes about due to professional tactics assuredly, but even more compellingly, the ability to persuade and change the mindset and outlook of the residents who live in the turmoil of crime. How the private security officers conducts him- or herself, how welcome the officers become in the target community, and how well the private sector justice professionals interact in the marketplace will correlate to the level of success in the community.

Another major contribution of the private security industry will be its ability to alter and metamorphize the landscape in which they carry out their duties. So much of crime and its consequence depend on fear and intimidation. Chapter 7 delineates psychological tactics that take back the streets and restore the appropriate social equilibrium for community tranquility. The unit also specifies various tactics that security firms can use to win that psychological edge from first contact protocols, shock tactics of various levels of intensity, and other simple steps which announce to the world how crime and criminals have lost their edge in the community. Private sector companies are ably placed to change the environment by these psychological tactics.

Environmental considerations in the reclamation of crime ridden areas are the main subject matter of Chapter 8. That a correlation exists between a corrupted environment and the level of criminal activity is now indisputable. Private sector firms and operatives are well placed to deal with community in an environmental sense and to offer recommendations on how the change and modification of the environment will alter the lives of crime. Environmental considerations can be as small as garbage and other eyesores to a lack of lighting and street security and to a host of other issues that announce a collapsing quality of life. Private security is better positioned to see the community in both social and environmental terms and to aggressively alter the landscape to make it less user friendly for the malefactor. Not just imagery and setting but physical security, environmental design and technology in the minimization of crime will be weighed and evaluated.

Chapter 9 ends with the full recognition that the crime problem in the American community can no longer be exclusively dealt with by the public sector. That same recognition leads to an understanding that the private security industry will play a significant role in the elimination and control of crime but probably over the next century will be the most significant player in the delivery of public safety for the American way of life. Simply put, the future belongs to privatization and communities will live or die on the fundamental relationship it builds with its protectors. Given the antagonism so rampant in the public model, the private solution generates resolution by other means and allows the public police system to react while the private model integrates its very essence into the fiber of the American community.

Here is where the future resides: in a system rooted in private prevention and protection. Aligned with the public police model, communities will live or die on the fundamental relationship it builds with its protectors. Given the antagonism so rampant in the public model, the private solution generates resolution by other means and allows the public police system to react while the private model integrates its very essence into the fiber of the American community.

Read More Show Less

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  • Anonymous

    Posted December 11, 2004

    Security Management Magazine Review

    This book examines the concept of private security companies providing community-oriented crime prevention on a contract basis. Borrowing heavily from the experience of security practitioners, it is rich in detail, well thought-out, and comprehensive--a close look at a bold new way to protect neighborhoods with a high risk of crime... ...All told, this book ably describes an important experiment in private sector community policing, but it certainly would have served the security industry better had it explored competing ideas as well. --Security Management Magazine Review by Ross Johnson, CPP

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    Posted April 25, 2009

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