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Problems of Semantics: A Contribution to the Analysis of the Language Science / Edition 1

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Table of Contents

I. The Semantic Problem—Sources and Themes.- II. The Concept of Semantics and Prerequisites for the Investigation of Semantic Problems.- 1. The Concepts of Object Language and Metalanguage.- 2. The Semantic Level of Analysis and its Relations to the Syntactic and Pragmatic Levels.- III. Semantic Concepts.- 1. Semantic Concepts and their Relations in Common Parlance.- A. Express, state that.- B. Signify.- C. Denote.- D. Represent.- 2. Semantic Concepts in Formalised Languages.- A. The Concept of a Formalised Language.- B. The Interpretation of a Formalised Language.- C. The Introduction of Semantic Concepts by Definition.- D. The Axiomatic Introduction of Semantic Concepts.- IV. The Semantics of Logical Concepts.- 1. Problems of L-Semantics.- A. The Introduction of L-Concepts as Non-Defined Terms.- B. The Concepts of ‘Logical Range’ and ‘State Description’.- C. The Concepts of ‘Logical Content’ and ‘Semantic Information’.- D. Meaning Postulates.- 2. The Semantics of Logical Concepts on the Basis of the Concept of Interpretation.- A. The Concepts of Model and Interpretation.- B. The Most Important Definitions of Logical Semantic Concepts on the Basis of ‘Interpretation’.- C. The Concept of ‘Translation’.- V. Sense and Denotation.- 1. Frege’s Conception of Sense and Denotation.- A. Sense, Denotation and the Identity of Names.- B. The Concept of ‘Name’.- C. Frege’s Extension of the Semantic Characterisation of Names.- 2. The Theory of Descriptions.- A. The Concept of Denoting Phrase.- B. The Differentiation of Descriptions.- C. Individual Descriptions and Statement Functions.- 3. The Method of Extension and Intension.- A. The Concepts of ‘Class’ and ‘Property’.- B. The Concepts of ‘Extension’ and ‘Intension’.- C. Extensional and Intensional Context.- D A Possible Amplification of the Method of Extension and Intension.- 4. The Problem of Naming.- A. The Name Relation.- B. Antinomies of the Name Relation.- 5. Synonymity.- A. The Concept of ‘The Same Meaning’.- B. Synonymity, Intension and Intensional Isomorphism.- C. Synonymity, Pragmatic Intension and Pragmatic Criteria.- VI. The Criterion of Sense.- 1. The Formulation of the Problem.- A. Conceptions of a Criterion of Sense.- B. The Criterion of Sense and the Problem of Linguistic and Sense Intension.- 2. The Operationist Criterion of Sense.- A. Einstein’s Definition of Simultaneity and the Operationist Criterion of Sense.- B. Critical Comments on the Operationist Criterion of Sense.- 3. The Verifiability Criterion of Sense.- A. Motives for the Original Version of the Verifiability Criterion.- B. Different Degrees of the Verifiability Criterion.- C. The Logical Nature of the Verifiability Criterion.- 4. The Translatability Criterion of Sense.- A. The Concept of ‘Having a Sense’ as a Primitive Concept of the Semantic Metalanguage.- B. Pragmatic Limitations of the Translatability Criterion.- C. The Concept of ‘Having a Sense’ as a Many-Place Predicate.- 5. Sense and the Empirical.- A. The Concept of ‘Empirical Predicates’.- B. Dispositional Predicates.- 6. ‘Theoretical Concepts’ and the Relativity of the Empirical Starting Point.- A. The Problem of Scientific Empiricism.- B. The Admissibility of Theoretical Concepts.- C. Ways of Interpreting Theoretical Concepts.- 7. Problems of Sense and Reduction Procedures.- A. A Critique of Empiricist Reductionism.- B. The Ontological Aspect of Reduction; the Theory of Levels.- C. The Semantic and Pragmatic Aspects of Reduction.- VII. Vagueness.- 1. Vagueness and the Un-Sharpness of Boundaries.- A. Vagueness and the Empirical.- B. Vagueness and Theoretical Concepts and Constructions.- C. Vagueness and the So-Called Fringe.- 2. Sources of Vagueness and Ways of Analysing Vagueness.- A. The Pragmatic Aspects of Vagueness.- B. The Semantic Aspects of Vagueness.- 3. Vagueness, Ambiguity and Denotational Opacity.- A. Ambiguity.- B. Denotational Opacity.- C. Extremes and Graduated Differences.- VIII. Semantics and Some Problems of Ontology.- 1. Semantics and Ontic Decision.- A. The Use of Terms and Ontic Commitments.- B. Linguistic Framework and So-Called External and Internal Questions.- 2. Nominalism, Platonism and Semantics.- A. The Reification of Abstract Entities and the Problem of Nominalism.- B. ‘Praeter Necessitatem’.- C. The Problem of Similarity and Identity.- 3. Analytical and Synthetic Aspects in the Language of Science.- A. The Traditional Problems and Tasks of Semantics.- B. Degrees of Analyticity.- C. Some Methodological Problems.- IX. An Outline of the Evaluation of the Results of Scientific Activity in Terms of Semantic Information.- 1. The Scope for Evaluating Scientific Results.- 2. Brillouin’s Attempt at an Informational Evaluation of Scientific Laws.- 3. Linguistic Devices in Tasks of the Systematising Type.- 4. The Concept of ‘Decision Base’ and the Evaluation of a Decision Base.- 5. The Relevance of A Posteriori Data.- 6. Evaluation of the Goal Complex and the Concept of ‘Epistemic Gain’.- X. The Semantics of Preference Attitudes.- 1. The Role of Preference and Preference Ordering.- 2. The Comparability Principle as a Presupposition for the Construction of a Preference System.- 3. Preferences of Things and Preferences of States of Affairs.- 4. Preference ‘Ceteris Paribus’.- 5. The Concept of ‘Preferable States of Affairs’ as a Qualitative Concept.- 6. Preference as a Propositional Attitude.- Conclusions.- XI. The Problem of Informational Synonymity.- 1. The Traditional (Leibnizian) Criterion of Identity and the Problem of Semantic Identification.- 2. The ‘Salva Veritate’ Criterion.- 3. The Criterion of ‘Salva Relatione’ and the Concept of ‘Informational Synonymity’.- 4. Informational Relevance and the Concept of ‘Strict Informational Synonymity’.- XII. An Outline of the Semantic Evaluation of Graphic Communication.- 1. Introductory Remarks.- 2. Graphic Communication.- 3. The Semantics of a Picture Shape.- 4. Informational Synonymity and the Informational Evaluation of a Picture Shape.- 5. Informational Synonymity and the Time Factor.- Notes.- References.- Index of Names.- Index of Subjects.

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