Some sub-chapter titles have been condensed here. Each chapter ends with a section of References.
Fundamentals in Processing Vegetables
Principles and Applications of Vegetable Processing
B. S. Luh, Department of Food Science & Technology, University of California, Davis
Introduction o Methods Used: Canning, Freezing, Dehydration, Pickling, Freeze-Drying o Chemical Changes - Harvesting, Handling, and Storing o Preparing Vegetables for Processing: Test for Adequacy of Blanching, Peroxidase Assay, Lipoxygenase Assay o Processing: Canning, Preparation, Blanching, Filling, Ensuring Vacuum in Containers, Sealing, Heat Processing, Labeling and Casing o Aseptic Processing and Packaging: The Aseptic System, Conditions for Aseptic Processing, Preproduction Sterilization, Flow Rate Control, Product Heating, Holding Tube, Cooling, Aseptic Surge Tanks, Aseptic Packaging Systems, Aseptic Zone, Production of Aseptic Packages, Record Keeping, Container Integrity, Pros and Cons, Highlights o Applications of Conventional Vegetable Processing: Asparagus, Beets, Green Peas
Jerry N. Cash, Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Michigan State University; Nirmal K. Sinha, Graceland Fruit, Inc.
Introduction o Considerations in Canning: Microbiological ConsiderationsHeat Resistance, pH; Thermal Process Considerations o Canning Procedures: Processing Steps, Metal Containers o Quality of Canned Vegetables: Nutritional and Sensory Qualities
Drying and Freeze Drying
Sin Bong Lin, Food Industry Research and Development Institute, Taiwan
Introduction o Basic Concepts: Sorption Phenomena, Characteristics of Drying Curves, Moisture Movement Mechanisms o General Process of Dried Vegetables: Washing, Peeling, Cutting, Bleaching, Blanching, Drying, Packaging and Storage o Practices of Dehydration: Mushroom Slices, Onion, Ginger, Garlic, Sweet Potato
Susan S. Sumner, Department of Food Science and Technology, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University; Dianne L. Peters, Department of Food Science, University of Nebraska
Introduction o Normal Microflora: Production/Processing/Distribution o Spoilage o Safety: Pathogenic Bacteria o Regulatory/HACCP Issues
Processing Vegetable Commodities
Edward E. Burns, Department of Horticultural Sciences, Texas A&M University
Introduction o Quality of Raw Carrots: Shape, Color, Texture, Flavor, Composition o Processing: Soak, Washing, Size Graders, Peeling, Timing and Inspection, Sizing and Cutting, Fill, Process o Carrots and Peas - Strained Carrots o Frozen Carrots
Cucumber as a Processed Vegetable
J. E. Staub and J. Bacher, Vegetable Crops Research, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, University of Wisconsin
Plant Habit and Sex Expression: Genetics of Sex Expression, Hormonal Control of Sex Expression, Manipulation of Plant Architecture and Sex Expression o Molecular Markers in Cultivar Improvement: Identification of Molecular Marker Systems, Some Potential Uses of Molecular Markers o Culture: Varieties, Insects, Climate, Soil Fertility, Cultural Practices, Harvesting o Postharvest Management: Mechanical Damage, Transpirational Loss, Hydrocooling, Transport and Storage o Processing: Types, Refrigeration, Salt Brining, Factors Affecting Preservation, Internal Bloating, Purging, Physical Factors Affecting Bloating, Gas Exchange, Curing, Controlled Fermentation o Product Quality and Quality Control: Defects, Quality Control
Chung-Ping Huang and Yung-Hui Lee, Food Industry Research and Development Institute, Taiwan
Introduction o Cultivation: Agaricus Bisporus (Lange) Imbach, Letinus Edodes (Berk) Singer o Processing: Canning o Dehydration o Freezing o Hygiene and Sanitation
William M. Randle, Department of Horticulture, University of Georgia; Y. H. Hui, American Food and Nutrition Center
General: Biology, Crop Production, Varieties and Variety Development o Drying: Preparation, Dehydration, Product Sizing o Canning: Packing, Harvesting, Preparation and Canning, Method of Analysis
Edward E. Burns, Department of Horticultural Sciences, Texas A&M University
Introduction o Canning: Grading, Trim, Blanching, Acidification, Filling, Processing, Cooling o Dehydration: Operation o Brined Peppers
Potatoes: Chip and French Fry Processing
Alexander D. Pavlista, Panhandle Research and Extension Center, University of Nebraska; John C. Ojala, Idaho Falls Research and Extension Center, University of Idaho
Introduction o Cultural Practices and Processing Quality: Cultivars, Seed Preparation and Planting, Irrigation, Soil Preparation and Fertilization, Temperature, Other Production Variables o Raw Product Quality: Size and Shape, Defects, Dry Matter and Specific Gravity, Product Color o Storage Management: Facility Preparation, Curing Period and Preconditioning, Holding Period, Reconditioning Period, Removal Period o Processing Procedures: Potato Chip Processing, French Fry Processing
M. C. Bourne and C. Y. Lee, New York State Agricultural Experiment Station, Cornell University; J. R. Stavely, Molecular Plant Pathology Laboratory, Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture
Biology and Horticulture: Introduction, Plant Characteristics o Processing: Introduction, Structure and Composition, Preparation for Processing, Canned Beans, Frozen Beans, Dehydrated Beans
C. Y. Lee, M. C. Bourne, and D. L. Downing, Department of Food Science & Technology, New York State Agricultural Extension Service, Cornell University; E. Van Wann, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service
Biology, Breeding, and Culture: Introduction, Origin, Taxonomy, and Morphology o Commercial Processing: Introduction, Raw Product, Receiving and Husking, Processing
Wai-Kit Nip, Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, University of Hawaii
Introduction o Common Cultivars o Production Practices and Postharvest Handling o Chemical Composition: Proximate Composition and Nutritional Information, Taro Starch, Taro Gums, Dietary Fibers, Proteins, Minerals, Oxalates, Vitamins, Acidity Principle, Pigments, Nonallergic Principle, Minor Components, Effect of Cooking, Substrate for Aflatoxin Production o Processed Products (sampling): Poi (Taro Paste), Deep-Fried Taro Chips, Drum-Dried Taro Flakes, Frozen Taro Chunks, Taro Flour, Dried Taro Slices or Chunks o Problems in Processing
James Swi-bea Wu, Graduate Institute of Food Science & Technology, National Taiwan University, Taiwan; Philip Edwin Nelson, Department of Food Science, Purdue University
Introduction o Grading o Dry-Sorting o Washing o Resorting, Trimming, and Coring o Canned Tomatoes: Peeling, Final Inspection, Filling, Exhausting, Processing o Tomato Juice: Comminution, Extraction, Deaeration, Homogenization, Salting and Acidification, Thermal Processing o Tomato Juice Blends o Tomato Concentrates o Concentrated Tomato Juice o Puree and Paste o Tomato Juice from Concentrates o Bulk Storage and Transportation o Tomato Soup o Tomato-Based Sauces: Catsup, Tomato Sauce, Chili Sauce, Other Tomato-Based Sauces
Extensive reference data is economically presented in more than fifty tables. This quantitative data is useful in decision making on processing, food safety and marketing questions. Here is a small sampling of the titles of these tables.
Vegetables, Commercial: Area, Production and Value of Principal Crops, U.S. o Summary of Canned Vegetable Packs (U.S.A.) o Calculated Sterilizing Values of Some Commercial Processes o Processed Vegetables for Which U.S. Standards of Grades Have Been Established o Time o Temperature Requirements for Canning Selected Vegetables o Average Retention of Vitamin C, B1, B2, Niacin, and Carotene after Blanching and Canning o Bacterial Pathogens Isolated from Raw Vegetables o Comparative Composition of Peppers, Carrots, and Oranges o Thermal Processes for Canned Carrots o Pickle Cucumber Products o Characteristics of Some U.S. Pickling Cucumber Varieties o Relative Pungency of Selected Peppers o Flowchart for Potato Chip Processing o Thermal Process Time and Temperature for Green Beans or Wax Beans Packed in Brine and Processed in Still Retorts
The more than forty photographs, diagrams, and flow charts illustrate processes and equipment. Here are a few examples:
Aseptic processing system o Brush washer for cleaning carrots o Temperature ranges for storage periods used in potato chip and French fry processing o Flowsheet of typical sweet corn process
The thousands of references serve as a guide to further research on each chapter topic. These references comprise an extensive database on the literature of vegetable processing.
More than 1,500 key words and terms are included in the very detailed index. This enables you to quickly find information you need on a wide range of vegetable processing topics.