Product Design and Engineering: Formulation of Gels and Pastes

Overview

Covering the whole value chain - from product requirements and properties via process technologies and equipment to real-world applications - this reference represents a comprehensive overview of the topic. The editors and majority of the authors are members of the European Federation of Chemical Engineering, with backgrounds from academia as well as industry. Therefore, this multifaceted area is highlighted from different angles: essential physico-chemical background, latest measurement and prediction ...

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Overview

Covering the whole value chain - from product requirements and properties via process technologies and equipment to real-world applications - this reference represents a comprehensive overview of the topic. The editors and majority of the authors are members of the European Federation of Chemical Engineering, with backgrounds from academia as well as industry. Therefore, this multifaceted area is highlighted from different angles: essential physico-chemical background, latest measurement and prediction techniques, and numerous applications from cosmetic up to food industry. Recommended reading for process, pharma and chemical engineers, chemists in industry, and those working in the pharmaceutical, food, cosmetics, dyes and pigments industries.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9783527332205
  • Publisher: Wiley
  • Publication date: 10/7/2013
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 372
  • Product dimensions: 6.90 (w) x 9.70 (h) x 0.90 (d)

Meet the Author

Ulrich Bröckel studied chemical engineering at the Technical University of Karlsruhe, and gained his doctorate at the Institute of Mechanical Engineering in 1991. After his industrial career at the BASF process engineering department - leading a team responsible for agglomeration and product design of solids - he became Professor at the University of Applied Sciences Trier in 2000. He is a member of APV, DECHEMA, GVC, and is co-chairing the section group "Product Design and Engineering" at the European Federation of Chemical Engineering (EFCE). Professor Bröckel's work focuses on solids processing and plant design.

Willi Meier studied chemistry at the RWTH Aachen, where he gained his PhD in 1992. He is responsible for the international cooperation of the DECHEMA and is coordinating the research activities of the section groups of the EFCE and the European Federation of Biotechnology. In 2013, he was appointed honorary professor at the Technical University of Clausthal.

Gerhard Wagner studied chemical engineering at the Technical University of Munich, where he received his PhD. He has since worked as a scale up engineer in the chemical process development department at Hoffmann-La Roche in Basle, Switzerland, where he is currently responsible for the form development R&D department. Dr. Wagner is a member of the SPIN and the section group "Product Design and Engineering" within the EFCE.

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Table of Contents

List of Contributors XV

Introduction 1
Gerhard Wagner, Willi Meier, and Ulrich Br¨ockel

What Is Product Design and Engineering? 1

Why This Book? 3

References 5

1 Rheology of Disperse Systems 7
Norbert Willenbacher and Kristina Georgieva

1.1 Introduction 7

1.2 Basics of Rheology 8

1.3 Experimental Methods of Rheology 12

1.3.1 Rotational Rheometry 12

1.3.2 Capillary Rheometer 15

1.4 Rheology of Colloidal Suspensions 16

1.4.1 Hard Spheres 17

1.4.2 Influence of Colloidal Interactions on Rheology 24

1.4.3 Effect of Particle Size Distribution 36

1.4.4 Shear Thickening 38

1.5 Rheology of Emulsions 40

References 46

2 Rheology of Cosmetic Emulsions 51
Rüdiger Brummer

2.1 Introduction 51

2.2 Chemistry of Cosmetic Emulsions 52

2.2.1 Modern Emulsifiers 52

2.2.2 Skin Care and Cleansing 53

2.2.3 Microemulsions 53

2.2.4 Emulsifier-Free Products 53

2.2.5 Production of Emulsions 54

2.2.6 Processes Occurring During Emulsification 55

2.2.7 Serrated Disc Disperser 55

2.3 Rheological Measurements 56

2.3.1 Stationary Flow Behavior 56

2.3.2 Stress Ramp Test 58

2.3.3 Newtonian Flow Behavior 61

2.3.4 Creep and Creep Recovery Test 62

2.3.5 Ideal Elastic Behavior 62

2.3.6 Ideal Viscous Behavior 62

2.3.7 Real Viscoelastic Behavior 63

2.3.8 Steady Flow Curve 63

2.4 Dynamic Mechanical Tests (Oscillation) 65

2.4.1 Amplitude Dependence 65

2.4.2 Structure Breakdown and Build-Up 67

2.4.3 Time Dependence 68

2.4.4 Frequency Test 68

2.4.5 Temperature Dependence 70

2.4.6 Combined Temperature–Time Test 71

References 74

3 Rheology Modifiers, Thickeners, and Gels 75
Tharwat F. Tadros

3.1 Introduction 75

3.2 Classification of Thickeners and Gels 76

3.3 Definition of a ‘‘Gel’’ 76

3.4 Rheological Behavior of a ‘‘Gel’’ 76

3.4.1 Stress Relaxation (After Sudden Application of Strain) 77

3.4.2 Constant Stress (Creep) Measurements 79

3.4.3 Dynamic (Oscillatory) Measurements 79

3.5 Classification of Gels 80

3.5.1 Polymer Gels 81

3.5.1.1 Physical Gels Obtained by Chain Overlap 81

3.5.1.2 Gels Produced by Associative Thickeners 82

3.5.2 Crosslinked Gels (Chemical Gels) 86

3.6 Particulate Gels 87

3.6.1 Aqueous Clay Gels 87

3.6.2 Oxide Gels 89

3.6.3 Gels Produced Using Particulate Solids and High Molecular Weight Polymers 90

3.7 Rheology Modifiers Based on Surfactant Systems 91

References 93

4 Use of Rheological Measurements for Assessment and Prediction of the Long-Term Assessment of Creaming and Sedimentation 95
Tharwat F. Tadros

4.1 Introduction 95

4.2 Accelerated Tests and Their Limitations 96

4.3 Application of High Gravity (g) Force 96

4.4 Rheological Techniques for Prediction of Sedimentation or Creaming 98

4.5 Separation of Formulation (‘‘Syneresis’’) 99

4.6 Examples of Correlation of Sedimentation or Creaming with Residual (Zero Shear) Viscosity 100

4.6.1 Model Suspensions of Aqueous Polystyrene Latex 100

4.6.2 Sedimentation in Non-Newtonian Liquids 101

4.6.3 Role of Thickeners 101

4.6.4 Prediction of Emulsion Creaming 102

4.6.5 Creep Measurements for Prediction of Creaming 104

4.6.6 Oscillatory Measurements for Prediction of Creaming 104

4.7 Assessment and Prediction of Flocculation Using Rheological Techniques 105

4.7.1 Stability/Instability of Electrostatically Stabilized Dispersions: Derjaguin–Landau–Verwey–Overbeek (DLVO) Theory 105

4.7.2 Rheological Techniques for Studying Flocculation 108

4.7.3 Wall Slip 108

4.7.4 Steady State Shear Stress–Shear Rate Measurements 109

4.7.5 Influence of Ostwald Ripening and Coalescence 109

4.7.6 Constant Stress (Creep) Experiments 109

4.7.7 Dynamic (Oscillatory) Measurements 110

4.8 Examples of Application of Rheology for Assessment and Prediction of Flocculation 113

4.8.1 Flocculation and Restabilization of Clays Using Cationic Surfactants 113

4.8.2 Flocculation of Sterically Stabilized Dispersions 113

4.8.3 Flocculation of Sterically Stabilized Emulsions 114

4.9 Assessment and Prediction of Emulsion Coalescence Using Rheological Techniques 115

4.9.1 Introduction 115

4.9.2 Rate of Coalescence 116

4.9.3 Rheological Techniques 116

4.9.4 Correlation between Elastic Modulus and Coalescence 118

4.9.5 Cohesive Energy Ec 119

References 120

5 Prediction of Thermophysical Properties of Liquid Formulated Products 121
Michele Mattei, Elisa Conte, Georgios M. Kontogeorgis, and Rafiqul Gani

5.1 Introduction 121

5.2 Classification of Products, Properties and Models 122

5.2.1 Classification of Products 122

5.2.2 Classification of Properties 123

5.2.3 Classification of Property Models 124

5.3 Pure Compound Property Modeling 126

5.3.1 Homogeneous Formulated Products – Primary and Secondary Properties 127

5.3.2 Emulsified Formulated Products – Primary and Secondary Properties 132

5.4 Functional Bulk Property Modeling – Mixture Properties 137

5.4.1 Bulk Properties Based on Linear Mixing Rule 137

5.4.2 Bulk Properties Based on Nonlinear Mixing Rules 137

5.5 Functional Compound Properties in Mixtures – Modeling 140

5.5.1 Fugacity Coefficients 140

5.5.2 Activity Coefficients 140

5.6 Performance Related Property Modeling 140

5.6.1 Prediction of Liquid Phase Stability 141

5.6.2 Flash Point 141

5.6.3 Performance Properties of Liquid (Emulsion) Formulated Products 142

5.7 Software Tools 144

5.7.1 ThermoData Engine (TDE) 144

5.7.2 ICAS-Property Package 145

5.8 Conclusions 145

Appendix 5.A: Overview of the M&G GC+ Method 146

Appendix 5.B: Prediction of the UNIFAC Group Interaction Parameters 148

References 149

6 Sources of Thermophysical Properties for Efficient Use in Product Design 153
Richard Sass

6.1 Introduction 153

6.2 Overview of the Important Thermophysical Properties for Phase Equilibria Calculations 154

6.3 Reliable Sources of Thermophysical Data 154

6.4 Examples of Databases for Thermophysical Properties 155

6.4.1 DETHERM 156

6.4.2 Dortmund Database (DDB) 156

6.4.3 DIPPR Database 156

6.4.4 NIST Chemistry WebBook 159

6.5 Special Case and Challenge: Data of Complex Solutions 162

6.6 Examples of Databases with Properties of Electrolyte Solutions 162

6.6.1 DETHERM/ELDAR Database 162

6.6.2 The Dortmund Database (DDB) 164

6.6.3 Data Bank for Electrolyte Solutions at CERE DTU Chemical Engineering 164

6.6.4 JESS 164

6.6.5 Springer Materials – The Landolt-Börnstein Database 165

6.6.6 Closed Collections 165

6.7 Properties of New Component Classes: Ionic Liquids and Hyperbranched Polymers 165

References 166

7 Current Trends in Ionic Liquid Research 169
Annegret Stark, Martin Wild, Muhammad Ramzan, Muhammad Mohsin Azim, and Anne Schmidt

7.1 Introduction 169

7.1.1 Ionic Liquid Abbreviations 170

7.2 Ionic Liquids as Acido-basic Media 171

7.2.1 Synthesis 171

7.2.2 Structure 172

7.2.3 Physicochemical Properties 175

7.2.4 Applications 177

7.2.5 Conclusions: Ionic Liquids as Acido-basic Media 182

7.3 Binary Mixtures of Ionic Liquids: Properties and Applications 182

7.3.1 Physicochemical Properties 183

7.3.2 Structural Investigations 186

7.3.3 Potential Applications 188

7.3.4 Conclusion: Binary Mixtures of Ionic Liquids 189

7.4 Nanoporous Materials from Ionothermal Synthesis 191

7.4.1 Aluminophosphates 193

7.4.2 Co-structure Directing Agents and Aluminophosphates 198

7.4.3 Silicoaluminophosphates 199

7.4.4 Metalloaluminophosphates 199

7.4.5 Zeolites (Aluminosilicates) 200

7.4.6 Conclusions: Nanoporous Materials from Ionothermal Synthesis 200

7.5 Catalytic Hydrogenation Reactions in Ionic Liquids 201

7.5.1 Early Developments of Ionic Liquids in Hydrogenation Reactions 202

7.5.2 Stereoselective Hydrogenation Reactions in Ionic Liquids 203

7.5.3 Ionic Liquids as Thermomorphic Phases 204

7.5.4 SILCA-Type Materials 205

7.5.5 Conclusions: Catalytic Hydrogenation Reactions in Ionic Liquids 209

7.6 Concluding Remarks 209

Acknowledgements 210

References 210

8 Gelling of Plant Based Proteins 221
Navam Hettiarachchy, Arvind Kannan, Christian Schäfer, and Gerhard Wagner

8.1 Introduction – Overview of Plant Proteins in Industry 221

8.2 Structure and Formation of Protein Gels 222

8.3 Factors Determining Physical Properties of Protein Gels 224

8.4 Evaluating Gelation of Proteins 226

8.5 Gelation of Proteins Derived from Plants 227

8.5.1 Gelation of Cereal Crop Plant Proteins 227

8.5.2 Gelation of Legume Plant Proteins 230

8.5.3 Oilseed Proteins 237

8.5.4 Vegetable/Fruit Proteins 238

8.6 Protein Gels in Product Application 238

8.7 Future Prospects and Challenges 240

References 240

9 Enzymatically Texturized Plant Proteins for the Food Industry 247
Christian Schäfer

9.1 Introduction 247

9.2 Reactions Catalyzed by MTG 249

9.3 Current Sources of MTG 250

9.4 Need for Novel Sources of MTG 251

9.5 Vegetable Proteins Suitable for Crosslinking with MTG 251

9.5.1 Soy Protein 252

9.5.2 Wheat Protein 253

9.5.3 Rice Protein 253

9.5.4 Pea Protein 254

9.5.5 Lupin Protein 254

9.5.6 Sesame Protein 255

9.5.7 Sunflower Protein 255

9.5.8 Canola Protein 256

9.5.9 Potato Protein 256

9.5.10 Sorghum Protein 257

9.5.11 Various Other Vegetable Protein Sources 258

9.6 Strategies to Modify and Improve Protein Sources for MTG Crosslinking 258

9.6.1 Hydrolysis 258

9.6.2 Maillard Reactions 259

9.6.3 Deamidation and Glycosylation 259

9.6.4 Solubilization and Hydrothermal Treatment 259

9.6.5 Removal of Undesired Substances from Vegetable Proteins 259

9.6.6 Improving the Nutritive Value of Plant Proteins 260

9.7 Applications of MTG in Processing Food Products Containing Vegetable Protein 261

9.7.1 Soybean Products 261

9.7.2 Bread and Bakery Products 262

9.7.3 Noodles 263

9.8 Applications of MTG Crosslinked Leguminous Proteins in Food Models and Realistic Food Products 263

9.8.1 Crosslinking Protein Isolates from Pea, Lupin, and Soybean in Food Models 263

9.8.2 Methods for Monitoring the Enzymatic Texturization 264

9.9 Safety of MTG and Isopeptide Bonds in Crosslinked Plant Proteins 264

9.9.1 Safety of the Isopeptide 264

9.9.2 Safety of MTG 264

9.9.3 Allergenicity of MTG Crosslinked Plant Proteins 265

9.9.4 Allergenicity of Plant Proteins 265

9.10 Conclusions 266

References 267

10 Design of Skin Care Products 273
Wilfried Rähse

10.1 Product Design 273

10.2 Skin Care 274

10.2.1 Cosmetic Products for Beautifications 276

10.2.2 Active Cosmetics for a Healthy Skin 277

10.2.3 Differences between Cosmeceuticals and Drugs 278

10.3 Emulsions 280

10.3.1 Basics (Definition, Structure, Classification) 280

10.3.2 Stability of Emulsions 282

10.3.3 Preparation of Emulsions in the Laboratory 285

10.4 Structure of a Skin Care Cream 286

10.4.1 Excipients 286

10.4.2 Preservations 288

10.4.3 Additives 290

10.4.4 Groups of Active Substances 291

10.4.5 Typical Effects of Cosmetics 292

10.5 Essential Active Substances from a Medical Point of View 292

10.5.1 Linoleic and Linolenic 293

10.5.2 Urea 294

10.5.3 Panthenol 294

10.6 Penetration into the Skin 294

10.6.1 Skin Structure 294

10.6.2 Applying the Emulsion 296

10.6.3 Proof of Performance 297

10.6.4 Penetration of Lipophilic Substances 298

10.7 Targeted Product Design in the Course of Development 301

10.8 Production of Skin Care Products 302

10.9 Bottles for Cosmetic Creams 306

10.10 Design of all Elements 310

References 311

11 Emulsion Gels in Foods 315
Arjen Bot, Eckhard Flöter, Heike P. Karbstein-Schuchmann, and Henelyta Santos Ribeiro

11.1 Introduction 315

11.2 Food Emulsions 316

11.2.1 Dispersed Phase 316

11.2.2 Continuous Phase 318

11.3 Creating a Food Emulsion 322

11.3.1 Basic Principles 322

11.3.2 Emulsification Processes for Gel-Like Food Emulsions 324

11.3.3 High Internal Phase Emulsions (HIPEs) 328

11.3.4 Production of Emulsion Gel Foods 329

11.4 Applications of Gel-Like Type Emulsions 331

11.4.1 Water Continuous Food Products 332

11.4.2 Fat Continuous Food Products 335

11.4.3 Chemical Properties 338

11.4.4 Microbiological Properties 339

11.5 Final Considerations 339

References 340

Index 345

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