Production for Graphic Designers / Edition 5

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Now in its fifth edition, this book covers the most up-to-date technological advances in graphics and print production, fully explaining all the standard prepress and printing processes, including detailed coverage of the latest digital direct-to-plate offset and small-run on-demand color printing. Production for Graphic Designers gives clear and concisely written advice on preparing artwork for printers, examines the creative potential of typography in a digital environment, and provides comprehensive coverage of working with illustrations, layout and proofing in both computerized and conventional workflows.
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Editorial Reviews

An appealing introduction to print production for graphic designers, covering the latest technology as well as historical developments. Chapters on text and type, illustration, mechanical prepress, digital prepress, on press, and the Internet feature a conversational writing style and color and b&w photos, illustrations, and explained diagrams. Includes reference appendices on standard sizes and trade customs of the printing industry, and a glossary. This second edition is revised to address the exciting changes in the industry since 1992, with a new chapter in the Internet and less emphasis on pre-digital methods of production. Also new are profiles of practicing designers and showcases of their work, and tips and tricks for overcoming common production challenges. Annotation c. by Book News, Inc., Portland, Or.
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780205684793
  • Publisher: Pearson
  • Publication date: 2/15/2009
  • Edition description: New Edition
  • Edition number: 5
  • Pages: 240
  • Sales rank: 580,810
  • Product dimensions: 8.40 (w) x 10.90 (h) x 0.70 (d)

Table of Contents

Preface 9

1 Introduction 11

Some history 12

Printing pictures 14

Enter lithography and photography 16

• Milestones in the history of production technology for graphic designers 20

Getting started: studio equipment 21

The design-to-production workflow 23

Design Trailblazers Saul Bass 24

2 Text & Type 27

Type 28

Some history 28

The language of type 34

How type is measured 37

Width and spacing 39

Ems and ens 39; Kerning and tracking 39; Leading 41;
Justification and hyphenation 42

Text 44

Correcting text proofs 46

Casting off and copy fitting 49

House style 49

Choosing and recognizing typefaces 49

Design Trailblazers Zuzana Licko 50

Serif or sans serif? 52; Earmarks 53

• Helvetica 54

Legibility and readability 58

Typesetting systems 60

Hand lettering and calligraphy 60

“Strike-on” or “cold-metal” setting 61

Hot metal: hand and machine setting 62

Phototypesetting 65

Computer systems 66

More choice of typefaces 66; Quality and flexibility of digital type 66;
Type manipulation and custom font design 67; PostScript 68;

OpenType 73

Summary 73

Hot metal or letterpress 73; Cold metal or strike-on 73; Photosetting 73;

Computer setting 73

Design Trailblazers Erik Spiekermann 74

3 Illustration 77

Line and tone 78

Screens and halftones 81

Color 86

Flat color 86

Duotones 88

Full-color reproduction 89

Color separations 91

Cultural implications of color 93

Design Trailblazers Chris Ware 94

Designing for disability access 96

Choosing and preparing illustrations 97

Briefing an illustrator or photographer 97

Scaling and cropping 98

Desktop scanning 100

Drawing and painting by computer 100

Copyright 105

Summary 107

Design Trailblazers Stefan Sagmeister 108

4 Computers & their Peripherals 111

Hardware and software 112

Software 112

The processor 114

ROM, RAM, and flash memory 114

Displays 115

Input devices 117

Digital cameras 119

Scanners 121

Design Trailblazers Paul Rand 122

Output devices: laser printers and imagesetters 125

Hardcopy: other technologies 127

Choosing a system 131

Turnkey systems 131

Selecting, upgrading, and networking the system 132

Health and safety 132

Summary 133

Design Trailblazers Neville Brody 134

5 Prepress 137

Layout 138

Grids 140

Imposition 142

Paper creep allowance 145

Page layout 145

Design Trailblazers Bruce Mau 146

Digital make-up 148

Page layout programs 148

• e-books 151

• Make a preflight check 152

• Color management 154

Full-color digital prepress 155

Repro 157

Film make-up 157

Picture proofing 159

Color bars 160

Summary 161

Design Trailblazers Jonathan Barnbrook 162

6 On Press 165

Paper 167

The raw materials 168

Design Trailblazers Composite Projects 170

Recycled paper 172

Handmade paper 174

Machine-made paper 174

The characteristics of paper and board 176

Choosing the right paper stock 178

Inks 180

Formulation 180

Viscosity and tackiness 182

Specifying inks 182

Selecting your supplier 184

Printing processes 185

Offset lithography 187

The litho press 189

Gravure 193

Design Trailblazers Paula Scher 196

Letterpress 198

Flexography 199

Screenprinting 200

Collotype 202

Xerography 202

Digital print 203

Digital print technologies 205

• Emerging print technologies 206

Printing processes: the pros and cons 207

Offset litho 207; Gravure 207

Flexography 207; Screenprinting 207; Letterpress 207;
Collotype 207; Xerography 207; Digital print 207

Things that can go wrong 208

Finishing 210

• How does a designer specify finishing effects? 212

Folding and binding 213

Summary 217

Design Trailblazers Malcolm Garrett 218

7 Digital Design 221

What is the internet? 222

How to get started 223

Email 223

Decoding internet addresses 224

Newsgroups 224

Netiquette 224

Acronyms and smileys 225

Ftp: uploading and downloading 226

World Wide Web (WWW) 227

Designing for the World Wide Web 229

Do designers really have to learn HTML? 230;
Writing your own home page 230

Graphics formats: GIFs and JPEGs 236

Optional extras 236

Cascading style sheets 237

Testing your pages 240

Publicizing your pages 240

Human factors in website design 241

Designing for the small screen 241

Summary 243

Design Trailblazers Airside 244

Appendix: Standard sizes for paper, books, and envelopes 246

Glossary 248

Abbreviations and acronyms 260

Further reading 261

Website resources 263

Magazines and journals 264

Organizations 265

Index 266

Picture credits 272

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When the first edition of this book was published, way back in 1992, computers were rarely seen in graphic design studios—there were some expensive turnkey systems around, mainly used for producing national newspapers—but the predominant means of layout was the mechanical. Now computers are not only ubiquitous in every area of the design-to-production cycle, but it is hard to imagine how books and magazines were ever produced without them. The drawing board has been confined to a quiet corner of the studio, and that once so expensive PMT camera to the scrapyard. A graphic designer without a computer and email account is an endangered species.

In prepress too, that once analog world of lenses, photographic emulsions, and baths of chemicals has gone digital. Direct computer-toplate, and even plateless print are becoming more familiar. Xerography and the newer digital print technologies are being used to produce customised short-run jobs on demand. And all the paraphernalia of prepress, currently the province of the repro service bureau, is being brought inhouse.

In the past few years a completely new medium (to designers at least) has shot to prominence—the internet. There was no mention of the internet in the first edition of this book. In the second edition it was deemed important enough to deserve its own chapter. Through the internet, designers are able to break the bounds of traditional print and incorporate dynamic online resources that could only have been dreamt about when the first edition was put to bed. Despite the rise of the internet, print is still a large part of our lives. According to Printing Industries of America, Inc, printing isstill one of the largest manufacturing industries in the USA—employing over a million people in almost 50,000 establishments, and selling over $55.7 billion of products in 1999. The industry is dominated by small- and medium-sized businesses, most employing fewer than twenty employees—along with their computers.

This completely revised third edition addresses the exciting changes that have taken place since the first two editions of Production for Graphic Designers were published. There is now an even greater need to master the fast-moving world of computing. Pre-digital methods of production are still important to know, but have been repositioned into a more appropriate historical and pedagogical context. A development in the second edition was to include, in-between chapters, inspirational profiles of important practicing designers along with portfolios of their work. This coverage has been expanded in the third edition.

I should like to thank the friends and colleagues who helped in the production of the first edition, particularly my editor Ursula Sadie at Calmann & King, picture researcher Elizabeth Loving, designer Richard Foenander, Chris Myers at Bookworm Typesetting, and Rosemary Bradley, who commissioned me to write it. Grateful thanks are also offered (almost alphabetically) to Aldus UK.(now Adobe) for a copy of FreeHand (now back with Macromedia) with which to produce the line drawings; Joty Barker of Face to Face; the staff of Brighton Polytechnic (now the University of Brighton) Library at St Peter's House; Jane Brotchie for access to her H P DeskWriter; Roger Burg of Monotype Typography; John Christopher of Strong Silent Type; Eleanor Curtis, formerly at the Royal College of Art, London; Bob and Sue Harrington of RH Design; Nikki Morton and Ruth Jindal for their help in locating and retrieving books; Stan Noble of Towers Noble Design; William Owen; Kanwal Sharma of Lewis Sharma Design;; Martin Shovel for the use of his StyleWriter; and Elvis the goldfish" RIP for his or her calming influenc;;e.

For the second edition I should like to thank my editor Damian Thompson at Calmann & King and designer Cara Gallardo at Area for making my text and picture ideas a joy to read. Cara also art directed the cover and chapter opening spreads, and I should also like to acknowledge and thank: photographer Toby McFarlan Pond; London Graphic Centre for the use of the keyboard introducing Chapter 2; Peripheral Vision, London, for the circuit board (Chapter 5) and cable (Chapter 7); The Pale Green Press, London, for the printing inks introducing Chapter 6. I would also like to mention Philip and Dave Clark of Brighton Print Centre for tirelessly explaining to me the finer points of practical printing; and finally to Lesley Ripley Greenfield, Editorial Director, College & Fine Art at Calmann & King for commissioning me to write this update.

For the third edition I should like to thank my editor Kara HattersleySmith at Calmann & King, whose encouragement and support contributed far more to this new edition than can be guessed from this small credit, Cara Gallardo at Area for once again designing my words and pictures into a pleasing and accessible whole, Michelle Clair at Tenazas Design, Kelli Daley at David Carson Design, Tim Kong at Tomato, Kevin Smith at Research Studios, Jane Spencer for lending me her precious books, and my colleagues at the Brighton Illustrators Group for providing images.

Alan Pipes, Spring 2001

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