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Production Testing Of Rf And System-On-A-Chip Devices For Wireless Communications
     

Production Testing Of Rf And System-On-A-Chip Devices For Wireless Communications

by Keith B. Schaub, Joseph Kelly, Joe Kelly
 

ISBN-10: 1580536921

ISBN-13: 9781580536929

Pub. Date: 03/31/2004

Publisher: Artech House, Incorporated

Schaub and Kelly, both radio frequency (RF) technical consultants, offer an in-depth overview of RF and system-on-chip (SOC) product testing for wireless communications in this resource for SOC applications engineers, engineering managers, product engineers, and students. Early chapters introduce production testing, look at RF and SOC devices, and discuss issues

Overview

Schaub and Kelly, both radio frequency (RF) technical consultants, offer an in-depth overview of RF and system-on-chip (SOC) product testing for wireless communications in this resource for SOC applications engineers, engineering managers, product engineers, and students. Early chapters introduce production testing, look at RF and SOC devices, and discuss issues related to costs. These chapters will be especially useful for managers of technical teams. Later chapters are written as a handbook for applications engineers, covering algorithms for production tests performed on discrete RF devices, measurements used with more highly integrated SOC devices, mixed-signal testing, improving test efficiency, and measurement of noise. Annotation ©2004 Book News, Inc., Portland, OR

Product Details

ISBN-13:
9781580536929
Publisher:
Artech House, Incorporated
Publication date:
03/31/2004
Series:
Artech House Microwave Library
Pages:
272
Product dimensions:
7.00(w) x 10.00(h) x 0.63(d)

Table of Contents

Prefacexiii
Acknowledgmentsxvii
Chapter 1An Introduction to Production Testing1
1.1Introduction1
1.2Characterization Versus Production Testing1
1.3The Test Program2
1.4Production-Test Equipment2
1.5Rack and Stack2
1.6Automated Test Equipment3
1.7Interfacing with the Test Equipment3
1.7.1Handlers3
1.7.2Load Boards5
1.7.3Contactor Sockets5
1.7.4Production RF and SOC Wafer Probing6
1.8Calibration9
1.9The Test Floor and Test Cell10
1.10Test Houses10
1.11Accuracy, Repeatability, and Correlation10
1.12Design for Testing11
1.13Built-in Self-Test11
References12
Chapter 2RF and SOC Devices13
2.1Introduction13
2.2RF Low Noise Amplifier15
2.3RF Power Amplifier15
2.4RF Mixer16
2.5RF Switch19
2.6Variable Gain Amplifier20
2.7Modulator22
2.8Demodulator23
2.9Transmitter24
2.10Receiver24
2.11Transceiver25
2.12Wireless Radio Architectures26
2.13Superheterodyne Wireless Radio26
2.14Zero Intermediate Frequency Wireless Radio26
2.15Phase Locked Loop28
2.16RF and SOC Device Tests30
References31
Chapter 3Cost of Test33
3.1Introduction33
3.2Wafer Processing Improves Cost of Test33
3.3Early Testing of the SOC36
3.4SCM and IDM37
3.5SOC Cost-of-Test Paradigm Shift37
3.6Key Cost-of-Test Modeling Parameters38
3.6.1Fixed Cost39
3.6.2Recurring Cost39
3.6.3Lifetime40
3.6.4Utilization40
3.6.5Yield41
3.6.6Accuracy as It Relates to Yield42
3.7Other Factors Influencing COT45
3.7.1Multisite and Parallel Testing45
3.7.2Test Engineer Skill46
3.8Summary46
References46
Chapter 4Production Testing of RF Devices49
4.1Introduction49
4.2Measuring Voltage Versus Measuring Power49
4.3Transmission Line Theory Versus Lumped-Element Analysis50
4.4The History of Power Measurements51
4.5The Importance of Power52
4.6Power Measurement Units and Definitions53
4.7The Decibel53
4.8Power Expressed in dBm54
4.9Power54
4.10Average Power55
4.11Pulse Power56
4.12Modulated Power56
4.13RMS Power57
4.14Gain58
4.14.1Gain Measurements of Wireless SOC Devices60
4.15Gain Flatness61
4.15.1Measuring Gain Flatness63
4.15.2Automatic Gain Control Flatness65
4.16Power-Added Efficiency67
4.17Transfer Function for RF Devices68
4.18Power Compression69
4.19Mixer Conversion Compression72
4.20Harmonic and Intermodulation Distortion72
4.20.1Harmonic Distortion73
4.20.2Intermodulation Distortion75
4.20.3Receiver Architecture Considerations for Intermodulation Products79
4.21Adjacent Channel Power Ratio79
4.21.1The Basics of CDMA79
4.21.2Measuring ACPR81
4.22Filter Testing82
4.23S-Parameters84
4.23.1Introduction84
4.23.2How It Is Done84
4.23.3S-Parameters of a Two-Port Device85
4.23.4Scalar Measurements Related to S-Parameters86
4.23.5S-Parameters Versus Transfer Function88
4.23.6How to Realize S-Parameter Measurements89
4.23.7Characteristics of a Bridge89
4.23.8Characteristics of a Coupler90
4.24Summary91
References92
Appendix 4AVSWR, Return Loss, and Reflection Coefficient93
Chapter 5Production Testing of SOC Devices95
5.1Introduction95
5.2SOC Integration Levels96
5.3Origins of Bluetooth97
5.4Introduction to Bluetooth98
5.5Frequency Hopping99
5.6Bluetooth Modulation100
5.7Bluetooth Data Rates and Data Packets100
5.8Adaptive Power Control102
5.9The Parts of a Bluetooth Radio102
5.10Phase Locked Loop103
5.11Divider104
5.12Phase Detector, Charge Pumps, and LPF104
5.13Voltage Controlled Oscillator104
5.14How Does a PLL Work?104
5.15Synthesizer Settling Time105
5.16Testing Synthesizer Settling Time in Production106
5.17Power Versus Time106
5.18Differential Phase Versus Time110
5.19Digital Control of an SOC112
5.20Transmitter Tests113
5.20.1Transmit Output Spectrum114
5.20.2Modulation Characteristics117
5.20.3Initial Carrier Frequency Tolerance118
5.20.4Carrier Frequency Drift119
5.20.5VCO Drift120
5.20.6Frequency Pulling and Pushing120
5.21Receiver Tests124
5.21.1Bit Error Rate125
5.21.2Bit Error Rate Methods127
5.21.3Programmable Delay Line Method (XOR Method)127
5.21.4Field Programmable Gate Array Method128
5.21.5BER Testing with a Digital Pin128
5.21.6BER Measurement with a Digitizer130
5.22BER Receiver Measurements132
5.22.1Sensitivity BER Test132
5.22.2Carrier-to-Interference BER Tests133
5.22.3Cochannel Interference BER Tests133
5.22.4Adjacent Channel Interference BER Tests133
5.22.5Inband and Out-of-Band Blocking BER Tests135
5.22.6Intermodulation Interference BER Tests135
5.22.7Maximum Input Power Level BER Test137
5.23EVM Introduction137
5.23.1I/Q Diagrams137
5.23.2Definition of Error Vector Magnitude138
5.23.3Making the Measurement139
5.23.4Related Signal Quality Measurements141
5.23.5Comparison of EVM with More Traditional Methods of Testing142
5.23.6Should EVM Be Used for Production Testing?142
References143
Chapter 6Fundamentals of Analog and Mixed-Signal Testing145
6.1Introduction145
6.2Sampling Basics and Conventions145
6.2.1DC Offsets and Peak-to-Peak Input Voltages146
6.3The Fourier Transform and the FFT147
6.3.1The Fourier Series147
6.3.2The Fourier Transform147
6.3.3The Discrete Fourier Transform149
6.3.4The Fast Fourier Transform150
6.4Time-Domain and Frequency-Domain Description and Dependencies150
6.4.1Negative Frequency150
6.4.2Convolution151
6.4.3Frequency- and Time-Domain Transformations152
6.5Nyquist Sampling Theory154
6.6Dynamic Measurements156
6.6.1Coherent Sampling and Windowing156
6.6.2SNR for AWGs and Digitizers159
6.6.3SINAD and Harm Distortion160
6.7Static Measurements163
6.7.1DC Offset163
6.7.2INL/DNL for AWGs and Digitizers164
6.8Real Signals and Their Representations165
6.8.1Differences Between V, W, dB, dBc, dBV, and dBm165
6.8.2Transformation Formulas166
6.9ENOB and Noise Floor: Similarities and Differences167
6.10Phase Noise and Jitter167
6.10.1Phase Noise and How It Relates to RF Systems168
6.10.2Jitter and How It Affects Sampling168
6.11I/Q Modulation and Complex FFTs168
6.11.1System Considerations for Accurate I/Q Characterization168
6.11.2Amplitude and Phase Balance Using Complex FFTs169
6.12ZIF Receivers and DC Offsets171
6.12.1System Gain with Dissimilar Input and Output Impedances171
6.13Summary172
References173
Chapter 7Moving Beyond Production Testing175
7.1Introduction175
7.2Parallel Testing of Digital and Mixed-Signal Devices175
7.3Parallel Testing of RF Devices175
7.4Parallel Testing of RF SOC Devices178
7.5True Parallel RF Testing179
7.6Pseudoparallel RF Testing180
7.7Alternative Parallel RF Testing Methods182
7.8Guidelines for Choosing an RF Testing Method184
7.9Interleaving Technique185
7.10DSP Threading186
7.11True Parallel RF Testing Cost-of-Test Advantages and Disadvantages187
7.12Pseudoparallel RF Testing Cost-of-Test Advantages and Disadvantages188
7.13Introduction to Concurrent Testing189
7.14Design for Test190
7.15Summary191
References192
Chapter 8Production Noise Measurements193
8.1Introduction to Noise193
8.1.1Power Spectral Density193
8.1.2Types of Noise194
8.1.3Noise Floor198
8.2Noise Figure199
8.2.1Noise-Figure Definition199
8.2.2Noise Power Density201
8.2.3Noise Sources202
8.2.4Noise Temperature and Effective Noise Temperature202
8.2.5Excess Noise Ratio203
8.2.6Y-Factor204
8.2.7Mathematically Calculating Noise Figure204
8.2.8Measuring Noise Figure205
8.2.9Noise-Figure Measurements on Frequency Translating Devices209
8.2.10Calculating Error in Noise-Figure Measurements210
8.2.11Equipment Error211
8.2.12Mismatch Error211
8.2.13Production-Test Fixturing212
8.2.14External Interfering Signals212
8.2.15Averaging and Bandwidth Considerations212
8.3Phase Noise213
8.3.1Introduction213
8.3.2Phase-Noise Definition214
8.3.3Spectral Density-Based Definition of Phase Noise216
8.3.4Phase Jitter216
8.3.5Thermal Effects on Phase Noise217
8.3.6Low-Power Phase-Noise Measurement217
8.3.7High-Power Phase-Noise Measurement217
8.3.8Trade-offs When Making Phase-Noise Measurements217
8.3.9Making Phase-Noise Measurements218
8.3.10Measuring Phase Noise with a Spectrum Analyzer220
8.3.11Phase-Noise Measurement Example220
8.3.12Phase Noise of Fast-Switching RF Signal Sources222
References222
Appendix APower and Voltage Conversions225
Appendix BRF Coaxial Connectors229
List of Acronyms and Abbreviations233
List of Numerical Prefixes237
About the Authors239
Index241

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