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The Productivity and Sustainability of Southern Forest Ecosystems in a Changing Environment

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The forest ecosystems of the southern United States are the region's predominant land use and comprise vital resources of economic and biological significance. These forests, covering 85 million hectares or 40% of the land area, are subject to numerous physical and chemical stressors. Temperature, precipitation, and nutrition are three factors that currently limit forest ecosystem health and productivity in the region. In a changing global environment, these forest ecosystems face an unprecedented rate of change ...

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Overview

The forest ecosystems of the southern United States are the region's predominant land use and comprise vital resources of economic and biological significance. These forests, covering 85 million hectares or 40% of the land area, are subject to numerous physical and chemical stressors. Temperature, precipitation, and nutrition are three factors that currently limit forest ecosystem health and productivity in the region. In a changing global environment, these forest ecosystems face an unprecedented rate of change and will be directly and indirectly affected by additional stresses from air pollutants and climate change, including increasing concentrations of carbon dixoide, methane, other trace gases and atmospheric aerosols, and altered land use patterns. The research presented in this book provides a sound scientific basis for management and policy decisions regarding the productivity and sustainability of forest ecosystems in the context of a rapidly changing global environment. This volume is a synthesis of five years of field and laboratory research on southern forests conducted by the U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service to provide scientific assessments to the U.S. Global Change Research Program. The book will provide scientific information for policy makers and land use managers. It will also be of interest to researchers in the environmental disciplines of ecology, forestry, atmospheric science, hydrology, soil science, and biogeochemistry.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780387948515
  • Publisher: Springer-Verlag New York, LLC
  • Publication date: 1/1/1998
  • Series: Ecological Studies Series , #128
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 913

Table of Contents

Acknowledgments
Contributors
Sect. I An Introduction to Southern Forests in a Changing Environment
1 Southern Forest Ecosystems in a Changing Chemical and Physical Environment 3
2 General Circulation Model Scenarios for the Southern United States 15
3 Developing Policy-Relevant Global Climate Change Research 55
Sect. 2 Global Change Impacts on Tree Physiology and Growth
4 Influence of Drought Stress on the Response of Shortleaf Pine to Ozone 73
5 Effects of Elevated Carbon Dioxide on the Growth and Physiology of Loblolly Pine 93
6 Environmental Stresses and Reproductive Biology of Loblolly Pine (Pinus taeda L.) and Flowering Dogwood (Cornus florida L.) 103
7 Interactions of Elevated Carbon Dioxide, Nutrient Status, and Water Stress on Physiological Processes and Competitive Interactions Among Three Forest Tree Species 117
8 Effects of Elevated Carbon Dioxide Levels and Air Temperature on Carbon Assimilation of Loblolly Pine 131
9 An Investigation of the Impacts of Elevated Carbon Dioxide, Irrigation, and Fertilization on the Physiology and Growth of Loblolly Pine 149
10 Effects of Elevated Carbon Dioxode, Water, and Nutrients on Photosynthesis, Stomatal Conductance, and Total Chlorophyll Content of Young Loblolly Pine (Pinus taeda L.) Trees 169
11 Ecophysiological Response of Managed Loblolly Pine to Changes in Stand Environment 185
12 Dynamic Responses of Mature Forest Trees to Changes in Physical and Chemical Climate 207
13 Productivity of Natural Stands of Longleaf Pine in Relation to Competition and Climatic Factors 231
14 The Impacts of Acidic Deposition and Global Change on High Elevation Southern Appalachian Spruce-Fir Forests 255
15 The Influences of Global Change on Tree Physiology and Growth 279
Sect. 3 Modeling the Biophysical Effects of Global Change
16 Modeling Nutrient Uptake as a Component of Loblolly Pine Response to Environmental Stress 293
17 A Linked Model for Simulating Stand Development and Growth Processes of Loblolly Pine 305
18 MAESTRO Simulations of the Response of Loblolly Pine to Elevated Temperatures and Carbon Dioxide 327
19 Projections of Growth of Loblolly Pine Stands Under Elevated Temperatures and Carbon Dioxide 341
20 Modeling the Potential Sensitivity of Slash Pine Stem Growth to Increasing Temperature and Carbon Dixode 353
21 An Index for Assessing Climate Change and Elevated Carbon Dioxide Effects on Loblolly Pine Productivity 367
22 Predictions and Projections of Pine Productivity and Hydrology in Response to Climate Change Across the Southern United States 391
23 Scaling Up Physiological Responses of Loblolly Pine to Ambient Ozone Exposure Under Natural Weather Variations 407
24 Intregrating Research on Climate Change Effects on Loblolly Pine: A Probability Regional Modeling Approach 429
25 Projected Impacts of Global Climate Change on Forests and Water Resources of the Southeastern United States 453
26 Summary of Simulated Forest Responses to Climate Change in the Southeastern United States 479
Sect. 4 The Effects of Climate Change on Forest Soils
27 Simulated Effects of Atmospheric Deposition and Species Change on Nutrient Cycling in Loblolly Pine and Mixed Deciduous Forests 503
28 Influence of Microclimate on Short-Term Litter Decomposition in Loblolly Pine Ecosystems 525
29 Soil Organic Matter and Soil Productivity: Searching for the Missing Link 543
30 Effects of Soil Warming on Organic Matter Decomposition and Soil-Nitrogen Cycling in a High Elevation Red Spruce Stand 557
31 Effects of Soil Warming, Atmospheric Deposition, and Elevated Carbon Dioxide on Forest Soils in the Southeastern United States 571
Sect. 5 Disturbance Interactions With Global Change
32 Environmental Effects on Pine Tree Carbon Budgets and Resistance to Bark Beetles 591
33 Predictions of Southern Pine Beetle Populations Using a Forest Ecosystem Model 617
34 Soil Effects Mediate Interaction of Dogwood Anthracnose and Acidic Precipitation 635
35 Effects of Temperature and Drought Stress on Physiological Processes Associated With Oak Decline 647
36 Effects of Global Climate Change on Biodiversity in Forests of the Southern United States 663
37 Regional Climate Change in the Southern United States: The Implications for Wildfire Occurrence 683
38 Detecting and Predicting Climatic Variation from Old-Growth Baldcypress 701
39 Modeling the Differential Sensitivity of Loblolly Pine to Climatic Change Using Tree Rings 717
40 Global Change and Disturbance in Southern Forest Ecosystems 741
Sect. 6 Socioeconomic Impacts of Global Change
41 Evaluation of Effects of Forestry and Agricultural Policies on Forest Carbon and Markets 755
42 Economic Dimensions of Climate Change Impacts on Southern Forests 777
43 Assessing Present Biological Information for Valuating the Economic Impacts of Climate Change on Softwood Stumpage Supply in the South 795
44 An Integrated Assessment of Climate Change on Timber Markets of the Southern United States 809
45 Integrating Local and Global Objectives in Forest Management: A Value-Based, Multiscalar Approach 823
46 Sensitivity of Protection Value to Forest Condition in the Southern Appalachian Spruce - Fir Forest 837
47 Economics and Global Climate Change 855
Index 865
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