The Professional Practice of Architectural Working Drawings / Edition 4

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The practical, comprehensive handbook for creating effective architectural drawings

In one beautifully illustrated volume, The Professional Practice of Architectural Working Drawings, Fourth Edition presents the complete range of skills, concepts, principles, and applications that are needed to create a full set of architectural working drawings. Chapters proceed logically through each stage of development, beginning with site and floor plans and progressing to building sections, elevations, and additional drawings.

Inside, you'll find:

  • Coverage of the latest BIM technologies
  • Environmental and human design considerations
  • Supplemental step-by-step instructions for complex chapters
  • Five case studies, including two that are new to this edition
  • Hundreds of computer-generated drawings and photographs, including BIM models, three-dimensional models, and full-size buildings shown in virtual space
  • Checklists similar to those used in architectural offices
  • Tips and strategies for complete development of construction documents, from schematic design to construction administration

With an emphasis on sustainability throughout, this new edition of The Professional Practice of Architectural Working Drawings is an invaluable book for students in architecture, construction, engineering, interior design, and environmental design programs, as well as professionals in these fields.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780470618158
  • Publisher: Wiley
  • Publication date: 11/29/2011
  • Edition description: New Edition
  • Edition number: 4
  • Pages: 672
  • Sales rank: 511,478
  • Product dimensions: 8.60 (w) x 11.00 (h) x 0.80 (d)

Meet the Author

Osamu A. Wakita, Hon. AIA, is a retired professor of architecture and former department chair of architecture at Los Angeles Harbor College. He has been involved in architectural education since 1958. He is a recipient of the California Council of the American Institute of Architects' prestigious Outstanding Architectural Educators Award and is listed in the Council's General Reference as one of the leading authorities in perspective drawing.

Nagy R. Bakhoum is a licensed architect and principal of Obelisk Architects, Inc., in Torrance, California. He has provided architectural services internationally and throughout the state in which he is licensed to practice. He is an authority on high-end residential housing and commercial projects. He has been involved in architectural education since 1996, and is also a Professor of Architecture in the Los Angeles Community College District system.

The late Richard M. Linde, AIA, was a licensed architect and President of the American Institute of Architects.

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Read an Excerpt

The Professional Practice of Architectural Working Drawings

By Osamu A. Wakita Richard M. Linde

John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 0-471-39540-4

Chapter One


The physical plant of the architectural office has begun to take on a new look. Rows and rows of drafting tables and cubicles are being replaced with mobile stations, giving an entirely new appearance to the work environment. Mobile stations can be reconfigured to the specific needs of a project. The stations can be positioned and repositioned by teams of CAD drafters and designers as the size of a project ebbs and flows. The center for this type of production room may be a conversation area similar to the living room area found in a residence. Here designers and drafters can discuss projects in a relaxed atmosphere. Rather than isolating drafters into small cubicles, as was the case from the 1960s through the 1980s, offices are now beginning to have an open look and feel. The use of low partitions enables the designers and CAD drafters to have eye contact while communicating across the room via computer. Computers are also being networked so that office managers can stay in touch and watch the progress on various projects. For example, if three or more drafters are working on a single project, the information on their individual computers can constantly be upgraded with the latest information as it becomes available. A change in the position of a window on a floor plan will be seen immediately on the different computerswhere the exterior elevation is being drawn.

Architecture is a small crafts industry in which most offices employ three to eight people. A home office may also be part of the office structure. A single drafter may be hired by two or more firms, and the office then becomes a docking station for the electronic information, such as for construction documents. Because digital images can be rapidly moved electronically, one does not need to live in a city or country to send documents across the world. A suggested office layout is illustrated in Figure 1.1.


How an architectural firm is structured and the office practices it employs depends on the magnitude and type of its projects, the number of personnel, and the philosophies the architects use in their approach to office practice procedures. Normally, the architect or architects are the owners and/or principals of the practice.

In general, an architectural office can be separated into three main departments: the administration department, the design department, and the production department.

The administration department handles all communications between the architectural firm and its clients on items such as contracts, fee schedules billing for services, and the like. This department includes all secretarial duties, such as all written correspondence, payment of operating costs, accounting procedures, paying salaries, and maintaining records for all the projects relative to their individual costs and procedures. The principal or principals oversee this department in addition to their other duties.

Design Department

The design department is normally headed by either a principal architect and/or an associate architect. This person or persons meets with the client to determine the requirements of a project, the economics of the project, and the anticipated time frame for completing the construction documents. These initial concerns determine the program for the project. The head or heads of this department delegate various work phases of a project to other staff members. The number of staff members depends on the size of the practice and the magnitude of the projects. Staff members may be designated to teams or groups relative to their expertise for specific projects. A team takes a project from the initial design concept stage, through all the revisions and other stages, to the completed working drawings and specifications. These stages may include model building, renderings, coordination between all consulting engineers to meet their individual job requirements, job billing, and reproduction responsibilities. The leader of a project and of the design team staff is designated as the project architect. His or her responsibilities are to develop a game plan for a specific project that will include the following:

1. Design studies and philosophy

2. Initial structural considerations

3. Exterior and interior materials

4. Municipality and building code requirements

5. If applicable, architectural committee reviews

6. Building equipment requirements

7. Manufacturing resources

8. Selection of required engineering consultants such as; soils/geology, structural, mechanical, etc. 9. Planned man-hours, time sheets and billing dates

10. Office standards relative to the representation of items on the working drawings such as; symbols, wall delineations, and other graphic depictions

Production Department

The production department, while supervised by a project architect, prepares all the phases for a set of completed working drawings. Working drawings may be produced by senior draftpersons, intermediate draftpersons, or junior draftpersons. These staff members and the project architect or job captain work as a team to make the transition from the approved preliminary drawings to the implementation and completion of the working drawings. The transition from the approved preliminary drawings to the development of the working drawings is elaborated in Chapter 6 of this book. Other chapters provide step-by-step procedures on how different sections of the working drawings are developed: the site and grading plan, foundation plan, floor plan, building sections, exterior elevations, roof and framing plans, interior elevations, architectural details and schedules. During the process and completion of the various sections, the project architect and/or job captain constantly review the drawings for clarity, accuracy, craftsmanship of detailing, and to see that the drawings reflect all current revisions. These drawings are either created with the use of a computer-aided drafting (CAD) system or are drawn manually using conventional instruments. A suggested organizational chart for the practice of architecture is depicted in Figure 1.2.


To accommodate all the equipment that is required for a structure, such as plumbing, hardware, finishes, and so forth, it is necessary to have access to the various manufacturing resources for specific products. The most widely used product information source is the Sweet's Catalog File. This file is provided in a set of volumes that allow architects and engineers to select the equipment necessary for the function of a building. Such equipment may be available from various manufacturers of conveying systems, window and doors, and the like. Information on the various products is now contained on CD-ROMs, which are easier to manipulate than the larger volumes. There are a number of electronic files that can be obtained. The CDs are based on the Uniform Construction Index, used widely in the construction industry. These particular systems use the following sixteen major divisions:

1. General data

2. Site work

3. Concrete

4. Masonry

5. Metals

6. Wood and plastics

7. Thermal and moisture protection

8. Doors and windows

9. Finishes

10. Specialties

11. Equipment

12. Furnishing

13. Special construction

14. Conveying systems

15. Mechanical

16. Electrical

Research via the Computer

Almost every large manufacturer has a web site that you can visit via the Internet. One can now research anything from hardware to framing anchors, engineered lumber products to composite building products. Research for building products is done in the same fashion as research for a term paper. The scope of such research can be worldwide. You are limited only by your ability to navigate through the sea of information and your ability to retrieve the necessary information that will satisfy and enhance the completion of the working drawings.

Most manufacturers also provide the architect with a video explaining a product, its specifications, and installation. Digital drawings can also be obtained, making it unnecessary to draw configurations for products such as window sections, stairs, and the like.

Manufacturers' Literature

A wealth of product information is available directly from manufacturers in the form of brochures, pamphlets, catalogs, manuals, and hardbound books. Actual samples of their products may also be obtained. The information available can include the following:

1. Advantages of a particular product over others

2. How the system works or is assembled

3. Necessary engineering

4. Detailed drawings

5. Special design features

6. Colors, textures, and patterns

7. Safety tests

8. Dimensioning

9. Installation procedures

Other Reference Sources

Retail sources such as major book publishers produce architectural reference books. Many art supply and drafting supply stores also carry reference materials. Public libraries contain a variety of professional reference materials -books, journals, and magazines. Colleges and universities offering architecture courses have architectural resource materials. These may include a broad general coverage of such areas as architectural drafting, graphics, engineering, and design principles. An example of a highly technical resource is the AIA Architectural Graphics Standards published by John Wiley & Sons. This book includes the maximum, minimum, and average sizes for a variety of items and contains such diverse information as the size of a baseball diamond or a bowling alley, the dimensions of most musical instruments, and the standard sizes for most major kitchen utensils and appliances. This book is found in almost all architectural offices.

Guides and Indexes

Two invaluable general book indexes are the Subject Guide to Books in Print (author and title volumes) and the Reader's Guide to Periodical Literature. All major bookstores carry these annual reference books. The Reader's Guide to Periodical Literature is excellent for locating magazine articles on specific building types, new building techniques, and works of specific architects. Four additional sources of architectural information are the Art Index, Applied Science and Technology, The Humanities Index, and the Social Science Index. These are available in most college and university libraries and in major public libraries.


Professional organizations can be an asset to the business performance and office functions of an architectural firm. The American Institute of Architects (AIA) is an example of a professional organization that will provide members with recommended documents, including client and architect contractual agreements, client and contractor agreements, and many others. The institution also provides recommended guidelines relative to fee schedules and disbursements, construction document facets, building specifications, and construction observation procedures and documentation.

Ethical procedures and office practice methods are recommended and defined as part of the many documents that are available from the American Institute of Architects.

It is recommended that associate architects and employees at the various technical levels become involved with a professional organization for a number of reasons, including being made aware of current technical information and activities within the profession of architect. The AIA also offers programs and directions for those in an internship phase of their careers. Student associate member programs are available through the AIA which provide an overall view of the architectural profession.

Other professional organizations for students of architecture can be found in their respective colleges and universities.


The relationship between the architect and the client, and the procedures for building a project, will vary among architectural offices as different architectural philosophies may be practiced.

In general, the architect/client relationship for a specific building project and the necessary responsibilities and procedures to accomplish the goals of the project will be initiated with the selection of the architect. After the architect is selected, the architect and the client enter into a contract, which defines the services to be performed and the responsibilities of the architect and the client. In many states it is a requirement that the architect use a written contract when providing professional services.

After the contractual agreement is signed and a retainer fee is given, the architect reviews the building site and confers with the client to determine the goals of the building project. Upon establishing the project's goals, there will be meetings with the governing agencies, such as the planning department, the building department, and architectural committees. The primary goal of the architectural team will be to initiate the preliminary planning and design phases.

In most architectural contract agreements, there are provisions for the architect and the consulting engineers to observe construction of the project during the building stage.

Construction Observation

When the construction firm has been selected and construction has commenced, the architect and consulting engineers, according to their agreement in the contract, observe the various phases of construction. These periodic observations generally correspond to the construction phases, such as during construction of the foundation, framing, and so forth. Following their observations, the architect and consulting engineers provide written reports to the client and contractor describing their observations, along with any recommendations or alterations they deem necessary for success of the project.

Preliminary Designs and Reviews

The next step in the architect/client relationship is the architect's presentation of the preliminary planning and design for the project. After the client's initial review of the project's planning and design, there may be some revisions and alterations to the design. In this case, the preliminary drawings are revised and presented again to the client for his or her approval.


Excerpted from The Professional Practice of Architectural Working Drawings by Osamu A. Wakita Richard M. Linde Excerpted by permission.
All rights reserved. No part of this excerpt may be reproduced or reprinted without permission in writing from the publisher.
Excerpts are provided by Dial-A-Book Inc. solely for the personal use of visitors to this web site.

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Table of Contents

Preface xiii


Chapter 1 The Office 3

The Physical Office 4

Office Practice and How It May Be Structured 4

Resource Library 6

Professional Organizations 7

Architect/Client Relationship 7

Implementation of the Construction Documents 12

Building 13

Influence of Building Information Modeling on Building Design 14

Chapter 2 Standards and Techniques, Metrification, Hand Drafting, and Computer-aided Drafting 17

Introduction to Standards and Techniques 18

Drawing Practice 18

Lettering 20

Architectural Drafting 26

Reproduction Methods 26

Office Standards 30

Metrics 35

Hand Drawing 44

Kinds of Drafting Equipment 44

Selecting and Using Drafting Pencils 48

Computer Drafting 49

Office Standards 49

A Game within a Game 67

Power of the CAD Drafter 69

Disadvantages of a Computer 72

Advantages of a Computer 73

Future of CAD 75

Conclusion 78

Chapter 3 BIM, Revit, and Human Concerns 79

Introduction 80

Human Considerations 80

Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) 80

Building Information Modeling (BIM) 89

Chapter 4 Sustainable/Green Architecture 107

Environmental and Human Considerations 108

Sustainable Architecture 108

Lateral Influences 109

Energy Conservation 110

Sound 112

Snow 115

Fire and Smoke 116

Temperature 119

Deterioration 120

Drainage/Rainfall 121

Underground Gas Control 123

Water Table 123

Frost Line/Frost Depth 123

Termites and Termite Treatment 125

Energy Sources 126

Future of Energy Sources 132

Chapter 5 Construction Materials and Methods 135

Building Materials 136

Wood Floor Systems 136

Wood Wall Systems 142

Wood Roof Systems 144

Concrete 149

Steel Floor System 155

Steel Stud Wall Framing System 156

Steel Decking Roof System 157

Light Steel Roof Framing System 157

Masonry Wall System 157

Composite Systems and Combinations of Materials 159

Material Selections 161

Wood as a Material 162

Concrete as a Material 166

Steel as a Material 169

Masonry as a Material 174

Chapter 6 Initial Preparation Phase for Construction Documents 177

Working Guidelines for Preparing Construction Documents 178

Making the Transition from Schematic Drawings to Construction Documents 180

Building Code Requirements 180

Primary Materials Analysis 181

Selecting the Primary Structural System 182

Requirements of Consultants 182

Regional Considerations 183

Energy Conservation 185

Interrelationship of Drawings 186

Project Management 186

Office Procedure and Planning Strategy 186

Tracking a Set of Working Drawings 188

Format/Cartoon 190

Project Book 191

Numbers—Legal, Job, Task 192

Drawing Sequence 197

Delivery Methods 208


Chapter 7 Site and Grading Plan 219

Site Analysis 220

Site Analysis Applied 222

The Topography Map 225

The Soils and Geology Map 225

The Site Plan 227

The Grading Plan 231

The Site and Grading Plan 234

The Drainage Plan 241

The Erosion and Sediment Control Plans 245

The Utility Plan 245

The Circulation Plan 246

The Landscape, Irrigation, and Drainage Plans 246

The Site Improvement Plan: An Overview 247

Size and Location 250

Chapter 8 Floor Plan 253

Types of Floor Plans 254

Symbols 268

Other Floor-plan Considerations 273

Drawing a Floor Plan with a Computer 277

Chapter 9 Foundation and Roof Plans, Floor and Roof Framing Systems 287

Foundation Introduction 288

Types of Foundations 288

Examples 295

Summary of Typical Conventions for Foundation Plan 300

Exterior and Interior Walls 304

A Steel Structure 305

Roof Plans and Framing Systems 308

Framing with Different Materials 333

Floor Framing 337

Chapter 10 Building Sections 347

Building Sections Defined 348

Drawing a Building Section 348

Types of Building Sections 351

Drafting a Building Section 356

Drafting a Building Section of a Residence 356

Chapter 11 Exterior and Interior Elevations 365

Introduction to Exterior Elevations 366

Drawing Doors and Windows 372

Material Designations 374

Notes 375

Dotted Lines 377

Controlling Factors 380

Drafting an Exterior Elevation 383

Weatherproofing 385

Drawing an Elevation with and without a Model 387

Exterior Elevation Using BIM/Revit 389

Interior Elevations 390

Dimensions and Intersections 394

Drafting an Interior Elevation: Examples 394

Computers and Interior Elevations 395

Evolution of a Set of Interior Elevations 396

Interior Elevations Using BIM/Revit 397

Chapter 12 Schedules: Door, Window, and Finish 403

Schedules Defined 404

Tabulated Schedules: Doors and Windows 404

Pictorial Schedules: Doors and Windows 405

Choosing a Tabulated or Pictorial Schedule 406

Interior Finish Schedules 406

Additional Schedules 408

Schedules as They Relate to Structural Entities 408

CAD-Generated and Computer-Drafted Schedules 409

Schedule Templates 410

Schedules Using BIM or Revit 411

Chapter 13 Architectural Details and Vertical Links (Stairs/Elevators) 421

The Purpose of Architectural Details 422

Freehand Detail Sketches 422

Using Details in Construction Documents 422

Hard-Line (Hand-Drafted and CAD) 428

Footing Detail 430

Window Detail 432

Fireplace 436

Stair Design and Vertical Links 443

Mechanical Vertical Links 447

Detailing in BIM/Revit 451

Tenant Improvement Details 452


Chapter 14 C onstruction Documents for a One-story, Conventional Wood-framed Residence 461

Conceptual Design 462

Design and Schematic Drawings 463

Evolution of the Working Drawings 467

Site Plan, Vicinity Map, Roof Plan, and Notes 467

Jadyn Residence Site Plan 471

Jadyn Residence Floor Plan 473

Jadyn Residence Roof Plan 480

Jadyn Residence Building Sections 480

Jadyn Residence Exterior Elevations 486

Jadyn Residence Foundation Plan 491

Framing a Residence 494

Jadyn Residence Roof Framing Plan 498

Jadyn Residence Interior Elevations 498

Set Check 502

Chapter 15 Construction Documents for a Two-story, Wood-framed Residence with Basement 507

Schematic Design for Blu Residence 508

Site Plan 511

First-Floor Plan 513

Second-Floor Plan 514

Roof Plan 518

Blu Residence Building Sections 518

Blu Residence Building Elevations 522

Foundation Plan: Slab and Raised Wood 529

Blu Residence Foundation Plan: Raised Wood 534

Framing Plan 537

Support Drawings for Blu Residence 541

Chapter 16 Conceptual Design and Construction Documents for a Steel and Masonry Building (Theater) 549

Introduction 550

Conceptual Design: Site and Client Requirements 550

Design Development Punch List 550

Initial Schematic Studies 550

Site Plan 554

Foundation Plan 556

Ground-Floor Plan 557

Partial Floor Plan and Interior Elevations 560

Exterior Elevations 560

Building Sections 564

Roof Plan 575

Roof Framing Plan 577

Chapter 17 Madison Steel Building 597

Introduction 598

The Madison Office Building 598

Floor-plan Design Development Phase 603

Summary 625

Chapter 18 Tenant Improvements 627

Tenant Improvement Introduction 628

Existing Buildings 628

Existing Floor Level—Building A 628

Development of Working Drawings—Building B 630

Working Drawings 642

Index 653

Appendix A Survey of Regional Differences available online at

Appendix B A Uniform System for Architectural Working Drawing available online at

Abbreviations available online at

PowerPoint presentations available online at ??$

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