Professional SQL Server 2000 Programming

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What is this book about?

SQL Server 2000 is the latest and most powerful version of Microsoft's data warehousing and relational database management system. This new release is tightly integrated with Windows 2000 and offers more support for XML, as well as improved Analysis Services for OLAP and data mining.

Professional SQL Server 2000 provides a comprehensive guide to programming with SQL Server 2000, from a complete tutorial on Transact-SQL ...

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Overview

What is this book about?

SQL Server 2000 is the latest and most powerful version of Microsoft's data warehousing and relational database management system. This new release is tightly integrated with Windows 2000 and offers more support for XML, as well as improved Analysis Services for OLAP and data mining.

Professional SQL Server 2000 provides a comprehensive guide to programming with SQL Server 2000, from a complete tutorial on Transact-SQL to an in-depth discussion of new features, such as indexed views, user-defined functions, and the wealth of new SQL Server features to support XML. Whether you're coming to SQL Server 2000 from another relational database management system, upgrading your existing system, or perhaps wanting to add programming skills to your DBA knowledge, you'll find what you need in this book to get to grips with SQL Server 2000 development.

What does this book cover?

Here are just a few of the things covered in this book:

  • A complete introduction to Transact-SQL
  • Database design issues
  • Creating and using views, stored procedures, and user- defined functions
  • Responding to events with triggers
  • Making your SQL Server secure
  • Retrieving your data as XML
  • An introduction to Analysis Services
  • Moving data using Data Transformation Services and the bulk copy program
  • Maintaining the integrity of distributed data with replication

Who is this book for?

This book is aimed at the SQL Server developer who wants to make the most out of the new features of SQL Server 2000. No knowledge of SQL Server is assumed, although in order to follow this book, you do need to have an understanding of programming basics such as variables, data types, and procedural programming. Database administration is also covered but only as it affects the SQL Server developer.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780764543791
  • Publisher: Wiley, John & Sons, Incorporated
  • Publication date: 12/1/2000
  • Series: Programmer to Programmer Series
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 1440
  • Product dimensions: 7.14 (w) x 9.18 (h) x 2.52 (d)

Meet the Author

Robert Vieira Experiencing his first bout with computing in 1978, Robert Vieira knew right away that this was something "really cool". In 1980 he began immersing himself into the computing world more fully – splitting time between building and repairing computer kits, and programming in BASIC as well as Z80 and 6502 assembly languages. In 1983, he began studies for a degree in Computer Information Systems, but found the professional mainframe environment too rigid for his tastes, dropping out in 1985 to pursue other interests. Later that year, he caught the "PC bug" and began the long road of programming in database languages from dBase to SQL Server. Rob completed a degree in Business Administration in 1990, and has since typically worked in roles that allow him to combine his knowledge of business and computing. Beyond his Bachelor's degree, he has been certified as a Certified Management Accountant as well as Microsoft Certified as a Solutions Developer (MCSD), Trainer (MCT), and Database Administrator (MCDBA).
Rob is currently the Principal Consultant for Database and Storage Technologies with the Technology and Innovation Group at STEP Technology in Portland, Oregon – a position that offers the high-end consulting and team support he craves.
He resides with his wife Nancy, elder daughter Ashley, and new addition Adrianna, in Vancouver, WA.
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Table of Contents

Introduction.

Chapter 1: SQL Server 2000 – Particulars and History.

Chapter 2: RDBMS Basics: What Makes Up a SQL Server Database?

Chapter 3: Tools of the Trade.

Chapter 4: The Foundation Statements of T-SQL.

Chapter 5: Joining Tables.

Chapter 6: Creating and Altering Tables.

Chapter 7: Constraints.

Chapter 8: Normalization and Other Basic Design Issues.

Chapter 9: SQL Server Storage and Index Structures.

Chapter 10: Views.

Chapter 11: Writing Scripts and Batches.

Chapter 12: Stored Procedures.

Chapter 13: User Defined Functions.

Chapter 14: Transactions and Locks.

Chapter 15: Triggers.

Chapter 16: Advanced Queries.

Chapter 17: Distributed Queries and Transactions.

Chapter 18: SQL Cursors.

Chapter 19: A Brief XML Primer.

Chapter 20: Integration of XML into SQL Server.

Chapter 21: The Bulk Copy Program (bcp).

Chapter 22: Introduction to Data Transformation Services.

Chapter 23: Replication.

Chapter 24: Advanced Design.

Chapter 25: Analysis Services.

Chapter 26: Full-Text Search.

Chapter 27: English Query.

Chapter 28: Security.

Chapter 29: Performance Tuning.

Chapter 30: Administration Overview.

Chapter 31: Advanced DTS.

Chapter 32: Scripting Administrative Functions with WMI.

Appendix A: System Functions.

Appendix B: Function Listing.

Appendix C: Tools for Our Time.

Appendix D: Access Upsizing.

Appendix E: Microsoft Data Transformation Services Package Object Library Reference.

Index.

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First Chapter

Professional SQL Server 2000 Programming


By Robert Vieira

John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 0-7645-4379-2


Chapter One

SQL Server 2000 - Particulars and History

So you want to learn something about databases - SQL Server in particular? That's great because databases are pervasive - they are everywhere, though you may not have really thought about this up until now.

In this chapter, we'll be looking at some of the different varieties and brands of databases available both today and throughout history. We'll examine some of the advantages and disadvantages of each, and how they fit into the grand picture of life, so to speak.

Moving on from there, we'll take a look at SQL Server 2000 specifically - the different editions that are currently available and what each one does or doesn't include.

In addition, we'll take some time to examine the database development process and how it fits into your overall development cycle. In this same section, we'll talk at an entry level about some system architecture issues and how these affect our database thinking.

This book is focused on trying to successfully prepare you to develop applications using SQL Server 2000. It should also act as good preparation for some of the exams in the Microsoft certification process, so we'll round off the chapter with a brief look at this.

A Brief History of Databases

SQL Server is an RDBMS - or Relational Database Management System. RDBMS systems are at the pinnacle of their popularity at the moment. Using an RDBMS as the basis for data storage is plainly "the way it's done" for most applications nowadays - but it wasn't always this way.

In this section, we're going to take a look back in time and examine some of the other databases used in the past. We'll try not to dwell on this "Old News", but it's critical to understand where database technology has come from if you want to understand where you're going today, and why.

Types of Databases

Databases are not just limited to the computer-based systems that we typically think about when we hear the term - they are much, much more. A database is really any collection of organized data. Even Webster's dictionary puts a qualifier on any computer notion:

Database: A usually large collection of data organized especially for rapid search and retrieval (as by a computer).

The file drawers in your office are really something of a database (that is, if they are better organized than mine at home). In fact, databases have existed throughout most of the history of the "civilized" world, going back to the days of the early philosophers and academics (Socrates, Aristotle, Hippocrates, etc.).

That being said, there's a reason why databases are so closely associated with computers. It's because, for most database situations (virtually, but not quite, all of them), computers are simply the fastest and most efficient way to store data. Indeed, the term database is thought to have originated from the computing community in 1962 or so.

Databases, then, fall into a number of common categories:

Paper-based: These, although often not thought of as databases, probably still make up the largest proportion of databases in the world today. There are literally billions and billions of tons of paper out there that are still meticulously organized, but haven't been anywhere near a computer.

Legacy mainframe - often VSAM (Virtual Storage Access Method - common to IBM mainframes) databases: Don't underestimate the number of legacy mainframes still out there, and their importance. Connectivity to host systems and the vast amounts of data they still contain is one of the major opportunity areas in database and systems development today. There are still many situations where I recommend a host system solution rather than a client-server or web-based model. It's worth noting though that I still believe in using a true RDBMS - albeit one that's located on a host system.

dBase and other file-based databases: Typically, these include any of the older Indexed Sequential Access Method - or ISAM - databases. These normally use a separate file for each table, but the ISAM name comes from the physical way the data is stored and accessed more than anything else. Examples of ISAM databases that are still in widespread legacy use - and even in some new developments in certain cases - include dBase, FoxPro, Excel, Paradox, and Access. (Yes, Access is an ISAM with a relational feel and several relational features - it is not, however, a true relational database system.) These systems had most of their heyday well before RDBMS systems. (There is something of a paradox in this since RDBMS systems appeared first.) These systems are still quite often great for small, stand-alone databases where you will never have more than a small number of users accessing the data at a time.

RDBMS systems: Data for the masses, but with much better data integrity. These systems do more than just store and retrieve data. They can be thought of as actually caring for the integrity of the data. Whereas VSAM and ISAM databases typically store data very well, the database itself has no control over what goes in and out (OK, Access has some, but not like a true RDBMS). The programs that use the database are responsible for implementing any data integrity rules. If five programs are accessing the data, you'd better make sure that they are all programmed correctly. RDBMS systems, on the other hand, take the level of responsibility for data integrity right down to the database level. You still want your programs to know about the data integrity rules to avoid getting errors from the database, but the database now takes some of the responsibility itself and the data is much safer.

Object-oriented databases: These have been around for a while now, but are only recently beginning to make a splash. They are really a completely different way of thinking about your data and, to date, have only found fairly specialized use. Examples would be something similar to a document management system. Instead of storing the document in several tables, the document would be stored as a single object, and would have properties whose state would be maintained. ODBMS systems often provide for such object-oriented concepts as inheritance and encapsulation.

RDBMS systems are clearly king these days. They are designed from the ground up with the notion that they are not going to be working with just one table that has it all, but with data that relates to data in completely different tables. They facilitate the notion of combining data in many different ways. They eliminate the repetitive storage of data and increase speed in transactional environments.

The Evolution of Relational Databases

E.F. Codd of IBM first introduced the principles behind relational database structures and a Structured English QUEry Language - or SEQUEL - back in the late 1960's (the name was later shortened to just Structured Query Language or SQL). The concept was actually pretty simple - increase data integrity and decrease costs by reducing repetitive data as well as other database problems that were common at the time.

Nothing really happened in the relational world as far as a real product was concerned until the mid to late 70's, though. Around that time, companies such as Oracle and Sybase became the first to create true relational database systems. It might surprise you to learn that these systems got their start in mainframe - not client-server - computing. These systems offered a new way of looking at database architecture and, since they ran on multiple platforms, they also often offered a higher potential for sharing data across multiple systems.

In the 80's, the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) finally weighed in with a specification for SQL, and ANSI-SQL was born. This was actually a key moment in RDBMS computing because it meant that there would be better compatibility between vendors. That, in turn, meant that more of the expertise built up in one RDBMS was also usable in a competing system. This has greatly aided the process of trying to increase the number of developers in the SQL community. The ANSI specification called for several different levels of compliance. Most of the major RDBMS products available today are classified as being Entry-Level ANSI compliant (like SQL Server, for example). Entry-level ANSI compliance means that a database meets the basic defined ANSI standards for the SQL syntax.

ANSI compliance is a double-edged sword. I'm going to encourage you to make use of ANSI compliant code where feasible - it's particularly important if you may be migrating your code between different database servers. But you also need to realize that many of the performance and functionality features that each of the high performance database vendors offers are not ANSI compliant. Each vendor extends their product beyond the ANSI spec in order to differentiate their product and meet needs that ANSI hasn't dealt with yet. For example, SQL Server 2000 has expanded on the basic SQL with its own additions, which are called T-SQL. This leaves you with a choice - ANSI compliance or performance.

Use ANSI compliance not as a religion but, rather, where it makes sense. Go for ANSI code where it means little or no difference in performance (such as with queries), but also don't be afraid to make judicious use of specialized features that may offer some functionality or performance gain that ANSI can't give you. Just document these areas where you use them so that, if you are faced with porting to a new RDBMS, you know where to look for code that may not run on the new system.

Microsoft SQL Server (referred to in this book as simply SQL Server) was originally born from Sybase SQL Server (referred to in this book simply as Sybase). Microsoft partnered with Sybase in 1989 to develop a version of SQL Server for, of all things, OS/2. SQL Server was migrated to Windows NT back in 1993 with version 4.2. The relationship ended with the release of version 6.0. From 6.5 forward, SQL Server has been a Microsoft-only product. The highly successful version 7.0 was essentially a complete rewrite of the product and was the first version available for Windows 9x (there was now virtually no Sybase code left in SQL Server). Finally, we reach today's version - SQL Server 2000.

While there are unmistakable similarities, there are now substantial differences in implementation and feature support between version 4.21 (the oldest version you're actually likely to find installed somewhere) and version 2000. Version 6.0 added such details as cursor support. Version 6.5 added distributed transactions, replication, and ANSI compatibility. The rewrite with version 7.0 enabled the loss of problem areas such as the devices defined for data storage.

About SQL Server 2000

SQL Server 2000 comes with far more than just the usual RDBMS - it has additional components that would, for many products, be sold entirely separately or with add-on pricing. Instead, Microsoft has seen fit to toss in these extras at no additional charge.

SQL Server 2000 is now available in five editions (CE, Personal, Desktop Engine, Standard, Developer, and Enterprise), which are discussed in more detail later.

There is also an Enterprise Evaluation Edition, which can be downloaded from the Web for a 120 day trial period.

The full suite that makes up SQL Server 2000 includes:

There are a few additional differences between the various editions of SQL Server 2000. These include:

Symmetric Multiprocessing (SMP): Support for SMP has increased a great deal through the different editions of SQL Server 2000 (though Win 98 and NT4 Workstation can't support this). There is support for up to four processors in the Standard edition if installed on NT Server or Enterprise, and support for up to 32 processors with the Enterprise edition if it is installed on Windows 2000 Datacenter Server.

SMP distributes the workload of the server over multiple processors symmetrically - that is, it tries to balance the load as opposed to running on just one CPU per process.

Clustering Support (Enterprise/Developer editions only): Clustering allows load-balancing across servers and automatic fail-over support (if one server dies, another one automatically picks up where the other left off). Currently, you can only cluster two servers with all operating systems, with the exception of Windows NT Enterprise edition, Windows 2000 Enterprise edition, and Windows 2000 Datacenter edition which can have up to four cluster servers.

Which Edition Should You Use?

The answer to this is like the answer to most things in life: it depends.

Each of the various editions has a particular target "market" that it's designed for. Usually, I find some exceptions to the rules on how things should best be used but, for these products, I would say that what Microsoft designed them for really is their best use. Let's take a quick look at the editions, one by one. The following section gives my summary of each edition. Obviously, Microsoft makes its own comparisons, which it might be useful for you to see. Don't forget that there is a Microsoft slant to all of these.

Microsoft.com/sql/productinfo/sqlcompdata.htm - gives an overall comparison on data warehousing

Microsoft.com/sql/productinfo/sqlcompecom.htm - gives an overall comparison on e-commerce

Microsoft.com/sql/productinfo/sqlcomplob.htm - gives an overall comparison on Line-of-Business

Microsoft.com/sql/productinfo/feaover.htm - gives a features overview with links to specific areas

Windows CE Edition

The Windows CE Edition will be used on Windows CE devices. It will be extremely limited in its functionality as, obviously, these devices have an extremely limited capacity. Applications using Windows CE and SQL Server are still quite limited at present and it's really only possible to have any sort of useful application built on the more expensive CE products.

Desktop Engine Edition

The Desktop Engine Edition of SQL Server 2000 was known as the Microsoft Data Engine (MSDE) in SQL Server 7.0. Don't get confused by thinking that this is still the same version as the SQL Server 7.0 Desktop version. It isn't.

Continues...


Excerpted from Professional SQL Server 2000 Programming by Robert Vieira Excerpted by permission.
All rights reserved. No part of this excerpt may be reproduced or reprinted without permission in writing from the publisher.
Excerpts are provided by Dial-A-Book Inc. solely for the personal use of visitors to this web site.

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Sort by: Showing all of 5 Customer Reviews
  • Anonymous

    Posted January 8, 2006

    An excellent book for preparing exam 70229 !

    I strongly recommend this excellent book to those who is going to take the Microsoft exam 70229. I just passed the exam 70229, and I used this book as my main reference. Comparing it with Microsoft Training kit, this book contains exclusive examples with readily understandable explanations. It also provides very good practice in each subject, which can be done in a single computer networking environment. The author is obviously very experienced in relational database field and in 70229 exams. All of the exam contents are included in this book. This book is also a very good learning tool for DBA who is starting to learn MS SQL 2K. The author provides lots of T-SQL examples and those good and bad programming habits. The only weakness of this book is that it is a little bit wordy. I guess this is because the author is too much experienced in MS SQL Server and try to share all his ideas to the readers. In a word, this is an excellent book for learning SQL Server 2000.

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  • Anonymous

    Posted April 1, 2003

    SQL

    the book is really good for beginners

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  • Anonymous

    Posted August 26, 2002

    Awesome book

    This book is great for beginners/people with a little knowledge of SQL server/T-SQL and for advanced users.

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  • Anonymous

    Posted May 28, 2002

    Best book for total over view of SQL Server

    This is great book to get real world practical uses of SQL Server. I learned a lot of details about all facets of SQL Server. I am an MCDBA and this book really improved on a lot of the information I already knew. I used Enterprise Manger to do a lot of my task. Now I feel really comfortable and have found many uses for programming SQL Server.

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  • Anonymous

    Posted January 29, 2002

    Great But .....

    I bought the book holding in mind that it is dedicated to people having experience with SQL Server and seeking more deep looks into things but I am now in page 300 and still reading things that I know ... but I would like to mention 1 fact that even though the materials so far are Deja Vus but I learned some tips and tricks ... I skipped to some chapters on query Design and they are very good

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