Progress in Hydrogeochemistry: Organics -- Carbonate Systems -- Silicate Systems -- Microbiology -- Models

Overview

This volume summarizes the main result of an interdisciplinary research programme on Hydrogeochemical Processes in the Hydrological Cycle within the Unsaturated Zones, running between 1982 and 1988. Interdisciplinary projects brought together scientists from analytical chemistry, geochemistry, geophysics, groundwater hydraulics, hydrogeology, isotope hydrology, microbiology, mineralogy, petrography, pedology, and physics, resulting in status reports of organic geochemistry. The quantitative transport and reaction...
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Overview

This volume summarizes the main result of an interdisciplinary research programme on Hydrogeochemical Processes in the Hydrological Cycle within the Unsaturated Zones, running between 1982 and 1988. Interdisciplinary projects brought together scientists from analytical chemistry, geochemistry, geophysics, groundwater hydraulics, hydrogeology, isotope hydrology, microbiology, mineralogy, petrography, pedology, and physics, resulting in status reports of organic geochemistry. The quantitative transport and reaction models provide a geoscientific contribution to ecological research, and form a basis for initial prognostic studies involving the functional capacity of ecosystems.
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9783642766312
  • Publisher: Springer Berlin Heidelberg
  • Publication date: 7/31/2012
  • Edition description: Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 1992
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 544
  • Product dimensions: 6.14 (w) x 9.21 (h) x 1.17 (d)

Table of Contents

1 Scope.- 2 Polar Organic Substances and Their Role in the Water-Saturated and -Unsaturated Zones.- 2.0 Introduction.- 2.1 Isolation Procedures and Characterization Methods.- 2.1.1 Isolation and General Characterization of Organic Acids from Pore Water.- 2.1.2 Isolation and Characterization of Soil Humic Matter.- 2.1.3 Isolation and Characterization of Organic Substances in Ground Water and Sediments.- 2.1.4 Chromatographic Characterization of the Acid-Soluble Part of Humic Substances.- 2.1.5 Spectroscopic Characterization of Humic Substances in the Ultraviolet and Visible Region and by Infrared Spectroscopy.- 2.1.6 Temperature-Programmed/Time-Resolved Pyrolysis Field Ionization Mass Spectrometry — a New Method for the Characterization of Humic Substances.- 2.1.7 Interpretation of the Pyrolysis Products of Isolated Humic and Fulvic Acids.- 2.1.8 Characterization of Isolated Humic Material by 13C Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy.- 2.1.9 Characterization of Humic Substances Extracted by Organic Solvents.- 2.2 Interaction of Inorganics with Humic Substances.- 2.2.1 Investigation of Metal Complexation by Polarography and Fluorescence Spectroscopy.- 2.2.2 Determination of Complexation Equilibria by the Ion-Exchange Method.- 2.2.3 Sorption of Metals on Humic Material.- 2.2.4 Interactions of Humic Substances with Iodine.- 2.2.5 Experiments on the Influence of Organic Ligands upon Kinetics of Feldspar Weathering.- 2.3 Characterization of Some Organic Acids in the Subsurface of the Sandhausen Ecosystem.- 2.3.4 Organic Acids.- 2.3.5 Conclusions.- 3 Carbonate Systems.- 3.0 Introduction.- 3.1 Dissolution Kinetics in the Generation of Carbonate Ground Waters.- 3.1.1 Theoretical and Experimental Results of the Kinetics of Calcite Dissolution and Precipitation.- 3.1.2 Field Measurements and Laboratory Experiments on Calcite Dissolution Kinetics of Natural Porous Media.- 3.2 Field Studies on Subsurface Water of Selected Sites.- 3.2.1 Pore Water Sampling in Carbonate Terrains.- 3.2.2 Variation of Inorganic Carbon in the Unsaturated Zone of a Carbonate Gravel System.- 3.2.3 Isotope Geochemistry of the Subsurface Carbonate System in Sandhausen and Bocholt.- 3.2.4 Application of Stable Carbon and Sulfur Isotope Models to the Development of Ground Water in a Limestone-Dolomite-Anhydrite-Gypsum Area.- 3.2.5 A dissolution Front at the Contact of Sands to Marly Limestone Aquifers.- 3.2.6 Carbonate Rock Dissolution Under Intermediate System Conditions.- 3.3 Alteration in Karst Systems.- 3.3.1 Mineralogy and Hydrogeochemistry of the Gypsum Karst of Foum Tatahouine, South Tunisia.- 3.3.2 Dedolomitization and Salt Formation in a Semi-Arid Environment.- 3.3.3 Transformation Processes in Paleokarst Sediments and Chemistry of Modern Waters in the Aladag Region, Turkey.- 4 Silicate Systems.- 4.0 Introduction.- 4.1 Redox Reactions in the Subsurface.- 4.1.1 Anoxic Reaction Zones in an Aquifer Influenced by Increasing Nitrate and Sulfate Contents.- 4.1.2 Nitrogen and Oxygen Isotopes as Indicators for Nitrification and Denitrification.- 4.1.3 Redox Conditions and Microbial Sulfur Reactions in the Fuhrberger Field Sandy Aquifer.- 4.1.4 Influence of Fine-Grained Cover Beds on the Chemistry of Shallow Ground Water.- 4.1.5 Hydrogeochemical Processes During the Passage of Surface Water and Ground Water Through Genetically Different Organic Sediments.- 4.1.6 Hydrochemical Phenomena in the Dorsten Leakage System.- 4.1.7 Hydrogeochemical Processes in the Hamburg Deep Aquifer System.- 4.2 Rock-Water Interaction.- 4.2.1 Aluminium Speciation in Acid Soil Water and Ground Water.- 4.2.2 Mineral-Pore Water Interaction in Two Soil Types on Pleisene Sediments at Hamburg.- 4.2.3 Subsurface Hydrochemical Reactions in the Sandhausen Forest Ecosystem.- 4.3 Reaction Kinetics.- 4.3.1 Experimental Methods for Determining Dissolution Rates of Silicates — a Comparison.- 4.3.2 Field Studies on the Kinetics of Silicate Minerals/Water Interaction.- 5 Microbiology.- 5.0 Introduction.- 5.1 Characterization of the Natural Subsurface Environment.- 5.1.1 Morphological and Taxonomic Diversity of Ground Water Microorganisms.- 5.1.2 Methods of Studying Ground Water Microbiology: Critical Evaluations and Method suggestions.- 5.1.3 Organic Substances in Ground Water and Sediments and Their Relationships to Microorganisms in a Sandy Aquifer.- 5.2 Microbial Activities.- 5.2.1 Observations on the Physiology of Microorganisms from Pristine Ground Water Environments.- 5.2.2 Formation and Transformation of Manganese Oxidation States by Bacteria.- 5.2.3 Interactions Between Humic Acids and Microorganisms.- 5.3 Microbiology of Selected Locations.- 5.3.1 Subsurface Microbial Activities in the Sandhausen Forest Ecosystem.- 5.3.2 Heterotrophic Bacterial Communities in the Bocholt Aquifer System.- 5.3.3 The Natural Microflora of the Segeberger Forest Aquifer System.- 5.3.4 Microbiological Observations of the Unsaturated Zone of a Quaternary Gravel Profile.- 6 Hydrogeochemical and Geochemical-Hydraulic Models and Model Concepts.- 6.0 Introduction.- 6.1 Hydrogeochemical Models and Concepts.- 6.1.1 Development of Secondary Permeability of a Fracture Aquifer in Carbonate Rocks: a Model.- 6.1.2 Some Aspects of Modelling the Carbon System in the Unsaturated Zone.- 6.1.3 Methodical Concepts in Silicate-Water Interaction — a Comparison of Results.- 6.2 Combination of Transport and Geochemical Reactions.- 6.2.1 Water Movement and Geochemical Reactions in the Unsaturated Zone of Sands with Low Calcite Contents.- 6.2.2 Physical and Biochemical Processes Affecting Mass Transport in the Bocholt Aquifer System.- 6.2.3 Tritium and 3He Measurements as Calibration Data for Ground Water Transport Models.- 6.2.4 89Ar-, 85Kr-,3He-and 3H Isotope Dating of Ground Water in the Bocholt and Segeberger Forst Aquifer Systems.- 6.2.5 Modelling of Mass Balance and of Microbial Transformations in the Fuhrberger Feld Sandy Aquifer.- 6.3 Description of Geochemical Environments with Thermodynamic Equilibrium Models.- 6.3.1 Approach.- 6.3.2 Geochemical Models and Limiting Reactions.- 6.3.3 Calculation Errors.- 6.3.4 Sensitivity Analyses.- 6.3.5 Limiting Phases.- 6.3.6 Conclusions.- 7 Perspectives and Needs for Future Work.- References.
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