Protocol Analysis: Verbal Reports as Data / Edition 2

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Since the publication of Ericsson and Simon's ground-breaking work in the early 1980s, verbal data has been used increasingly to study cognitive processes in many areas of psychology, and concurrent and retrospective verbal reports are now generally accepted as important sources of data on subjects' cognitive processes in specific tasks. In this revised edition of the book that first put protocol analysis on firm theoretical ground, the authors review major advances in verbal reports over the past decade, including new evidence on how giving verbal reports affects subjects' cognitive processes, and on the validity and completeness of such reports.

In a substantial new preface Ericsson and Simon summarize the central issues covered in the book and provide an updated version of their information-processing model, which explains verbalization and verbal reports. They describe new studies on the effects of verbalization, interpreting the results of these studies and showing how their theory can be extended to account for them.

Next, they address the issue of completeness of verbally reported information,reviewing the new evidence in three particularly active task domains. They conclude by citing recent contributions to the techniques for encoding protocols, raising general issues, and proposing directions for future research.

All references and indexes have been updated.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780262550239
  • Publisher: MIT Press
  • Publication date: 4/13/1993
  • Series: Bradford Books Series
  • Edition description: revised edition
  • Edition number: 2
  • Pages: 499
  • Product dimensions: 6.00 (w) x 9.00 (h) x 1.00 (d)

Meet the Author

K. Anders Ericsson holds the Dr. Edward Conradi Eminent Scholar Chair of Psychology at Florida State University.

Herbert Simon is Professor of Psychology at Carnegie-Mellon University. He was awarded the Nobel Prize in economics in 1978.

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Table of Contents

Preface to the Revised Edition
Ch. 1 Introduction and Summary 1
1.1 Using Verbal Reports: Some Issues 1
1.2 The Processing Model 10
1.3 Types of Verbalizing Procedures 15
1.4 Two Challenges to Verbal Reports 24
1.5 Verbal Reports of Cognitive States and Structures 30
1.6 Verbal Reports in Assessment Studies 40
1.7 History of Verbal Reports and Introspection 48
Ch. 2 Effects of Verbalization 63
2.1 Verbalization and Thinking 63
2.2 Experimental Studies of Verbalizing Without Recoding 68
2.3 Thinking-Aloud Processes 78
2.4 Review of Empirical Studies 83
Ch. 3 Completeness of Reports 109
3.1 Three Viewpoints 109
3.2 Recognition Processes 120
3.3 Information About Cognitive States 130
3.4 What Is Reported? 135
3.5 Learning Without Awareness 137
3.6 Retrospective Reports of Earlier Cognitive Processes 148
3.7 Insight and Access to Solution Ideas 159
Ch. 4 Inferences From Verbal Data 169
4.1 Requirements for Using Verbal Data 169
4.2 Memory as Evidence for Heeding 182
4.3 Inferences from Verbal Reports 184
4.4 Generalizations About Cognitive Processes 196
4.5 Direct Assessment of General Processes 204
4.6 Verbal Reports and Theories 215
Ch. 5 Model of Verbalization 221
5.1 General Model and Assumptions 221
5.2 Concurrent Verbalization 225
5.3 Incomplete Verbalization of Information in STM 247
5.4 Implications for Protocol Analysis 257
Ch. 6 Methods for Protocol Analysis 261
6.1 Early Protocol Analysis 261
6.2 Introduction to Techniques of Protocol Analysis 263
6.3 Methodological Issues 274
6.4 Reliability and Validity of Encoding 287
6.5 Effective Protocol Analysis Procedures 309
Ch. 7 Techniques of Protocol Analysis 313
7.1 Informal Protocol Analysis 313
7.2 Using a Theory for Protocol Prediction 319
7.3 Characteristics of Generated Information: Representations 320
7.4 Sequences of Heeded Information 330
7.5 Processes With Alternative Realizations 348
7.6 Reliability of Verbal Reports 356
Appendix 375
Bibliography 381
Author Index 425
Subject Index 435
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