Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells Modeling

Overview

The fuel cell is a potential candidate for energy storage and conversion in our future energy mix. It is able to directly convert the chemical energy stored in fuel (e.g. hydrogen) into electricity, without undergoing different intermediary conversion steps. In the field of mobile and stationary applications, it is considered to be one of the future energy solutions.
Among the different fuel cell types, the proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell has shown great potential in ...

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Overview

The fuel cell is a potential candidate for energy storage and conversion in our future energy mix. It is able to directly convert the chemical energy stored in fuel (e.g. hydrogen) into electricity, without undergoing different intermediary conversion steps. In the field of mobile and stationary applications, it is considered to be one of the future energy solutions.
Among the different fuel cell types, the proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell has shown great potential in mobile applications, due to its low operating temperature, solid-state electrolyte and compactness.
This book presents a detailed state of art of PEM fuel cell modeling, with very detailed physical phenomena equations in different physical domains. Examples and a fully coupled multi-physical 1.2 kW PEMFC model are given help the reader better understand how to use the equations.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9781848213395
  • Publisher: Wiley
  • Publication date: 2/1/2012
  • Series: ISTE Series , #605
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 239
  • Product dimensions: 6.00 (w) x 9.30 (h) x 1.10 (d)

Table of Contents

Introduction ix

Nomenclature xiii

Part 1 State of the Art: Of Fuel Cells Modeling 1

Chapter 1 General Introduction 3

1.1 What is a fuel cell? 3

1.2 Types of fuel cells 5

1.2.1 Proton exchange membrane fuel cell PEMFC, PEFC 7

1.2.2 Alkaline fuel cells AFC 8

1.2.3 Phosphoric acid fuel ceUs PAFC 9

1.2.4 Molten carbonate fuel cells MCFC 9

1.2.5 Solid oxide fuel cells SOFC 10

1.2.6 Direct methanol fuel cells DMFC 12

Chapter 2 PEMFC Structure 13

2.1 Bipolar plates 15

2.2 Membrane electrode assembly 16

2.2.1 Electrodes 16

2.2.2 Membrane 19

Chapter 3 Why Model a Fuel Cell? 21

3.1 Advantages of modeling and simulation 22

3.2 Complex system modeling methods 23

3.2.1 Behavior description 23

3.2.2 Behavior explanation 25

3.3 Modeling goals 26

3.3.1 Scientific understanding 27

3.3.2 Technological development 28

3.3.3 System control 29

Chapter 4 How Can a Fuel Cell be Modeled? 31

4.1 Space dimension: OD, 1D, 2D, 3D 31

4.2 Temporal behavior: static or dynamic 32

4.3 Type: analytical, semi-empirical, empirical 33

4.4 Modeled areas: stack, single cell, individual layer 34

4.5 Modeled phenomena 35

4.5.1 Domains: electrical electrochemical, fluidic, thermal 35

4.5.2 Individual layer phenomena 35

Chapter 5 Literature Models Synthesis 37

5.1 50 models published in the literature 37

5.2 Model classification 42

Part 2 Modeling of the Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell 47

Chapter 6 Model Structural and Functional Approaches 49

Chapter 7 Stack-Level Modeling 53

7.1 Electrical domain 53

7.1.1 Cell voltage multiplication 53

7.1.2 Individual cell voltage sum 53

7.2 Fluidic domain 54

7.2.1 Static equilibrium of the stack's fluid flows 54

7.2.2 Dynamic equilibrium of the stack's fluid flow 55

7.2.3 Expressions for gas flow rates at the channel inlets and outlets 59

7.3 Thermal domain 61

7.3.1 Dynamic energy balance 61

Chapter 8 Cell-Level Modeling Membrane-Electrode Assembly, MEA 69

8.1 Electrical domain 69

8.1.1 Thermodynamic voltage of a cell BLU 07 69

8.1.2 Voltage drop due to activation loss 73

8.1.3 Voltage drop due to internal ohmic loss membrane + plate 79

8.1.4 Voltage drop due to concentration losses mass transport limitation 80

8.1.5 Dynamic effect of double layer capacity 83

8.2 Fluidic domain 85

8.2.1 Static or dynamic mass balance 85

8.2.2 Pressure loss in the global feeding channels manifolds 86

8.3 Thermal domain 89

8.3.1 Dynamic energy summary 89

Chapter 9 Individual Layer Level Modeling 91

9.1 Electrical domain 91

9.1.1 Gas channels 91

9.1.2 Gas diffusion layer GDL 92

9.1.3 Catalyst layer 94

9.1.4 Membrane 100

9.2 Fluidic domain 104

9.2.1 Gas channels 104

9.2.2 Gas diffusion layer (GDL) 111

9.2.3 Catalyst sites 122

9.2.4 Membrane 125

9.2.5 General vapor saturation pressure formula 133

9.3 Thermal domain 134

9.3.1 Gas channels 134

9.3.2 Gas diffusion layer (GDL) 137

9.3.3 Catalyst sites 138

9.3.4 Membrane 140

Chapter 10 Finite Element and Finite Volume Approach 141

10.1 Conservation of mass 141

10.2 Conservation of momentum 142

10.3 Conservation of matter 143

10.4 Conservation of charge 143

10.5 Conservation of energy 144

Part 3 1D Dynamic Model of a Nexa Fuel Cell Stack 147

Chapter 11 Detailed Nexa Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Stack Modeling 149

11.1 Modeling hypotheses 149

11.2 Modeling in the electrical domain 150

11.2.1 Cooling channels 151

11.2.2 Solid support and cathode gas channels 151

11.2.3 Cathode diffusion layer 152

11.2.4 Cathode catalytic layer 152

11.2.5 Membrane 154

11.2.6 Anode catalytic layer 157

11.2.7 Anode diffusion layer 158

11.2.8 Solid support and anode gas channels 158

11.3 Modeling in the fluidic domain 159

11.3.1 Cooling channels 159

11.3.2 Cathode gas channels 163

11.3.3 Cathode diffusion layer 166

11.3.4 Cathode catalytic layer 169

11.3.5 Membrane 170

11.3.6 Anode catalytic layer 174

11.3.7 Anode diffusion layer 175

11.3.8 Anode gas channels 176

11.4 Thermal domain modeling 179

11.4.1 Cooling channels 179

11.4.2 Solid support of the cathode channels 183

11.4.3 Cathode gas channels 185

11.4.4 Cathode diffusion layer 188

11.4.5 Cathode catalyst layer 189

11.4.6 Membrane 192

11.4.7 Anode catalyst layer 194

11.4.8 Anode diffusion layer 195

11.4.9 Anode gas channels 197

11.4.10 Solid support of the anode channels 200

11.5 Set of adjustable parameters 201

Chapter 12 Model Experimental Validation 205

12.1 Multiphysical model validation with a 1.2 kW fuel cell stack 205

12.1.1 Measuring equipment 205

12.1.2 Experimental validations 208

Bibliography 227

Index 235

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