Protoplanetary Dust: Astrophysical and Cosmochemical Perspectives

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Overview

Planet formation studies uniquely benefit from three disciplines: astronomical observations of extrasolar planet-forming disks, analysis of material from the early Solar System, and laboratory astrophysics experiments. Pre-planetary solids, fine dust, and chondritic components are central elements linking these studies. This book is the first comprehensive overview of planet formation, in which astronomers, cosmochemists, and laboratory astrophysicists jointly discuss the latest insights from the Spitzer and Hubble space telescopes, new interferometers, space missions including Stardust and Deep Impact, and laboratory techniques. Following the evolution of solids from their genesis through protoplanetary disks to rocky planets, the book discusses in detail how the latest results from these disciplines fit into a coherent picture. This volume provides a clear introduction and valuable reference for students and researchers in astronomy, cosmochemistry, laboratory astrophysics, and planetary sciences.

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Editorial Reviews

From the Publisher
"Protoplanetary Dust is a terrific edition (No. 12) to the Cambridge Planetary Science Series. The authors are authorities in their respective fields, and the interdisciplinary perspective crafted by the editors is a delight. This book should be required reading for all cosmochemists (and astronomers), and it would serve as an excellent text for an interesting graduate course on the origin of solar systems." - Geochemical News

"...the book can be recommended not only to planetary scientists working in the field of planet formation but also to students who seek and introduction to this enormously challenging topic. The organization of the contents makes it possible to concentrate on certain aspects, as few people will be experts in all topics. Having the book on your shelf gives you the confidence that the comprehensive overview of the history of solids in our solar system from a simple grain to a beautiful planet we live on is just a move away." Ruth Ziethe, Planetary and Space Science

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780521517720
  • Publisher: Cambridge University Press
  • Publication date: 3/31/2010
  • Series: Cambridge Planetary Science Series , #12
  • Pages: 396
  • Product dimensions: 7.00 (w) x 9.80 (h) x 0.90 (d)

Meet the Author

Dániel Apai is an Assistant Astronomer at the Space Telescope Science Institute. His research focuses on the observational characterization of the origins and properties of extrasolar planets and planetary systems.

Dante Lauretta is an Associate Professor of Planetary Science and Cosmochemistry at the University of Arizona's Lunar and Planetary Laboratory. His research interests include the chemistry and mineralogy of asteroids and comets as determined by in situ laboratory analysis and spacecraft observations.

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Table of Contents

List of contributing authors xi

Preface xv

Acknowledgments xviii

1 Planet formation and protoplanetary dust 1

1.1 Types of extraterrestrial material available 2

1.2 Chronology of planet formation 6

1.3 Protostellar collapse 8

1.4 Structural evolution of protoplanetary disks 9

1.5 Chemical evolution of the gas disks 11

1.6 Laboratory dust analogs 12

1.7 Dust composition in protoplanetary disks 13

1.8 Dust coagulation 14

1.9 Thermal processing of the pre-planetary material 15

1.10 Dispersal of protoplanetary disks 17

1.11 Accretion of planetesimals and rocky planets 18

1.12 Key challenges and perspectives 19

2 The origins of protoplanetary dust and the formation of accretion disks 27

2.1 Dust in the interstellar medium 28

2.2 Presolar grains in primitive Solar System materials 40

2.3 Star formation 52

3 Evolution of protoplanetary disk structures 66

3.1 Some properties of protoplanetary disks 67

3.2 Protoplanetary disk structure and evolution 70

3.3 Particle dynamics 80

3.4 Protoplanetary disk dynamics and dust evolution 85

3.5 Summary 92

4 Chemical and isotopic evolution of the solar nebula and protoplanetary disks 97

4.1 Protoplanetary disks 99

4.2 Chemical constraints from early Solar System materials 110

4.3 Isotopic anomalies and condensation sequence 111

4.4 Oxygen isotopes 113

4.5 Summary 122

5 Laboratory studies of simple dust analogs in astrophysical environments 128

5.1 Dust-analog synthesis 131

5.2 Characterization techniques 136

5.3 Dust processing 140

5.4 Grain-growth studies 143

5.5 Grain-catalysis studies 149

5.6 Conclusion 155

6 Dust composition in protoplanetary disks 161

6.1 Modeling the dust composition 162

6.2 Laboratory studies of Solar System dust 164

6.3 Dust composition in Solar System samples 166

6.4 Remote sensing of dust around young stars and in comets 170

6.5 Composition of the dust 177

6.6 Processing history of grains as derived from the dust composition 185

7 Dust particle size evolution 191

7.1 Dust coagulation in the Solar System and in extrasolar protoplanetary disks 192

7.2 Nomenclature and definitions 193

7.3 Coagulation basics 196

7.4 Laboratory simulations of dust coagulation 197

7.5 Observational tracers of grain coagulation 198

7.6 Chondritic meteorites 206

7.7 What do chondrite matrices tell us about the grain size of nebular dust? 214

7.8 Dust coagulation: how and when? 217

7.9 Constraints on dust coagulation from amorphous silicates 219

7.10 When did dust coagulation occur? 221

7.11 Astronomical versus meteoritic constraints 223

8 Thermal processing in protoplanetary nebulae 230

8.1 Thermal processing: annealing and evaporation 231

8.2 Observations of thermal processing in protoplanetary disks 234

8.3 Thermal processing in the Solar System: chondrites 241

8.4 Heating mechanisms 250

8.5 How would Solar System formation look to an outside observer 256

8.6 Promising future experiments 257

9 The clearing of protoplanetary disks and of the proto-solar nebula 263

9.1 The observed lifetime of protoplanetary disks 263

9.2 Disk dispersal processes 274

9.3 Our Solar System 277

9.4 Discussion 288

10 Accretion of planetesimals and the formation of rocky planets 299

10.1 Observational constraints on rocky-planet formation 300

10.2 Planetesimal formation 304

10.3 Growth of rocky planets 312

10.4 The effect of the giant planets and the formation of the Asteroid Belt 321

10.5 Summary 328

Appendix 1 Common minerals in the Solar System 336

Appendix 2 Mass spectrometry 340

Appendix 3 Basics of light absorption and scattering theory 343

Glossary 349

Index 363

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