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Proust Was a Neuroscientist

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Overview

In this technology-driven age, it’s tempting to believe that science can solve every mystery. After all, science has cured countless diseases and even sent humans into space. But as Jonah Lehrer argues in this sparkling debut, science is not the only path to knowledge. In fact, when it comes to understanding the brain, art got there first.
Taking a group of artists—a painter, a poet, a chef, a composer, and a handful of novelists—Lehrer shows how each one discovered an essential...

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Proust Was a Neuroscientist

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Overview

In this technology-driven age, it’s tempting to believe that science can solve every mystery. After all, science has cured countless diseases and even sent humans into space. But as Jonah Lehrer argues in this sparkling debut, science is not the only path to knowledge. In fact, when it comes to understanding the brain, art got there first.
Taking a group of artists—a painter, a poet, a chef, a composer, and a handful of novelists—Lehrer shows how each one discovered an essential truth about the mind that science is only now rediscovering. We learn, for example, how Proust first revealed the fallibility of memory; how George Eliot discovered the brain’s malleability; how the French chef Escoffier discovered umami (the fifth taste); how Cézanne worked out the subtleties of vision; and how Gertrude Stein exposed the deep structure of language—a full half-century before the work of Noam Chomsky and other linguists. It’s the ultimate tale of art trumping science.
More broadly, Lehrer shows that there’s a cost to reducing everything to atoms and acronyms and genes. Measurement is not the same as understanding, and art knows this better than science does. An ingenious blend of biography, criticism, and first-rate science writing, Proust Was a Neuroscientist urges science and art to listen more closely to each other, for willing minds can combine the best of both, to brilliant effect.

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Editorial Reviews

From Barnes & Noble
Barnes & Noble Discover Great New Writers
Since the dawn of the modern age, science's greatest contribution to the world has been its ability to unravel the mystery, to break down the inner working of the universe to its component parts: atoms and genes. Its greatest detriment to the world has been its unfettered desire to play with and alter them: science for science's sake, as if it offered the only path to knowledge.

According to Lehrer, when it comes to the human brain, the world of art unraveled such mysteries long before the neuroscientists: "This book is about artists who anticipated the discoveries of science…who discovered truths about the human mind…that science is only now discovering." Proust Was a Neuroscientist is a dazzling inquiry into the nature of the mind and of the truths harvested by its first explorers: artists like Walt Whitman, George Eliot, Auguste Escoffier, Marcel Proust, Paul Cézanne, Igor Stravinsky, Gertrude Stein, and Virginia Woolf. What they understood intuitively and expressed through their respective art forms -- the fallibility of memory, the malleability of the brain, the subtleties of vision, and the deep structure of language -- science has only now begun to measure and confirm.

Blending biography, criticism, and science writing, Lehrer offers a lucid examination of eight artistic thinkers who lit the path toward a greater understanding of the human mind and a deeper appreciation of the ineffable mystery of life. (Holiday 2007 Selection)
Los Angeles Times Book Review
His book marks the arrival of an important new thinker, who finds in the science and the arts wonder and beauty, and with equal confidence says wise and fresh things about both.
From the Publisher
"Jonah Lehrer provides a fresh and unique look at eight of the artists who define modern culture."—Billy Collins, former poet laureate

“In this book, Jonah Lehrer shows us brilliantly that the process of cooking is more than chemistry."—Jacques Pepin

“In this intriguing reflection . . . both art and science are freshly conceived.”—Howard Gardner

"Lehrer puts current neuroscience to a fine use—ancestor worship—and in the process gives us a delightful, thoughtful read.”—Antonio Damasio, author of Descartes' Error

"Brilliantly illustrated . . . amazing . . . [Jonah Lehrer's] clear and vivid writing—incisive and thoughtful, yet sensitive and modest—is a special pleasure."—Oliver Sacks

"Writing with effortless brilliance and astonishing clarity, Jonah Lehrer gives us . . . a beautiful book: I was enthralled by it."—Robert D. Richardson, author of William James (winner of the Bancroft Prize) and Emerson

"Jonah Lehrer in Proust was a Neuroscientist, brilliantly, playfully, and precociously shows how artistic perception often anticipates scientific discovery."—Michael Collier

"This is a delightful little book . . . fun to read and thought provoking."—Joseph LeDoux, New York University, author of The Emotional Brain and Synaptic Self

"Comes close to exemplifying . . . a unified “third culture” in which science and literature can co-exist as peaceful, complementary equals." Publishers Weekly

"Pleasingly fluent . . . [introduces] art to scientists and science to artists. Solid science journalism with an essayist's flair." Kirkus Reviews

"Entertaining and enlightening." New York Magazine

"Precocious and engaging . . . Lehrer is smart, and there are some fun moments in these pages."—D. T. Max The New York Times Book Review

"His book marks the arrival of an important new thinker . . . wise and fresh."—Jesse Cohen The Los Angeles Times

"Lehrer writes skillfully and coherently about both art and science."—Gregory Kirschling Entertainment Weekly

D. T. Max
…a precocious and engaging book that tries to mend the century-old tear between the literary and scientific cultures.
—The New York Times
Wendy Smith
Jonah Lehrer's smart, elegantly written little book expresses an appealing faith that art and science offer different but complementary views of the world. His main argument, that artists have often intuited essential truths about human nature that are later verified by scientific research, is hardly new. But he pursues this argument with freshness and enthusiasm in eight enjoyable case studies studded with arresting sentences that voice the 25-year-old author's delighted sense of discovery.
—The Washington Post
Publishers Weekly

With impressively clear prose, Lehrer explores the oft-overlooked places in literary history where novelists, poets and the occasional cookbook writer predicted scientific breakthroughs with their artistic insights. The 25-year-old Columbia graduate draws from his diverse background in lab work, science writing and fine cuisine to explain how Cézanne anticipated breakthroughs in the understanding of human sight, how Walt Whitman intuited the biological basis of thoughts and, in the title essay, how Proust penetrated the mysteries of memory by immersing himself in childhood recollections. Lehrer's writing peaks in the essay about Auguste Escoffier, the chef who essentially invented modern French cooking. The author's obvious zeal for the subject of food preparation leads him into enjoyable discussions of the creation of MSG and the decidedly unappetizing history of 18th- and 19th-century culinary arts. Occasionally, the science prose risks becoming exceedingly dry (as in the enthusiastic section detailing the work of Lehrer's former employer, neuroscientist Kausik Si), but the hard science is usually tempered by Lehrer's deft way with anecdote and example. Most importantly, this collection comes close to exemplifying Lehrer's stated goal of creating a unified "third culture" in which science and literature can co-exist as peaceful, complementary equals. 21 b&w illus. (Nov.)

Copyright 2007 Reed Business Information
Kirkus Reviews
Would George Eliot have been better looking if she'd put on a pair of lab goggles? Would Paul Cezanne have seen any better?Eliot, of course, has been the bane of unwilling high-school students for generations. The scientifically inclined among them, however, might thrill to find out that she had a fine sense of how the mind works. So profound were her inklings of human psychology, in fact, that fledgling science writer Lehrer is moved to remark, "the best metaphor for our DNA is literature ...our genome is defined not by the certainty of its meaning, but by...its ability to encourage a multiplicity of interpretations." In these pleasingly fluent essays, Lehrer examines the lives and works of several artists who, in one way or another, have shed light on our nature. Walt Whitman gave testimony to the phantom-limb phenomenon whereby neural sensation can be active even when the nerves don't connect to their former endings. Cezanne delved into the mysteries of perception, deepening the impressions of the impressionists to come up with a kind of radical abstraction that, by Lehrer's view, points to the fact that "everything we see is an abstraction," a confederacy of illusions. Auguste Escoffier knew the workings of the mouth and nose so well that he was able to divine the essence of umami. Few of these worthies had any idea that they were contributing to 21st-century brain science (though, interestingly, Whitman had intimations). Lehrer could probably have picked any random dozen culturistas and come up with a similar argument, and sometimes his reading of culture is a little too general. T. S. Eliot's remark was not that "spring" is "the cruelest time," but that April is the cruelest month,a thought weighted with precision. Yet Lehrer's book makes a nice bridging of the two cultures, introducing art to scientists and science to artists. Solid science journalism with an essayist's flair.
The Barnes & Noble Review
Two venerable and interconnected philosophical problems permeate Proust Was a Neuroscientist by Jonah Lehrer -- a fascinating, succinct (197-page), if sometimes over-ambitious examination of the ways in which the work of Walt Whitman, Paul Cézanne, Igor Stravinsky, and five other artists anticipated some modern discoveries about the brain. Those two problems are the mystery of the conscious self -- how and why it is we are aware of our own being in the world -- and the question of free will.

Lehrer, editor-at-large for Seed magazine, does indeed argue specifically -- and for the most part cogently -- that the ideas and artifacts of the artists under discussion, all active in the late 19th and/or early 20th centuries, prefigured important scientific findings of the last two or three decades about human cognition and emotion. In the chapter devoted to Virginia Woolf, for example, he uses a passage from To the Lighthouse to show how the mind of the novel's central figure, Mrs. Ramsay, makes manifest the often warring tides of our consciousness. She regards something her husband has just done as a "horrible...outrage of human decency." One sentence after that, Mrs. Ramsay realizes that "there was nobody she reverenced as she reverenced him." Later, at dinner, during a moment of supreme self-awareness as she gazes at a pear in a bowl of fruit, Mrs. Ramsay reflects, "Of such moments the thing is made that endures."

Lehrer proceeds to tie Woolf's theory and practice of fiction pretty convincingly to recent experiments that show that consciousness involves this kind of often contradictory flow of thought and requires Mrs. Ramsay–like attention. Patients with certain kinds of brain lesions, which keep them from knowing that they can see, nevertheless perform visual tasks, such as distinguishing a square from a circle, extremely well. They literally don't see what they see, because their conscious minds cannot attend to it.

In the case of Cézanne, Lehrer asserts that the painter's rough and somewhat deconstructed images approximate the raw visual data that one of the eye's neural pathways (a recent discovery, with the technical designation V1) delivers to the brain. Our minds assemble these images into now-familiar-but-then-revolutionary and controversial Cézanne landscapes and still-lifes. In their radical tearing down of what we think we see, these works distinguish Cézanne from every artist who came before him and set the table -- especially tables with still-lifes on them -- for every artist who came afterward. He deconstructs the scene, the author says, "in order to show us how the mind reconstructs it." Lehrer believes that Cézanne instinctively knew what researchers have now proven through empirical evidence: that the brain's contribution to our sense and perception of the world is as generous as the world's contribution of sense-data to the brain. (He also says that "a Cézanne painting has no black lines separating one thing from another." But many of Cézanne's paintings do include these black borders around objects they depict. In fact, on some canvases it looks as though they have strips of black tape around them, to mark them off from everything else crowding in so aggressively. Mrs. Ramsay would have liked them.)

In the work of Stravinsky, Lehrer finds the audio equivalent of Cézanne's revolutionary and scientifically prophetic visual art.. As Cézanne taught us new ways of seeing -- ways that at first affronted the eye of the beholder but now seem perfectly comprehensible, even "classic" -- Stravinsky tortured his early audiences with noises that turned all musical conventions on their...well, ears. "Strauss is punked," as Lehrer puts it. "Wagner is inverted, Chopin is mocked." And he goes on to cite numerous contemporary responses to The Rite of Spring that prove how profoundly disturbing listeners found it. "It is the work of a madman," Puccini said. Gertrude Stein wrote of a man sitting next to her who was "flourishing his cane...in a violent altercation with an enthusiast in the box next to him." Then "his cane came down and smashed the opera hat the other had just put on in defiance."

But in 1940, Walt Disney used The Rite of Spring as background music for Fantasia. Everything new is old again, one might say. But when it was new, Lehrer says, we now understand that Stravinsky's music quite simply altered the brains states of those who heard it, at first inducing a kind of aural insanity and rage before its structure and elegance could be appreciated.

By some. I still don't get it, I'm afraid. But we all do understand that comprehending any trailblazing aesthetic requires hard work. "To listen is an effort," Stravinsky himself said. "And just to hear has no merit. A duck hears also." This is one of the central ideas of Lehrer's book. The artists he considers -- chapters are also given to Whitman, Stein, Proust (of course), and George Eliot -- all knew that what they were up to challenged their audiences to change their minds. The author shows that such cultural revolutions also produced changes in perceivers' brains. And that we now have scientific ways of validating their prescience. Lehrer improbably includes the great French chef Auguste Escoffier in this eminent company, an inclusion based essentially on the great chef's profound understanding of veal stock. Yes, veal stock. According to the chapter devoted to Escoffier, his veal-stock concept, and his employment of veal stock in every conceivable food, form, and format, parallels the work of a Japanese chemist named Ikeda, who determined that L-glutamate, in which veal stock abounds, is a human-tastebud joy molecule. It seems just a bit of a stretch to erect MSG (the powdered form of L-glutamate) as a cultural milestone as weighty as Proust's In Search of Lost Time. But then we read in the author's note that Lehrer worked for a while not only in the lab of neuroscience Nobelist Eric Kandel but in the kitchens of Le Cirque 2000 and Le Bernardin. And, polymath that he is, Lehrer is not one to leave anything in the refrigerator that he can throw into his literary/neuroscientific bouillabaisse. But generally, this prodigiously young and knowledgeable writer (there are 30 pages of notes and bibliography here) does what he sets out do. One could argue that all great art anticipates ideas that are later borne out more empirically and less intuitively -- as Shakespeare and Aeschylus so notoriously anticipated Freud. But it does appear that modern neuro-imaging has begun to give us important new factual information about not only our brains but our minds and, in this case, our aesthetic responses.

There are limits to this knowledge, and in some ways these limits sound as constant, poignant bass notes throughout Proust Was a Neuroscientist. The question of who and what we are, really, and what consciousness is, will probably never be answered. "You don't even exist," Lehrer says near the end of the book, after having spent many of the previous 183 pages addressing the reader as if the reader's illusion of a self were not an illusion. "Your head contains a hundred billion electrical cells, but not one of them is you or knows or cares about you.... The brain is nothing but an infinite regress of matter, reducible to the callous laws of physics." This position almost requires that we give up the notion of what is commonly understood as free will. Our selves and our actions and our decisions are all parts of a story we tell ourselves, while our brains command our physical organism. As Lehrer says, however, consciousness is a necessary story -- and, I would add, an amazing, mysterious, and powerful one. And even though "you" don't exist in the way your brain tells your mind to think "you" do, "you" will learn a great deal from this book about how the work of great artists often presages the cold, hard facts of scientific discovery and gives them profound human meaning. --Daniel Menaker

Author of the novel The Treatment and two books of short stories, Daniel Menaker is former Executive Editor-in-Chief of Random House and fiction editor of The New Yorker. His reviews and other writings have appeared in The New Yorker, The New York Times, and Slate.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780547085906
  • Publisher: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt
  • Publication date: 9/1/2008
  • Edition description: Reprint
  • Pages: 256
  • Sales rank: 257,336
  • Product dimensions: 5.50 (w) x 8.20 (h) x 0.80 (d)

Meet the Author

Jonah Lehrer
JONAH LEHRER is editor at large for Seed magazine and the author of Proust Was a Neuroscientist. A graduate of Columbia University and a Rhodes Scholar, Lehrer has worked in the lab of Nobel Prize–winning neuroscientist Eric Kandel and has written for The New Yorker, the Washington Post, and the Boston Globe. He edits the "Mind Matters" blog for Scientific American, and writes his own highly regarded blog, "The Frontal Cortex."
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Read an Excerpt

Walt Whitman The Substance of Feeling

The poet writes the history of his own body.
—Henry David Thoreau

For Walt Whitman, the Civil War was about the body. The crime of the Confederacy, Whitman believed, was treating blacks as nothing but flesh, selling them and buying them like pieces of meat. Whitman’s revelation, which he had for the first time at a New Orleans slave auction, was that body and mind are inseparable. To whip a man’s body was to whip a man’s soul.
This is Whitman’s central poetic idea.We do not have a body, we are a body. Although our feelings feel immaterial, they actually begin in the flesh. Whitman introduces his only book of poems, Leaves of Grass, by imbuing his skin with his spirit, “the aroma of my armpits finer than prayer”:

Was somebody asking to see the soul?
See, your own shape and countenance . . .
Behold, the body includes and is the meaning, the main Concern, and includes and is the soul

Whitman’s fusion of body and soul was a revolutionary idea, as radical in concept as his free-verse form. At the time, scientists believed that our feelings came from the brain and that the body was just a lump of inert matter. But Whitman believed that our mind depended upon the flesh. He was determined to write poems about our “form complete.” This is what makes his poetry so urgent: the attempt to wring “beauty out of sweat,” the metaphysical soul out of fat and skin. Instead of dividing the world into dualisms, as philosophers had done for centuries, Whitman saw everything as continuous with everything else. For him, the body and the soul, the profane and the profound, were only different names for the same thing. As Ralph Waldo Emerson, the Boston Transcendentalist, once declared, “Whitman is a remarkable mixture of the Bhagvat Ghita and the New York Herald.” Whitman got this theory of bodily feelings from his investigations of himself. All Whitman wanted to do in Leaves of Grass was put “a person, a human being (myself, in the later half of the Nineteenth Century, in America) freely, fully and truly on record.” And so the poet turned himself into an empiricist, a lyricist of his own experience. As Whitman wrote in the preface to Leaves of Grass, “You shall stand by my side to look in the mirror with me.” It was this method that led Whitman to see the soul and body as inextricably “interwetted.” He was the first poet to write poems in which the flesh was not a stranger. Instead, in Whitman’s unmetered form, the landscape of his body became the inspiration for his poetry. Every line he ever wrote ached with the urges of his anatomy, with its wise desires and inarticulate sympathies. Ashamed of nothing,Whitman left nothing out. “Your very flesh,” he promised his readers, “shall be a great poem.” Neuroscience now knows thatWhitman’s poetry spoke the truth: emotions are generated by the body. Ephemeral as they seem, our feelings are actually rooted in the movements of our muscles and the palpitations of our insides. Furthermore, these material feelings are an essential element of the thinking process. As the neuroscientist Antonio Damasio notes, “The mind is embodied . . . not just embrained.” At the time, however, Whitman’s idea was seen as both erotic and audacious. His poetry was denounced as a “pornographic utterance,” and concerned citizens called for its censorship. Whitman enjoyed the controversy. Nothing pleased him more than dismantling prissy Victorian mores and inverting the known facts of science.

The story of the brain’s separation from the body begins with René Descartes. The most influential philosopher of the seventeenth century, Descartes divided being into two distinct substances: a holy soul and a mortal carcass. The soul was the source of reason, science, and everything nice. Our flesh, on the other hand, was “clocklike,” just a machine that bleeds. With this schism, Descartes condemned the body to a life of subservience, a power plant for the brain’s light bulbs.
In Whitman’s own time, the Cartesian impulse to worship the brain and ignore the body gave rise to the new “science” of phrenology. Begun by Franz Josef Gall at the start of the nineteenth century, phrenologists believed that the shape of the skull, its strange hills and hollows, accurately reflected the mind inside. By measuring the bumps of bone, these pseudoscientists hoped to measure the subject’s character by determining which areas of the brain were swollen with use and which were shriveled with neglect. Our cranial packaging revealed our insides; the rest of the body was irrelevant.
By the middle of the nineteenth century, the promise of phrenology seemed about to be fulfilled. Innumerable medical treatisees, dense with technical illustrations, were written to defend its theories. Endless numbers of skulls were quantified. Twenty-seven different mental tttttalents were uncovered. The first scientific theory of mind seemed destined to be the last.
But measurement is always imperfect, and explanations are easy to invent. Phrenology’s evidence, though amassed in a spirit of seriousness and sincerity, was actually a collection of accidental observations. (The brain is so complicated an organ that its fissures can justify almost any imaginative hypothesis, at least until a better hypothesis comes along.) For example, Gall located the trait of ideality in “the temporal ridge of the frontal bones” because busts of Homer revealed a swelling there and because poets when writing tend to touch that part of the head. This was his data.
Of course, phrenology strikes our modern sensibilities as woefully unscientific, like an astrology of the brain. It is hard to imagine its allure or comprehend how it endured for most of the nineteenth century. Whitman used to quote Oliver Wendell Holmes on the subject: “You might as easily tell how much money is in a safe feeling the knob on the door as tell how much brain a man has by feeling the bumps on his head.” But knowledge emerges from the litter of our mistakes, and just as alchemy led to chemistry, so did the failure of phrenology lead science to study the brain itself and not just its calcified casing.
Whitman, a devoted student of the science of his day, had a complicated relationship with phrenology. He called the first phrenology lecture he attended “the greatest conglomeration of pretension and absurdity it has ever been our lot to listen to. . . .We do not mean to assert that there is no truth whatsoever in phrenology, but we do say that its claims to confidence, as set forth by Mr. Fowler, are preposterous to the last degree.”More than a decade later, however, that same Mr. Fowler, of the publishing house Fowler and Wells in Manhattan, became the sole distributor of the first edition of Leaves of Grass.Whitman couldn’t find anyone else to publish his poems. And while Whitman seems to have moderated his views on the foolishness of phrenology—even going so far as to undergo a few phrenological exams himself—his poetry stubbornly denied phrenology’s most basic premise. Like Descartes, phrenologists looked for the soul solely in the head, desperate to reduce the mind to its cranial causes. Whitman realized that such reductions were based on a stark error. By ignoring the subtleties of his body, these scientists could not possibly account for the subtleties of his soul. Like Leaves of Grass, which could only be understood in “its totality—its massings,” Whitman believed that his existence could be “comprehended at no time by its parts, at all times by its unity.” This is the moral of Whitman’s poetic sprawl: the human being is an irreducible whole. Body and soul are emulsified into each other. “To be in any form, what is that?”Whitman once asked. “Mine is no callous shell.”

Emerson Whitman’s faith in the transcendental body was strongly influenced by the transcendentalism of Ralph Waldo Emerson. When Whitman was still a struggling journalist living in Brooklyn, Emerson was beginning to write his lectures on nature. A lapsed Unitarian preacher, Emerson was more interested in the mystery of his own mind than in the preachings of some aloof God. He disliked organized religion because it relegated the spiritual to a place in the sky instead of seeing the spirit among “the common, low and familiar.” Without Emerson’s mysticism, it is hard to imagine Whitman’s poetry. “I was simmering, simmering, simmering,” Whitman once said, “and Emerson brought me to a boil.” From Emerson, Whitman learned to trust his own experience, searching himself for intimations of the profound. But if the magnificence of Emerson was his vagueness, his defense of Nature with a capital N, the magnificence of Whitman was his immediacy. All of Whitman’s songs began with himself, nature as embodied by his own body.
And while Whitman and Emerson shared a philosophy, they could not have been more different in person. Emerson looked like a Puritan minister, with abrupt cheekbones and a long, bony nose. A man of solitude, he was prone to bouts of selfless self-absorption. “I like the silent church before the service begins,” he confessed in “Self-Reliance.” He wrote in his journal that he liked man, but not men. When he wanted to think, he would take long walks by himself in the woods.
Whitman—“broad shouldered, rough-fleshed, Bacchus-browed, bearded like a satyr, and rank”—got his religion from Brooklyn, from its dusty streets and its cart drivers, its sea and its sailors, its mothers and its men. He was fascinated by people, these citizens of his sensual democracy. As his uncannily accurate phrenological exam put it, “Leading traits of character appear to be Friendship, Sympathy, Sublimity and Self-Esteem, and markedly among his combinations the dangerous fault of Indolence, a tendency to the pleasure of Voluptuousness and Alimentiveness, and a certain reckless swing of animal will, too unmindful, probably, of the conviction of others.” Whitman heard Emerson for the first time in 1842. Emerson was beginning his lecture tour, trying to promote his newly published Essays. Writing in the New York Aurora, Whitman called Emerson’s speech “one of the richest and most beautiful compositions” he had ever heard. Whitman was particularly entranced by Emerson’s plea for a new American poet, a versifier fit for democracy: “The poet stands among partial men for the complete man,” Emerson said. “He reattaches things to the whole.” But Whitman wasn’t ready to become a poet. For the next decade, he continued to simmer, seeing New York as a journalist and as the editor of the Brooklyn Eagle and Freeman. He wrote articles about criminals and abolitionists, opera stars and the new Fulton ferry. When the Freeman folded, he traveled to New Orleans, where he saw slaves being sold on the auction block, “their bodies encased in metal chains.” He sailed up the Mississippi on a side-wheeler, and got a sense of the Western vastness, the way the “United States themselves are essentially the greatest poem.” It was during these difficult years when Whitman was an unemployed reporter that he first began writing fragments of poetry, scribbling down quatrains and rhymes in his cheap notebooks. With no audience but himself, Whitman was free to experiment. While every other poet was still counting syllables, Whitman was writing lines that were messy montages of present participles, body parts, and erotic metaphors. He abandoned strict meter, for he wanted his form to reflect nature, to express thoughts “so alive that they have an architecture of their own.” As Emerson had insisted years before, “Doubt not, O poet, but persist. Say ‘It is in me, and shall out.’” And so, as his country was slowly breaking apart, Whitman invented a new poetics, a form of inexplicable strangeness. A self- conscious “language-maker,” Whitman had no precursor. No other poet in the history of the English language prepared readers for Whitman’s eccentric cadences (“sheath’d hooded sharp-tooth’d touch”), his invented verbs (“unloosing,” “preluding,” “unreeling”), his love of long anatomical lists, and his honest refusal to be anything but himself, syllables be damned. Even his bad poetry is bad in a completely original way, for Whitman only ever imitated himself.
And yet, for all its incomprehensible originality, Whitman’s verse also bears the scars of his time. His love of political unions and physical unity, the holding together of antimonies: these themes find their source in America’s inexorable slide into the Civil War. “My book and the war are one,” Whitman once said. His notebook breaks into free verse for the first time in lines that try to unite the decade’s irreconcilables, the antagonisms of North and South, master and slave, body and soul. Only in his poetry could Whitman find the whole he was so desperately looking for:

I am the poet of the body And I am the poet of the soul I go with the slaves of the earth equally with the masters And I will stand between the masters and the slaves, Entering into both so that both shall understand me alike.

In 1855, after years of “idle versifying,” Whitman finally published his poetry. He collected his “leaves”—printing lingo for pages—of “grass”—what printers called compositions of little value—in a slim, cloth-bound volume, only ninety-five pages long. Whitman sent Emerson the first edition of his book. Emerson responded with a letter that some said Whitman carried around Brooklyn in his pocket for the rest of the summer. At the time, Whitman was an anonymous poet and Emerson a famous philosopher. His letter to Whitman is one of the most generous pieces of praise in the history of American literature. “Dear Sir,” Emerson began:

I am not blind to the worth of the wonderful gift of “Leaves of Grass.” I find it the most extraordinary piece of wit & wisdom that America has yet contributed. I am very happy in reading it. It meets the demand I am always making of what seemed the sterile & stingy nature, as if too much handiwork or too much lymph in the temperament were making our western wits fat & mean. I give you joy of your free & brave thought. . . . I greet you at the beginning of a great career.

Whitman, never one to hide a good review from “the Master,” sent Emerson’s private letter to the Tribune, where it was published and later included in the second edition of Leaves of Grass. But by 1860, Emerson had probably come to regret his literary endorsement. Whitman had added to Leaves of Grass the erotic sequence “Enfans d’Adam” (“Children of Adam”), a collection that included the poems “From Pent-up Aching Rivers,” “I Am He that Aches with Love,” and “O Hymen! O Hymenee!” Emerson wanted Whitman to remove the erotic poems from the new edition of his poetry. (Apparently, some parts of Nature still had to be censored.) Emerson made this clear while the two were taking a long walk across Boston Common, expressing his fear that Whitman was “in danger of being tangled up with the unfortunate heresy” of free love.
Whitman, though still an obscure poet, was adamant: “Enfans d’Adam” must remain. Such an excision, he said, would be like castration and “What does a man come to with his virility gone?” For Whitman, sex revealed the unity of our form, how the urges of the flesh became the feelings of the soul. He would remember in the last preface to Leaves of Grass, “A Backwards Glance over Traveled Roads,” that his conversation with Emerson had crystallized his poetic themes. Although he admitted that his poetry was “avowedly the song of sex and Amativeness and ever animality,” he believed that his art “lifted [these bodily allusions] into a different light and atmosphere.” Science and religion might see the body in terms of its shameful parts, but the poet, lover of the whole, knows that “the human body and soul must remain an entirety.” “That,” insisted Whitman, “is what I felt in my inmost brain and heart, when I only answer’d Emerson’s vehement arguments with silence, under the old elms of Boston Common.” Despite his erotic epiphany, Whitman was upset by his walk with Emerson. Had no one understood his earlier poetry? Had no one seen its philosophy? The body is the soul. How many times had he written that? In how many different ways? And if the body is the soul, then how can the body be censored? As he wrote in “I Sing the Body Electric,” the central poem of “Enfans d’Adam”:

O my body! I dare not desert the likes of you in other men and women, nor the likes of the parts of you, I believe the likes of you are to stand or fall with the likes of the soul, (and that they are the soul,) I believe the likes of you shall stand or fall with my Poems, and that they are my poems.

And so, against Emerson’s wishes, Whitman published “Enfans d’Adam.” As Emerson predicted, the poems were greeted with cries of indignation. One reviewer said “that quotations from the ‘Enfans d’Adam’ poems would be an offence against decency too gross to be tolerated.” But Whitman didn’t care. As usual, he wrote his own anonymous reviews. He knew that if his poetry were to last, it must leave nothing out. It must be candid, and it must be true.

The Ghostly Limb In the winter of 1862, during the bloody apogee of the Civil War, Whitman traveled to Virginia in search of his brother, who had been injured at the Battle of Fredericksburg. This was Whitman’s first visit to the war’s front. The fighting had ended just a few days before, and Whitman saw “where their priceless blood reddens the grass the ground.” The acrid smell of gun smoke still hung in the air. Eventually, Whitman found the Union Army hospital, its shelter tents bordered by freshly dug graves, the names of the dead scrawled on “pieces of barrel-staves or broken boards, stuck in the dirt.” Writing to his mother, Whitman described “the heap of feet, arms, legs &c. under a tree in front of a hospital.” The limbs, freshly amputated, were beginning to rot.
After seeing the dead and dying of Fredericksburg, Whitman devoted himself to helping the soldiers. For the next three years, he volunteered as a wound dresser in Union hospitals, seeing “some 80,000 to 100,000 of the wounded and sick, as sustainer of spirit and body in some degree.” He would nurse both Union and Confederate men. “I cannot leave them,” he wrote. “Once in a while some youngster holds on to me convulsively and I do what I can for him.” Whitman held the soldiers’ hands; he made them lemonade; he bought them ice cream and underwear and cigarettes; sometimes, he even read them poetry. While the doctors treated their wounds, Whitman nursed their souls.
All his life, Whitman would remember the time he spent as a volunteer in the hospitals. “Those three [wartime] years,” he later remembered in Specimen Days, his oral autobiography, “I consider the most profound lesson of my life.” Never again would Whitman feel so useful, “more permanently absorbed, to the very roots.” “People used to say to me, ‘Walt, you are doing miracles for those fellows in the hospitals.’ I wasn’t. I was . . . doing miracles for myself.” As always, Whitman transmuted the experience into poetry. He told Emerson that he wanted to write about his time in the hospitals, for they had “opened a new world somehow to me, giving closer insights, new things, exploring deeper mines than any yet.” In “Drum Taps,” his sequence of poems on the war—the only sequence of poems he never revised—Whitman describes the tortured anatomy he saw every day in the hospitals:

From the stump of the arm, the amputated hand I undo the clotted lint, remove the slough, wash off the matter and blood, Back on his pillow the soldier bends with curv’d neck and side-falling head, His eyes are closed, his face pale, he dares not look on the bloody stump.

Whitman did look at the bloody stump. The war’s gore shocked him. Volunteering in the canvas-tent hospitals, he witnessed the violent mess of surgery: “the hiss of the surgeon’s knife, the gnawing teeth of his saw / wheeze, cluck, swash of falling blood.” Amid the stench of dying soldiers and unclaimed corpses, Whitman consoled himself by remembering that the body was not only a body. As a nurse, Whitman tried to heal what the surgeon couldn’t touch. He called these our “deepest remains.”

By the second year of the war, just as Whitman was learning how to wrap battle wounds in wet cotton, doctors working in Civil War hospitals began noticing a very strange phenomenon. After a soldier’s limb was amputated, it was not uncommon for him to continue to “feel” his missing arm or leg. The patients said it was like living with ghosts. Their own flesh had returned to haunt them.
Medical science ignored the syndrome. After all, the limb and its nerves were gone. There was nothing left to cut. But one doctor believed the soldiers’ strange stories. His name was Silas Weir Mitchell, and he was a “doctor of nerves” at Turner’s Lane Hospital in Philadelphia. He was also a good friend of Whitman’s. For much of their lives, the doctor and the poet wrote letters to each other, sharing a love of literature and medical stories. In fact, it was Weir Mitchell who, in 1878, finally diagnosed Whitman with a ruptured blood vessel in the brain, prescribing “mountain air” as medicine. Later on, Weir Mitchell financially supported the poet, giving him fifteen dollars a month for more than two years.
But during the Civil War, while Whitman was working as a nurse, Weir Mitchell was trying to understand these illusory limbs. The Battle of Gettysburg had given him a hospital full of amputee patients, and, in his medical notebook, Weir Mitchell began describing a great variety of “sensory ghosts.” Some of the missing limbs seemed unreal to the patients, while others seemed authentic; some were painful, others painless. Although a few of the amputees eventually forgot about their amputated limbs, the vast majority retained “a sense of the existence of their lost limb that was more vivid, definite and intrusive than that of its truly living fellow member.” The bodily illusion was more real than the body.
Although Weir Mitchell believed that he was the first person to document this phenomenon, he wasn’t. Herman Melville, twelve years earlier, had given Ahab, the gnarled sea captain of Moby-Dick, a sensory ghost. Ahab is missing a leg (Moby-Dick ate it), and in chapter 108, he summons a carpenter to fashion him a new ivory peg leg. Ahab tells the carpenter that he still feels his amputated leg “invisibly and uninterpenetratingly.” His phantom limb is like a “poser.” “Look,” Ahab says, “put thy live leg here in the place where mine was; so, now, here is only one distinct leg to the eye, yet two to the soul. Where thou feelest tingling life; there, exactly there, there to a hair, do I. Is’t a riddle?” Weir Mitchell, unaware of Melville’s prescience, never cited Ahab’s medical condition. He published his observations of the mystery in two neurology textbooks. He even published a special bulletin on the phenomenon, which the surgeon general’s office distributed to other military hospitals in 1864. But Weir Mitchell felt constrained by the dry, clinical language of his medical reports.He believed that the experience of the soldiers in his hospital had profound philosophical implications. After all, their sensory ghosts were living proof of Whitman’s poetry: our matter was entangled with our spirit. When you cut the flesh, you also cut the soul.
And so Weir Mitchell decided to write an anonymous short story, written in the first person. In “The Case of George Dedlow,” published in The Atlantic Monthly in 1866, Weir Mitchell imagines himself a soldier wounded at the Battle of Chickamauga, shot in both legs and both arms. Dedlow passes out from the pain.
When he wakes, Dedlow is in a hospital tent. He has no limbs left: they have all been cut off. Dedlow describes himself as a “useless torso, more like some strange larval creature than anything of human shape.” But even though Dedlow is now limbless, he still feels all of his limbs. His body has become a ghost, and yet it feels as real as ever. Weir Mitchell explains this phenomenon by referencing the brain. Because the brain and body are so interconnected, the mind remains “ever mindful of its missing [bodily] part, and, imperfectly at least, preserves to the man a consciousness of possessing that which he has not.” Weir Mitchell believed that the brain depended upon the body for its feelings and identity. Once Dedlow loses his limbs, he finds “to his horror that at times I was less conscious of myself, of my own existence, than used to be the case . . . I thus reached the conclusion that a man is not his brain, or any one part of it, but all of his economy, and that to lose any part must lessen this sense of his own existence.” In his short story, Weir Mitchell is imagining a Whitmanesque physiology. Since soul is body and body is soul, to lose a part of one’s body is to lose a part of one’s soul. As Whitman wrote in “Song of Myself,” “Lack one lacks both.” The mind cannot be extricated from its matter, for mind and matter, these two seemingly opposite substances, are impossibly intertwined.Whitman makes our unity clear on the very first page of Leaves of Grass, as he describes his poetic subject:

Of physiology from top to toe I sing not physiognomy alone nor brain alone is worthy for the Muse, I say the form complete is worthier far.

After the war, Weir Mitchell’s clinical observations fell into obscurity. Because phantom limbs had no material explanation, medical science continued to ignore the phenomenon. Only William James, in his 1887 article “The Consciousness of Lost Limbs,” pursued Weir Mitchell’s supernatural hypothesis. As Harvard’s first psychology professor, James sent out a short questionnaire to hundreds of amputees asking various questions about their missing parts (for example, “How much of the limb can you feel?” “Can you, by imagining strongly that it has moved, make yourself really feel as if it had moved into a different position?”). The results of James’s survey taught him only one fact about sensory ghosts: there was no general pattern to the experience of lost limbs. Every body was invested with its own individual meaning. “We can never seek amongst these processes for results which shall be invariable,” James wrote. “Exceptions remain to every empirical law of our mental life, and can only be treated as so many individual aberrations.” As Henry James, William’s novelist brother, once wrote, “There is a presence in what is missing.” That presence is our own.

Copyright © 2007 by Jonah Lehrer. Reprinted by permission of Houghton Mifflin Company.

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Table of Contents

Prelude ix

1. Walt Whitman The Substance of Feeling 1

2. George Eliot The Biology of Freedom 25

3. Auguste Escoffier The Essence of Taste 53

4. Marcel Proust The Method of Memory 75

5. Paul Cézanne The Process of Sight 96

6. Igor Stravinsky The Source of Music 120

7. Gertrude Stein The Structure of Language 144

8. Virginia Woolf The Emergent Self 168

Coda 190

Acknowledgments 199

Notes 201

Bibliography 216

Index 231

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See All Sort by: Showing 1 – 20 of 27 Customer Reviews
  • Anonymous

    Posted August 15, 2009

    The author is a Renaissance Man

    Not only does the author have a complete and up-to-date understanding of the latest research in neuroscience, he must also have a broad grasp of literature, philosophy and the arts (even cooking!) to write so engagingly about the connections between neuroscience and these diverse areas. Linking the current understanding about how the brain works with each of these diverse arts the reader gets a deeper understanding of how we deal with life. What is it about music that moves us? What drove the evolution of art from realism to modern forms of art? What makes us like a painting. The history of science figured into all of the stories as it drove changes in literature and philosophy as each metaphore of science became the latest influence ie the clockwork universe of Newton, and the steam engine metaphore that influenced Freud.

    When I finished the book I understood not only what infuenced the great authors, artists, poets, musicians and cooks but why people then and now find them interesting. And, of course, all this erudition is the background for illustrating the working of the mind in a delightful way.

    6 out of 8 people found this review helpful.

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  • Anonymous

    Posted August 16, 2009

    A Great Science Book for Non-Scientists

    The material in the book is fascinating and current. The book is great because it makes the science it describes interesting for those with a science background and simultaneously for those who know little to nothing about science.

    4 out of 5 people found this review helpful.

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  • Anonymous

    Posted July 26, 2009

    I Also Recommend:

    This book will introduce you to a world you never knew

    I bought this book because it had my favorite cookie on the cover but I have become so incredibly obsessed with modern science because of it. The author has a knack for making science seem exciting and cool. I can't recommend this book enough!!

    3 out of 4 people found this review helpful.

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  • Posted May 23, 2009

    Fascinating connections between art and science, individuality and commonality; includes clear and interesting examples and a peak into the evolving understanding of the human brain.

    Connecting his experience in science with knowledge of arts and artists, Lehrer provides challenging and exciting insights into how we work and what is possible to human intelligence. He explores various artists' achievements in literature, music, painting and cooking and shows how they foreshadowed scientific discoveries. Left me pondering each point and exploring where else the same ideas may apply. If you're ready to stretch your mind, this is your starting point.

    2 out of 3 people found this review helpful.

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  • Posted March 30, 2009

    Umami to the extreme!

    This book has been the topic of more late night discussions than any book I have read in 10 years! A must read!
    And not just for the scientifically inquisitive. Thought provoking and enlightening, without being too obtuse. Worthy of multiple reads in order to sift through all the tasty tidbits and make notes of the books, artists and chefs you're dying to revisit!

    2 out of 4 people found this review helpful.

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  • Posted June 2, 2012

    I love this author; perhaps I am late to get onto the neuroscien

    I love this author; perhaps I am late to get onto the neuroscience bandwagon, but I found this to be a very well-written and provocative book, though a little short in length and short on conclusions. I read "Imagine" as well and found them both to be very interesting and well-written books. I want to encourage this author and will probably buy his books in the future, as long as he truly puts some effort into them. I love to read books like this which do not assume the reader is an idiot. Good read and I definitely appreciate his research and thoughtfulness. Would definitely recommend.

    1 out of 1 people found this review helpful.

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  • Posted March 9, 2009

    more from this reviewer

    It makes one think

    After reading, I viewed the workings of the brain in a new light--especially the material on the truthfulness of one's memories.

    0 out of 1 people found this review helpful.

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  • Anonymous

    Posted August 14, 2008

    Fictional narrative leading cognitive understanding

    Beatifully written, intellectually insightful and original illumination of cognitive truths foreshadowed in great literature.

    0 out of 2 people found this review helpful.

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  • Anonymous

    Posted January 30, 2008

    A reviewer

    Book was very creative and informative. Especially liked how he addressed the latest on how each of the senses functioned with the brain.

    0 out of 1 people found this review helpful.

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