A large portion of students engage in music learning activities in school, but relatively few enter adult life with musical competencies that enable ongoing and rewarding participation in music activities. Many people come to believe that they simply do not have musical abilities and that engagement in music activities is for the relatively few that have been gifted with musical talent. Although many people would consider music abilities as valuable, music learning tends not to be valued in the same way as other school subjects. Together, these factors reflect a complex array of beliefs, values, and experiences in music, which accompanies relatively poor music education outcomes for Western society. At the same time, motivation to engage in and persist with music activities, particularly learning an instrument, is poorly understood. This study aimed to contribute to understandings of motivation to engage in music activities by examining the relationships between some of these constructs and behaviors associated with music learning. It targeted a sample of 157 individuals who began a primary school band program in Sydney, Australia in 1997. These individuals were involved in research in the first, second, third, and fifth year of their learning, and this study collected data again in the 10th year since they began learning. The study exposed a broad range of beliefs, values, attitudes, and behaviors among the respondents over a ten-year period. The main findings highlight the importance of early experiences in shaping beliefs and values that influence participation in music activities. The evidence suggests that individuals who experienced feelings of satisfying psychological needs for competence, relatedness, and autonomy valued music as important, useful, interesting, and enjoyable, and held greater beliefs in the benefits of music and music learning. At the time participants ceased engagement in music activities, they had fewer feelings of competence, relatedness, and autonomy. The findings expand on several areas of music education research on beliefs, values, and behaviors, and explain influential aspects of motivation for participating in music activities.