Psychological Testing and Assessment: An Introduction to Tests and Measurement / Edition 5

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Overview

This is a careful and thoroughly updated revision of the most highly acclaimed and successful undergraduate text in testing over the last fifteen years. PSYCHOLOGICAL TESTING AND ASSESSMENT examines the philosophical, historical, and methodological foundations of psychological testing, assessment, and measurement, while helping students appreciate their benefits and pitfalls in practice.
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Editorial Reviews

Booknews
New edition of a psychological assessment textbook. Covers the statistical basis for measurement, correlation and inference, validity, tests of intelligence, personality assessment, counseling assessment, neurophysiological assessment, the assessment of people with disabilities, and computer-assisted psychological assessment. Includes historical notes on the development of the tests covered, a 71-page list of references, and numerous b&w photographs depicting tests and their creators. Annotation c. by Book News, Inc., Portland, Or.
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780767421577
  • Publisher: McGraw-Hill Companies, The
  • Publication date: 7/13/2002
  • Edition description: Older Edition
  • Edition number: 5
  • Pages: 800
  • Product dimensions: 8.16 (w) x 10.14 (h) x 0.11 (d)

Table of Contents

PART I : An Overview

Chapter 1: PSYCHOLOGICAL TESTING AND ASSESSMENT

TESTING AND ASSESSMENT

Testing and Assessment Defined

The process of assessment

THE TOOLS OF PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT

The Test

The Interview

The Portfolio

Case History Data

Behavioral Observation

Role-Play Tests

Computers as Tools

Other tools

WHO, WHAT, WHY, HOW, AND WHERE?

Who Are the Parties?

The test developer

The test user

The testtaker

Society at large

Other parties

In What Types of Settings Are Assessments Conducted, and Why?

Educational settings

Clinical setting

Counseling settings

Geriatric settings

Business and military settings

Governmental and organizational credentialing

Other settings

How Are Assessments Conducted?

Assessment of People with Disabilities

Where To Go for Authoritative Information: Reference Sources

Test catalogues

Test manuals

Reference volumes

Journal articles

Online databases

Other sources

Close-up: Should Observers be Parties to the Assessment Process?

Everyday Psychometrics: Everyday Accommodations

Meet a Test User: Meet Dr. Barbara Pavlo

Self Assessment
Chapter 2

Historical, Cultural, and Legal/Ethical Considerations

A HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE

Antiquity to the Nineteenth Century

The Twentieth Century

The measurement of intelligence

The measurement of personality

The academic and applied traditions

CULTURE AND ASSESSMENT

Evolving Interest in Culture-Related Issues

Some Issues Regarding Culture and Assessment

Verbal communication

Nonverbal communication and behavior

Standards of evaluation

Tests and Group Membership

Psychology, tests, and public policy

LEGAL AND ETHICAL CONSIDERATIONS

The Concerns of the Public

Legislation

Litigation

The Concerns of the Profession

Test-user qualifications

Testing people with disabilities

Computerized test administration, scoring, and interpretation

The Rights of Testtakers

The right of informed consent

The right to be informed of test findings

The right to privacy and confidentiality

The right to the least stigmatizing label

Close-up: The Controversial Henry Herbert Goddard

Everyday Psychometrics: Life-or-Death Psychological Assessment

Meet A Test User: Meet Dr. Diana D. Jeffery

Self-Assessment
PART II The Science of Psychological Measurement

Chapter 3

A Statistics Refresher

SCALES OF MEASUREMENT

Nominal Scales

Ordinal Scales

Interval Scales

Ratio Scales

Measurement Scales in Psychology

DESCRIBING DATA

Frequency Distributions

Measures of Central Tendency

The arithmetic mean

The median

The mode

Measures of Variability

The range

The interquartile and the semi-interquartile ranges

The average deviation

The standard deviation

Skewness

Kurtosis

THE NORMAL CURVE

The Area Under the Normal Curve

STANDARD SCORES

z Scores

T Scores

Other Standard Scores

Normalized standard scores

Close-up: The Normal Curve and Psychological Tests

Everyday Psychometrics: Consumer (of Graphed Data), Beware!

Meet a Test User: Meet Dr. Jeff Laurent

Self-Assessment
Chapter 4OF TESTS AND TESTING

SOME ASSUMPTIONS ABOUT PSYCHOLOGICAL TESTING AND ASSESSMENT

Assumption 1: Psychological Traits and States Exist

Assumption 2: Psychological Traits and States Can Be Quantified and Measured

Assumption 3: Test-Related Behavior Predicts Non-Test-Related Behavior

Assumption 4: Tests and Other Measurement Techniques Have Strengths and Weaknesses

Assumption 5: Various Sources of Error Are Part of the Assessment Process

Assumption 6: Testing and Assessment Can Be Conducted in a Fair and Unbiased Manner

Assumption 7: Testing and Assessment Benefit Society

WHAT’S A "GOOD TEST"?

Reliability

Validity

Other Considerations

NORMS

Sampling to Develop Norms

Developing norms for a standardized test

Types of Norms

Percentiles

Age norms

Grade norms

National norms

National anchor norms

Subgroup norms

Local norms

Fixed Reference Group Scoring Systems

Norm-Referenced versus Criterion-Referenced Evaluation

CORRELATION AND INFERENCE

The Concept of Correlation

The Pearson r

The Spearman Rho

Graphic Representations of Correlation

Regression

Multiple regression

INFERENCE FROM MEASUREMENT

Meta-Analysis

Culture and Inference

Close-up: How "Standard" is Standard in Measurement?

Everyday Psychometrics: Putting Tests to the Test

Meet a Team of Test Users: Meet Dr. Howard Atlas and

Dr. Steve Julius

Self-Assessment
Chapter 5RELIABILITY

THE CONCEPT OF RELIABILITY

Sources of Error Variance

Test construction

Test administration

Test scoring and interpretation

Other sources of error

RELIABILITY ESTIMATES

Test-Retest Reliability Estimates

Parallel-Forms and Alternate-Forms Reliability Estimates

Split-Half Reliability Estimates

The Spearman-Brown formula

Other Methods of Estimating Internal Consistency

The Kuder-Richardson formulas

Coefficient alpha

Measures of Inter-Scorer Reliability

USING AND INTERPRETING A COEFFICIENT OF RELIABILITY

The Purpose of the ReliabilityCoefficient

The Nature of the Test

Homogeneity versus heterogeneity of test items

Dynamic versus static characteristics

Restriction or inflation of range

Speed tests versus power tests

Criterion-referenced tests

Alternatives to the True Score Model

Generalizability theory

Item response theory

RELIABILITY AND INDIVIDUAL SCORES

The Standard Error of Measurement

The Standard Error of the Difference Between Two Scores

Close-up: Item Response Theory

Everyday Psychometrics: The Reliability Defense and the

Breathalyzer Test

Meet a Test User: Meet Dr. Bryce B. Reeve

Self-Assessment
Chapter 6VALIDITY

THE CONCEPT OF VALIDITY

Face Validity

Content Validity

The Quantification of Content Validity

Culture and the Relativity of Content

Validity

CRITERION-RELATED VALIDITY

What Is a Criterion?

Characteristics of a criterion

Concurrent Validity

Predictive Validity

The validity coefficient

Incremental validity

Expectancy data

Decision theory and test utility

CONSTRUCT VALIDITY

Evidence of Construct Validity

Evidence of homogeneity

Evidence of changes with age

Evidence of pretest/posttest changes

Evidence from distinct groups

Convergent evidence

Discriminate evidence

Factor analysis

VALIDITY, BIAS, AND FAIRNESS

Test Bias

Rating error

Test Fairness

Close-up: Base Rates and Predictive Validity

Everyday Psychometrics: Adjustment of Test Scores by Group

Membership: Fairness in Testing or Foul Play?

Meet a Test User: Meet Dr. Adam Shoemaker

Self-Assessment
Chapter 7UTILITY

WHAT IS UTILITY?

Factors that Affect Test Utility

Psychometric soundness

Costs

Benefits

UTILITY ANALYSIS

What is a Utility Analysis?

How is a Utility Analysis Conducted?

Expectancy data

The Brogden-Cronbach-Gleser Formula

Some Practical Considerations

The pool of job applicants

The complexity of the job

The cut score in use

METHODS FOR SETTINGS CUT SCORES

The Angoff Method

The Known Groups Method

IRT-based methods

Other Methods

Close-up: Utility Analysis: An Illustration

Everyday Psychometrics: Re-thinking the Costs of Testing—and Not

Testing

Meet a Test User: Meet Dr. Erik Viirre

Self-Assessment
Chapter 8Test Development

TEST CONCEPTUALIZATION

Some Preliminary Questions

Norm-referenced versus criterion-referenced tests: Item

development issues

Pilot Work

TEST CONSTRUCTION

Scaling

Types of scales

Scaling methods

Writing Items

Item format

Writing items for computer administration

Scoring Items

TEST TRYOUT

What Is a Good Item?

ITEM ANALYSIS

Item-Difficulty Index

Item-Reliability Index

Factor analysis and inter-item consistency

Item-Validity Index

Item-Discrimination Index

Analysis of item alternatives

Item-Characteristic Curves

Item response theory

Other Considerations in Item Analysis

Guessing

Item fairness

Speed tests

Qualitative Item Analysis

"Think aloud" test administration

Expert panels

TEST REVISION

Test Revision as a Stage in New Test Development

Test Revision in the Life Cycle of an Existing Test

Cross-validation and co-validation

Quality assurance during test revision

The Use of IRT in Building and Revising Tests

Evaluating the properties of existing tests and guiding test revision.

Determining measurement equivalence across research populations.

Developing item banks.

Close-up: Designing an Item Bank

Everyday Psychometrics: Psychometrics in the Classroom

Meet a Test User: Meet Dr. Scott Birkeland

Self-Assessment
PART III The Assessment of Intelligence

Chapter 9Intelligence and Its Measurement

WHAT IS INTELLIGENCE?

Intelligence Defined: Views of the Lay Public

Intelligence Defined: Views of Scholars and

Test Professionals

Francis Galton

Alfred Binet

David Wechsler

Jean Piaget

Factor-Analytic Theories of Intelligence

The CHC model

The Information-Processing View

MEASURING INTELLIGENCE

Types of Tasks Used in Intelligence Tests

Theory in Intelligence Test Development and Interpretation

INTELLIGENCE: SOME ISSUES

Nature Versus Nurture

Inheritance and interactionism

The Stability of Intelligence

Other Issues

Personality

Gender

Family environment

Culture

A Perspective

Close-up: Culture Fair/Culture Loaded

Everyday Psychometrics: Being Gifted

Meet A Test User: Meet John Garruto, M.S.

Self-Assessment
Chapter 10Tests of Intelligence

THE STANFORD-BINET INTELLIGENCE SCALES

The Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales: Fifth Edition

Standardization

Psychometric soundness

Test administration

Scoring and interpretation

THE WECHSLER TESTS

The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS-III)

Standardization and norms

Psychometric issues

The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-

Fourth Edition (WISC-IV)

Background

The test today

The WISC-IV Compared to the SB5

The Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-

Third Edition (WPPSI-III)

Wechsler, Binet, and the Short Form

The Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence

The Wechsler Tests in Perspective

OTHER MEASURES OF INTELLIGENCE

Tests Designed for Individual Administration

Tests Designed for Group Administration

Group tests in the military

Group tests in the schools

Measures of Specific Intellectual Abilities

Close-up: Factor Analysis

Everyday Psychometrics: The Armed Services Vocational Aptitude

Battery (ASVAB): A Test You Can Take

Meet a Test User: Meet Dr. Rivka Olley

Self-Assessment
Chapter 11Preschool and Educational Assessment

PRESCHOOL ASSESSMENT

Tools of Preschool Assessment

Checklists and rating scales

Psychological tests

Other measures

ACHIEVEMENT TESTS

Measures of General Achievement

Measures of Achievement in Specific Subject Areas

APTITUDE TESTS

The Elementary School Level

The Metropolitan Readiness Tests (MRT)

The Secondary School Level

The Scholastic Achievement Test (SAT)

The ACT Assessment (ACT)

The College Level and Beyond

The Graduate Record Examinations (GRE)

The Miller Analogies Test (MAT)

Other aptitude tests

Dynamic Assessment

DIAGNOSTIC TESTS

Reading Tests

The Woodcock Reading Mastery Tests-

Revised (WRMT-R)

Math Tests

Other Diagnostic Tests

PSYCHOEDUCATIONAL TEST BATTERIES

The Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children (K-ABC), and the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children, Second Edition (KABC-II)

The Woodcock-Johnson III (WJ III)

OTHER TOOLS OF ASSESSMENT IN EDUCATIONAL SETTINGS

Performance, Portfolio, and Authentic Assessment

Peer Appraisal Techniques

Measuring Study Habits, Interests, and Attitudes

Close-up: Tests of Minimum Competency

Everyday Psychometrics: First Impressions

Meet A Test User: Meet Dr. Rebecca Anderson

Self-Assessment
PART IV: THE ASSESSMENT OF PERSONALITY

Chapter 12Personality Assessment: An Overview

PERSONALITY AND PERSONALITY ASSESSMENT DEFINED

Personality

Personality Assessment

Traits, Types, and States

Personality traits

Personality types

Personality states

PERSONALITY ASSESSMENT: SOME BASIC QUESTIONS

Who?

The self as the primary referent

Another person as the referent

The cultural background of assessees

What?

Primary content area sampled

Testtaker response styles

Where?

How?

Scope and theory

Procedures and item formats

Frame of reference

Scoring and interpretation

Issues in personality test development and use

DEVELOPING INSTRUMENTS TO ASSESS PERSONALITY

Logic and Reason

Theory

Data Reduction Methods

The Big Five

Criterion Groups

The MMPI

The MMPI-2

The MMPI-2-RF

The MMPI-A

The MMPI and its revisions in perspective

PERSONALITY ASSESSMENT AND CULTURE

Acculturation and Related Considerations

Close-up: Assessing Acculturation and Related Variables

Everyday Psychometrics: Some Common Item Formats

Meet a Test User: Meet Dr. Eric A. Zillmer

Self-Assessment
Chapter 13PERSONALITY ASSESSMENT METHODS

OBJECTIVE METHODS

PROJECTIVE METHODS

Inkblots as Projective Stimuli

The Rorschach

Pictures as Projective Stimuli

The Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)

Other tests using pictures as projective stimuli

Words as Projective Stimuli

Word association tests

Sentence completion tests

Sounds as Projective Stimuli

The Production of Figure Drawings

Figure-drawing tests

Projective Methods in Perspective

Assumptions

Psychometric considerations

Behavioral Assessment Methods:

The Who, What, When, Where, Why, and How of It

Who?

What?

When?

Where?

Why?

How?

Approaches to Behavioral Assessment

Behavioral observation and rating scales

Self-monitoring

Analogue studies

Situational performance measures

Role play

Psychophysiological methods

Unobtrusive measures

Issues in Behavioral Assessment

A PERSPECTIVE

Close-up: Personality, Life Outcomes, and College Yearbook Photos

Everyday Psychometrics: Confessions of a Behavior Rater

Meet a Test User: Meet Dr. Tonia Caselman

Self-Assessment
PART V Testing and Assessment in Action

Chapter 14Clinical and Counseling Assessment

AN OVERVIEW

The Diagnosis of Mental Disorders

Biopsychosocial assessment

The Interview in Clinical Assessment

Types of interviews

Psychometric aspects of the interview

Case History Data

Psychological Tests

The psychological test battery

CULTURALLY INFORMED PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT

Cultural Aspects of the Interview

Cultural Considerations and Managed Care

SPECIAL APPLICATIONS OF CLINICAL MEASURES

The Assessment of Addiction and Substance Abuse

Forensic Psychological Assessment

Dangerousness to oneself or others

Competency to stand trial

Criminal responsibility

Readiness for parole or probation

Diagnosis and evaluation of emotional injury

Profiling

Custody Evaluations

Evaluation of the parent

Evaluation of the child

Child Abuse and Neglect

Physical signs of abuse and neglect

Emotional and behavioral signs of abuse and neglect

Issues in reporting child abuse and neglect

Risk assessment

THE PSYCHOLOGICAL REPORT

The Barnum Effect

Clinical Versus Mechanical Prediction

Close-up: Assessment of Dangerousness and the Secret Service

Everyday Psychometrics: Elements of a Typical Report of

Psychological Assessment

Meet a Test User: Meet Dr. Alan Raphael

Self-Assessment
Chapter 15Neuropsychological Assessment

THE NERVOUS SYSTEM AND BEHAVIOR

Neurological Damage and the Concept of Organicity

THE NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL EXAMINATION

History Taking, the Case History, and Case Studies

The Interview

The neuropsychological mental status examination

The Physical Examination

Neuropsychological Tests

Tests of general intellectual ability

Tests to measure the ability to abstract

Tests of executive function

Tests of perceptual, motor, and perceptual-motor function

Tests of verbal functioning

Tests of memory

NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL TEST BATTERIES

OTHER TOOLS OF NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT

Close-up: Fixed Versus Flexible Neuropsychological Test Batteries and the Law

Everyday Psychometrics: Medical Diagnostic Aids and

Neuropsychological Assessment

Meet a Test User: Meet Dr. Kathleen Salomone

Self-Assessment
Chapter 16Assessment, Careers, and Business

CAREER CHOICE AND CAREER TRANSITION

Measures of Interest

The Strong Interest Inventory

Other interest inventories

Measures of Ability and Aptitude

The General Aptitude Test Battery

Measures of Personality

Measuring personality traits

Measuring personality types

Other Measures

SCREENING, SELECTION, CLASSIFICATION, AND PLACEMENT

The Resume and the Letter of Application

The Application Form

Letters of Recommendation

Interviews

Portfolio Assessment

Performance Tests

The assessment center

Physical Tests

Drug testing

PRODUCTIVITY, MOTIVATION, ATTITUDE, AND ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE

Measures of Cognitive Ability

Personnel selection and diversity issues

Productivity

Motivation

Burnout and its measurement

Attitude

Job satisfaction

Organizational commitment

Organizational Culture

OTHER APPLICATIONS OF TOOLS OF ASSESSMENT

Consumer Psychology

The Measurement of Attitudes

Measuring implicit attitudes

Surveys

Motivation Research Methods

Behavioral observation

Other methods

Close-up: Validity Generalization and the GATB

Everyday Psychometrics: Assessment of Corporate and Organizational Culture

Meet a Test User: Meet Rob Kaiser, M.S.

Self-Assessment

References R-1

Credits C-1

Name Index N-1

Glossary/Index I-1
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